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Publication numberUS2597530 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 20, 1952
Filing dateMay 1, 1950
Priority dateMay 1, 1950
Publication numberUS 2597530 A, US 2597530A, US-A-2597530, US2597530 A, US2597530A
InventorsRedman Frank R
Original AssigneeRedman Frank R
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of treating fabric
US 2597530 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 20, 1952 Filed May 1, 1950 F. R. REDMAN METHOD OF TREATING FABRIC 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 y 20, 1952 F. R. REDMAN 2,597,530

METHOD OF TREATING FABRIC Filed May 1, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 May 20, 1952 F R, RED 2,597,530

METHOD OF TREATING FABRIC Filed May 1, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 May 20, 1952 F. R. REDMAN 2,597,530

METHOD OF TREATING FABRIC Filed May 1, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Hg. /0 M M flmffm/ w AW;

May 20, 1952 F. R. REDMAN METHOD OF TREATING FABRIC 5 Sheets$heet 5 Filed May 1. 1950 Patented May 20, 1952 who ST-TATTES METHOD OF TREATING FABRIC Frank-R.- Bellman, Yardley, Pa.

Application Mayl; 1950, -Serial No; 159298 13 Claims. 1

This invention-relates to-treat-nintof tubular knitted fabrics, and more particul arly to treatment-of such fabrics to prevent-or eliminate objectionable shrinkage of garments made-there from. By a tubular-knittedfabric is meant one which is knitted in tubular-forx1rorone which is knitted in flat form anclthenconverted to tubular form.-

This application-includes subject --matterdi-' vided from my-copending-applicationSerial No. 55,963, filed October 22, 1948, and is acontinuation-in-part thereof;

Shrinkage of a garment occurs-upon launder-- ing' thereof, and' in some instances additional shrinkage may occur upon successive laundering'. Shrinkage has long-been a problem-in the textile industry, and much effort has been (ii-'- rected toward reduction thereof both' in Woven and knitted fabrics. The problem has been particularly troublesomein the case of knitted fabrics, and in fact shrinkage has prevented useof such fab'ricsin-many fields; Shrinkage of any knitted fabric is due chiefly to stretch thereof during the processing" of the'fabric, which is necessary to condition it for them'akin'g of garments. In the case of tubular knitted fabrics, the fabric undergoes'what is known as -vvet processing which includes scouring, bleaching and dyeing." The fabric is knitted in lengths of; for-example; one hundred yards and th'ese' are fastened together in succession. As the fabric goes through the-wet processing in continuous rope-form, it issubjected to severetensional [forces lengthwise which impart considerable lengthwise stretch'to'it, the degree of stretch depending uponthe type and weight of the fabric, and-also thetype and condition'ofthe'ma-' chinery= used in the- Wet processing. Generally speaking, the fabric maybe stretched froma minimum of about-8%toamaximurn of about 35%'-ofits length.- Thus a lightweight fabric may stretch frm*1'5'% to"'35%, while a heavy-f weight fabric,- which does'not stretchas'readily as a lightweight fabric; may stretch from 8% to 15%.

The present invention has for its principal object the-provision of asimple; efficientand inexpensive method of treatment of tubular knitted (fabric to 'eliminateobjectionable shrinkagethereof Another object oftheinvention is to provide such a method which is -appli'cable to all kinds of tubular knitted fabrics composed of either natural or synthetic fibres. V i i It has ;'-been" found that "shrinkage of knitted fabric is-dueto elongation and distortion of the knitted stitchesor loops resulting: in stretch-of the fabric, and-to the subsequent return ofthe stitches to their pre distortion shape. After; a fabric is' zknitted, and before processing thereof, the'stitches have a certain shape'and .thefabric has certaindimensions. As the fabric goes through the-wet processingaduring whiclritxis in asoft, wet and very elastic state; the stitches are elongatedlongitudinally and narrowed width wise d-ue to-the tensional forces :actinglongitudi' nail-y or lengthwise of the fabric. Thus the stitches are distorted from the shape they had after knitting and the 1 fabric 'as a' wh'ole is dis torted' accordingly, beingstretched longitudinally and narrowedtransversely or widthwise-i Upon ordinary drying and other usual treatment such as calender'ing, the fabric-remains in this distorted condition.- It mightbe said that ii the stitches have acquired a distorted"s'et which persists throughthe usual treatment. Subsequent 1 laundering of i a garment m'ade fr om such adistorted fabric relieves the distorted stitch'es and'causes them' toretu'rnto their pre-distortion shape; with consequent shortening and widen ing, i; e; sh-rinkage,-of thegair'aent. The reason for this is that during laundering the yarns-are in a wet plastic state and the' agitatioif to which the fabric is subjected in laundering is effective to undo the distorted i set"""of the stitches and to permit them to rela'x to their undistorted shape.

Much effort has been directed toward elirnina tion of shrinkage by'special'treatment ofith fabric prior to the making of garments-there from. Relaxation drying has been tried but'that in itself is ineffective to eliminate shrinkagefof tubular knitted fabriccaused' by the'above-men tioned condition.- In my prior Patent No. 2,325,544 issued July 27,1943, there is disclosed and claimeda-method which involves relaxation and compressive work-ingof the fibers of the fabric while drying the same, following-the --wet processing of the fabric; However; ithasbeen foundth'at there is a variation'in the-results obtainedby the said' process, as applied'to tubular knitted fabrics, due to afwide variation between theknitted stitches. Th'us,- after'treatrnent of a-knitted fabric by the "said process; one part' of the fabric may have are's'idual shrinkage of 1%, another part'may have a residualshrinkage of 3%, and still another part 'may have ars'id'ual shrinkage of 6% This causes an =u'ndesirable variationbetweerrgarments, someofwhiclf-may 3 be satisfactory, while others are not, from the standpoint of shrinkage.

In order efiectively to eliminate shrinkage of garments made from tubular knitted fabric, it is necessary to restore the fabric and its component stitches or loops substantially to the original undistorted condition prior to the making of garments therefrom. I have discovered that this result can be achieved very effectively and inexpensively by expanding the fabric widthwise to a sufficient extent, while allowing sufficient freedom of the fabric lengthwise to enable the widthwise expansion and to permit the yarns of the knitted stitches to flow freely or slide over one another, and then releasing the fabric to permit relaxation thereof and return of the stitches to their original undistorted shape. Depending upon the type of fabric, the treatment thereof may be performed while the fabric is wet, moist or dry. For the purpose of this specification, a dry fabric is one that contains only such moisture as it may have absorbed from the air; a moist fabric is one that has been dry and has had moisture added in a content of about 2% to (preferably 3% to 6%) of the weight of the fabric; and a wet fabric is one that has just come from the wet processing, with the excess water removed, the moisture content being about 40% to 85% (preferably 50% to 55%) in excess of the dry condition. While the treatment according to the present invention may be applied to fabric having a moisture content between 10% and 40% in excess of the dry condition, it is not economical to bring the fabric to such a condition either by reducing the moisture content from the wet condition or by increasing the moisture content from the dry condition.

Where a fabric is treated according to the invention either in wet condition or in moist con dition, the invention further contemplates drying the fabric after the expansion treatment. In some cases, however, drying is not necessary in the case of moist fabric. Where a fabric to be calendered is treated according to the invention, the invention contemplates calendering of the fabric at any time after the widthwise expansion thereof.

The extent to which the tubular knitted fabric is expanded widthwise, according to the invention, will depend upon the following factors in any instance: the amount of longitudinal stretch present in the fabric; the circumferential dimension at which the fabric was knitted; the character of the fabric as determined by its weight, the number of stitches per unit area, the tightness of knitting, and the size and twist of the yarn; and the condition of the fabric from the standpoint of moisture content.

In practicing the invention, it is readily possible for one skilled in the art to determine the requisite amount of widthwise expansion by inspecting the fabric, using a magnifying glass if necessary, to determine the amount of longitudinal stretch present in the fabric. An alternative procedure is to place marks spaced lengthwise on the fabric before it goes through the wet processing, and measure the elongation of the fabric between the marks after it comes from the wet processing. The other factors above mentioned are either known or are readily determinable, and after a little practice the skilled worker can easily determine the extent to which any particular fabric should be expanded widthwise.

In carrying out the expansion of the fabric, it is most convenient, and therefore preferred, to

expand the tubular fabric substantially in flat condition, and it is therefore convenient to deal with the widthwise expansion in terms of the widthwise dimension to which the flattened tubular fabric should be expanded in order to restore the stitches, upon release of the fabric, to their original undistorted shape.

Reference is now made to the accompanying drawings, wherein:

Figs. 1 to 4 and Figs. 1a to 4a are illustrations, taken from actual photographs, of the various stages through which a fabric passes when treated according to the present invention;

Fig. 5 is a front elevational view of one arrangement which may be employed to carry out the treatment of the fabric when it is performed immediately following wet processing and prior to drying of the fabric;

Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken along line 6-6 of Fig. 5;

Fig. 7 is a fragmentary front view showing the drive employed;

Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken along line 8-8 of Fig. 5;

Fig. 9 is a fragmentary detail view showing more clearly the passage of the fabric over the expanding device;

Fig. 10 is a front elevational view of an arrangement which may be employed when the fabric is treated, according to the invention, after drying thereof; and

Fig. 11 is a sectional view taken along line IIH of Figure 10.

Referring first to Figs. 1 to 4, Fig. 1 illustrates within the dot and dash circle a portion of a knitted fabric in after knitting thereof and prior to wet processing. As the fabric leaves the knitting machine, the threads or yarns are released and the stitches assume a certain normal shape. This condition is illustrated in Fig. 1 wherein each of the stitches II has the shape illustrated, and the fabric is completely free of tension or stretch in any direction. Accordingly, the fabric is entirely free of any distortion, either lengthwise or widthwise, and the stitches or loops are in a state of freedom.

Fig. 2 shows the condition of a portion of the knitted fabric after the wet processing. It will be noted that the stitches H are elongated lengthwise or longitudinally of the fabric and they are narrowed widthwise. Due to this condition of the stitches, the fabric as a whole is stretched lengthwise and is narrowed widthwise. As mentioned above, in this condition of the fabric the stitches have acquired a distorted set which is not disturbed by ordinary treatment of the fabric such as drying, calendering, etc.

In accordance with the present invention, the tubular fabric is restored to the condition of Fig. 1 by expanding the fabric widthwisewhile allowing freedom thereof lengthwise-4o such an extent that when the fabric is released, the stitches return to their pre-distortion shape as shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 3 shows the condition of the stitches II during the widthwise expansion according to the present invention. It will be noted that the stitches are elongated and distorted widthwise and are narrowed lengthwise, which condition is just the opposite of that shown in Fig. 2. In the transition from the condition of Fig. 2 to that of Fig. 3, the yarns forming the stitches are caused to flow past one another, and the condition of Fig. 2 is completely eliminated.

Fig. 4 shows the condition of the fabric following the widthwise expansion; thereof;., and after the stitches-2| l i are. permitted to, relamand the yarns permitted-to flow; ..to. their; original free state. It will1be:noted;.that-the stitches have returned substantially.- to the shape. they; had after knitting. as :shown in Fig: .1. Accordingly, the fabric has been; restored-t0. its original unev distorted conditiom:

Figs. la to 4d are ariseries of illustrations. :of a different charactershowing .thesteps pit-stages through which the fabric passes. In theseillustrations the dot and..dash; rectangle represents a portion ofa;knittednfabricelfla. In Fig. la thefabrieis: shown immediately afterzknitting. thereof I and. prior toaswet processing; .as in Fig; 1, and thefabric =hasbeentmarkedtoaplace thereon a representation l2 substantially inithe form. of a square,-;.with theldiagonaladimensions lengthwise and. widthwise-xof the fabric; Fig. 2a shows the samefabric-after wet processing, as in Fig. 2,- and it willbe=notedtthat the square .l2..has been distorted so that the lengthwise diagonal dimension has been increasedwhile. thewidthwise diagonal dimension has been decreased. This indicates longitudinalor lengthwise stretch and widthwise narrowing- -ofa-the fabric.- Fig. 3a shows the fabric duringathewidthwise expansion treatment according.to'thezpresent invention, as in Fig. 3. It will benotedethat thesquare, l2 is now distorted. widthwise,-. the widthwise -diagonal being elongated and=thelengthwise diagonal being shortened. Fig. 4a. shows\the fabricafter release thereof,: as .in 4, and it will be noted that the square I 2 has now assumedsubstantially itsv originalshape. as;.in:..Flg.-- 1a.-

As indicated-above,- the illustrations.-.aof Figs. 1 to 4 and-Figslato 411. were taken from actual photographs .of tubular knitted fabric treated in accordance with the present invention.

From the foregoing description it will be-understood-that the I extent ofthe widthwise expansion of the fabric,-asdepicted in Figs.- 3 and-3a, should be suflicient=in any-particular. instance tocause restoration of-the stitches to their original shape when the fabric is-re1eased-.= As'previously stated, this will depend upon certain factors, but it is readily possible for-one skilled in the art to determinethe-appropriate extent-f expansion on. the .basis of such factors. 1

Preferably, the *tubular knitted '-fabricis expanded substantially in" fiattened form by means of an expanding mechanism over which the-tubular fabric is caused to pass,- as hereinafter more fully described.

Referring now to Figs. 5 to- 9, there -is-illustrated therein a suitable arrangement for-"carrying out the invention when the tubular knitted fabric is treated immediately after wet processingand prior to drying. In this arrangement, there is provided a--stationary horizontal tubular shell or-casing l'3 having-alongitudinal slot [4 at the front thereof and within which there is rotatably mounted ashaft IS on one end of which is a sprocket [Ii-(Fig; '7). This sprocket is connected by means'of a' driving'chain'll to drive belt 22 to a relativelylarge V-pulley 23011- the shaft 24 of a rotatable drum or roll'25." The belt 22 passes about an auxiliary t' pulley, 26 mounted on astationary. jack-screw 21, adjust- 6: m'ent .oftwhich variessthe driving .ratio.: Assos ciated with the roll or 25;is'a nipidler roll 28-, carried. .by; a support 29- pivoted. at 30 and biased by;spring means 3l.-. The purpose of .this arrangement is to .feedthe fabric, after, treatment. zaccordingsto the present invention, into a dryer represented, at 32 which, may be ofany suitabletypet Asshown, the-roll 25..feeds the fabric I0. ontoa conveyor 33 which maybe driven at a-linear speed less thanthe peripheralspeedof roll v25, so thatthevfabricis placed on-the conveyor in relaxed condition. Thepresent invention: is not concerned with. thevdetails. of the fabric feeding mechanism or the,dryer,..and the foregoing,description-Twill suflicefor the present purpose. However, roll 25-serves the additional function :ofv carrying the fabric away, from the fabric-expanding mechanism: hereinafter described.

Mountedon the stationary; horizontal housing I3 are-1a, pair of supports .34 and :35 which. are arrangedoin. spaced-relation and which: carry wheels on rollers 36, 31 and 38,,.39. Theupper wheels or rollers 36 and -38 ar.e driven from, the shaft through gear: connections,- one ofwhich' is visibleat lil in.Fig.-, 6.- The gear drives are :such that ,the roller 36- is rotated counterclockwise as yiewedin Fig. awhile-the roller 38 is rotated clockwise. The lower rollers 31-and 39 arenot driven and :are simply; rotatably. carried by the supports 34 and 35.

Associated with the above-described rollers is themechanism by which the tubular fabric- I0 is expanded-widthwise in" accordance with this invention.v In the arrangement shown, such mechanism comprises a pair of roller-supporting members 4t and 42-connected to a- T-shapedframe 43, .at the lowerportionof which are provided outwardlyextending arms 44- and. acircular ring 45. The members 4| and 42 carry lower wheels or'rollers 46 and' 41, intermediate rollers 48 and 49, and upper rollers- 50 and 5|. The entire expanding mechanism is supported by virtue of the illustrated association of its rollers 4B to 5| withrollers to 39.: A pair of outwardly curved arms 52 and 53 extend upwardly from the frame 43 in' association with the supporting: members 4! and 42, andthesearms carry small rollers 54 and 55-at-theirupper'endsr Itwill be noted that these rollers extend outwardly slightly beyondtheupper rollers Stand 5 I.

In -operation of :theapparatus,- the 1 longitudinally-stretohed tubular knitted fabricl0 istaken as :it comess-from the-wet processing, while it-is still in wetcondition, andit is passed upwardly over-the-ring and over the rollers or wheels on the-expanding mechanism. as clearly shown in Fig.5. As may be-seen in- Figs. 5 and 9,'the fabric passesbetween the expanding rollers and the driving and supporting-rollers carried'by the supports -34--and i5. In operation, the rollers 3'5 and- 38 are driven from the-shaft-mas/hereinbefore :descri-bed; and? these rollers move the fabricsover theexpandingmechanism, the fabric traveling {upward as indicated by the arrows in Fig: 9: Thering'45 serves to open thetubularfabric in preparation for theexpanding' treatment; andafter leaving said ring; the fabric encounters the expanding rollers, passing over the pairspf spaced rollers 46-41, 48-49 and-50-5l in--successiono As the fabricmoves to theex panding mechanism, it is freelongitudinallyor lengthwise so that the yarns .may flow freely during the expanding operation. Thus. the fabric may be deposited beneath said mechanism ina loosely folded condition so that it is completely free as it moves upward.

The purpose of the small and narrow rollers 54 and 55 is to effect a better flattening of the fabric as it leaves the expanding mechanism and to prevent wrinkling along the edge portions of the flattened fabric. Although the fabric is in flattened condition as it passes over the expanding rolls, such rolls must have substantial thickness, and in the absence of the rollers 54 and 55, there would be a tendency toward wrinkling of the edge portions. The large drum or roll '25, as shown in Fig. 6 moves the fabric upward as it leaves the expanding mechanism and places it on the conveyor 33 as hereinbefore described, and the rollers 54 and 55 place the fabric in better flattened condition for passage between the rolls 25 and 28 and for drying in the drier 32. The roll 25 is driven at a surface speed such that it accepts the fabric as the latter is supplied from the expanding mechanism. To this end, the roll 25 should be driven at such a peripheral speed relative to the peripheral speed of rollers 36 and 38 that the fabric is carried away without exerting tension thereon. Since the widthwise expansion of the fabric shortens it lengthwise, it will be apparent that the peripheral speed of roll 25 must be less than the peripheral speed of rollers 36 and 38.

Referring now to Figs. 10 and 11, there is shown an arrangement which may be employed when it is desired to treat the tubular knitted fabric, according to the present invention, after the fabric has been wet processed and dried in any type of drier. While such treatment is generally an alternative to that illustrated in Figs. to 9, it may be in addition thereto if the fabric has been subjected to any longitudinal tension during drying or handling after the first expanding treatment.

It should be noted here that while cotton and wool fabrics may be treated in various conditions of moisture content as hereinbefore mentioned, some fabrics must be treated after they have been dried from the wet condition. For

example, when a fabric is napped it is preferably dry, and the napping stretches the fabric lengthwise by as much as 16%. The napped fabric should not be wet as this would destroy the nap. However, it may be properly moistened and then treated according to the present invention. Fabrics composed of synthetic yarns, such as those composed of nylon or cellulose acetate yarns, may or may not be moistened before treatment according to the invention. In the case of vis-- cose types, moisture is very much preferred.

Referring to the apparatus of Figs. and 11, there is provided an idler roll 56 over which the dry fabric I0 is passed, and from which the fabric passes to a moistening means 51. The latter may be adapted to moisten the fabric in any suitable manner, as by steaming it or subjecting it to a fine water spray. In the arrangement illustrated, an enclosing structure 58 is formed to provide a passageway through which the fabric may pass, and within said structure are transverse spray members 59 and 60 which are supplied with steam or water through a common header 6| from a supply conduit 62. The entire moistening assembly may be supported in any suitable manner, for example by means of rollers 63 and 64 engaging tracks 65 and 66. Of course, in operation, the fabric moistening assembly is stationary.

Below the said assembly is an expanding mechanism generally similar to that previously described but in inverted position because of the fact that the fabric is traveling downward in this instance. In this instance, a stationary member 13a has mounted thereon supports 34a and 35a which carry idler rollers 36a to 39a for supporting the expanding mechanism. The latter comprises roller-carrying supports Ma and 42a connected to a frame 43a, the assembly comprising these elements being in inverted position with respect to the previously described arrangement. In this instance, the frame 43a includes a loop 62' which extends upward within the moistening enclosure. The tubular fabric passes over this loop and is opened thereby for uniform moistening and in preparation for the expanding treatment.

Below the expanding mechanism is an arrangement 68 which is adapted to pull the tubular fabric over the expanding rolls and feed it, with or without calendering, to a relaxation drier 69 which may be of the character disclosed in my prior Patent No. 2,440,209, issued April 20, 1948. Above the expanding rolls the fabric should be free lengthwise to enable the widthwise expansion and to permit flow of the yarns. In most instances, it will be desired to calender the fabric after the expanding treatment, but in the case of napped fabric, calendering is undesirable because it would defeat the purpose of napping. For these reasons, the mechanism 68 is provided with a pair of calendering rolls 70 and I I, and a pair of ordinary feed or nip rolls l2 and 13, arranged for selective use of either pair of rolls. As shown in Fig. 11, the rolls H and 13 are rotatably supported on screw supports 14 and 75, and by adjustment of either support, the associated roll may be placed in operative or inoperative position. In the illustration, the roll H is in inoperative position, while the roll 13 is in operative position. The rolls 10 and 12 are rotatably supported by individual support means 16 and 11 which include springs for urging the rolls into engagement with the associated rolls. It should be noted that the expanding mechanism not only treats the fabric according to the present invention but also supplies it in flattened condition to the above-mentioned rolls. This is particularly important when the calendering rolls are operative, as it is necessary to supply the fabric thereto in flat condition.

The arrangements hereinbefore described are adapted to treat the fabric in wet or moist condition. Most fabrics are better treated either wet or moist because the moistened fibres are more plastic and elastic, and less resistant to the desired expansion of the fabric, than they are in the dry condition. However, some fabrics may be treated in the dry condition as previously mentioned. In such case, the apparatus of Figs. 10 and 11 may be employed without the moistening means and without the drying means.

With respect to the invention generally, the following are examples of actual practice of the invention.

Example N0. 1 1 x 1 rib Yarn count, 20/1CP Stitches per inch, 28 Head size of knitting machine, 15" diameter 14 cut Fabric stretched (elongated) in wet processing from original length, 14.6%

Expanded (wet or moist) in flattened condition to a widthwise dimension of 22 While the invention has .been described with .reference to certain specifictarrangements. for

carrying out the-process ofthe present invention, and certain specific examples have been .given,- it is to be understood that .the invention is not limited thereto but contemplates the widthwise expansion of tubular knitted abric, by-any suitable means, to an extent toeifect restoration ofthestitches orloops, uponcreleaseoi .the fabric, substantially-to the: shape-they had immediatelyafter the fabric- Was-knitted.

I claim:

1.'A- method of reducing shrinkage in tubular knitted fabric which has been elongated lengthwise and narrowed widthwiseby processing subsequent to knitting of the fabric, and the-stitches of which are distorted lengthwise-- and widthwise, said method comprising moving 'the tubular knitted fabric lengthwise through a treatment zonewhile providing lengthwise freedom of the fabric, internally expanding the tubular J fabric widthwisewvithin said zone toeffect lengthwise :shortening' or condensing of the fabric, andper- :mittingthe fabricv to relax, whereby to'effect repositioning of the. stitches-substantially to their original .sknitted form (and restoration 1' of the ;'fabric substantially. to. its normal-condition.

2. A method of treating tubular knitted fabric according to claim 1, wherein at least at the time the fabric is permitted to relax it contains moisture.

3. A method of reducing shrinkage in tubular knitted fabric which has been elongated lengthwise and narrowed widthwise by processing subsequent to knitting of the fabric, and the stitches of which are distorted lengthwise and widthwise, said method comprising moving the tubular knitted fabric lengthwise through a treatment zone while providing lengthwise freedom of the fabric, internally expanding the tubular fabric widthwise within said zone to effect sliding of the stitch yarns over or past one another and consequent widthwise distention of the stitches, and permitting the fabric to relax, whereby to effect repositioning of the stitches substantially to their original knitted form and restoration of the fabric substantially to its normal condition.

4. A method of reducing shrinkage in tubular knitted fabric which has been elongated lengthwise and narrowed widthwise by processing subsequent to knitting of the fabric, and the stitches of which are distorted lengthwise and widthwise, said method comprising moving the tubular knitted fabric lengthwise in wet condition through a treatment zone while providing lengthwise freedom of the fabric, internally expanding the tubular fabric widthwise within said zone to effect lengthwise shortening or condensing of the fabric, permitting the fabric to relax, whereby to effect repositioning of the stitches substantially to their original knitted form and restoration of the fabric substantially to its normal condition, and drying the fabric in a relaxed state.

5. A method of reducing shrinkage in tubular knitted fabric which has been elongated lengthwise and narrowed widthwise by processing subsequent to knitting-of the fabric, and the stitches of which aredistorted lengthwise and widthwise,

said method comprising 5 moving the tubular knitted fabric lengthwise through a" treatment zone while providing lengthwise freedom of the fabric, internally expanding the tubular fabric widthwise within said zone to e'ifectdengthwise shortening or condensing of the'fabric, pressing the fabric, and permitting the fabric to relax,

whereby to effect repositioning of the-stitches substantially totheir original knitted form and restoration :ofthe-"f'abric substantially to its nor- "mal' condition.

6. A method of reducing shrinkage in tubular knitted'fabric-which' has been elongated lengthwise and narrowedwidthwise by processing subsequent to knitting of thefabric, and thestitches of which are distorted lengthwise and widthwise, said method comprising 1 moving the -tubu1ar knitted fabric lengthWiSe through a treatment zone' while providing 'lengthwisefreedom of the fabric, internally expanding the'tubular 'fabric widthwise --within said zone to effect' leng'thwise shortening or condensing of the fabric, calenknitted fabric which has beenelongateddengthwise and narrowed widthwise by processing subsequent to knitting'of the fabric,-and the stitches of which are distorted lengthwiseand. widthwise,

"said me'thod comprising *moving the tubular knitted fabric lengthwise through ""atreatment zone --while providing-lengthwise "freedom of the fabric, moistening and internally expanding the tubular fabric widthwise within said zone to effect lengthwise shortening or condensing of the fabric, and permitting the fabric to relax, whereby to effect repositioning of the stitches substantially to their original knitted form and restoration of the fabric substantially to its normal condition.

8. A method of reducing shrinkage in tubular knitted fabric which has been elongated lengthwise and narrowed widthwise by processing subsequent to knitting of the fabric, and the stitches of which are distorted lengthwise and widthwise, said method comprising moving the tubular knitted fabric lengthwise at a predetermined speed to an expansion station, moving the fabric from said station at a second predetermined speed sufliciently less than said first speed to permit lengthwise shortening or condensing of the fabric, internally expanding the tubular fabric widthwise at said station to effect lengthwise shortening or condensing of the fabric, and permitting the fabric to relax, whereby to effect repositioning of the stitches substantially to their original knitted form and restoration of the fabric substantially to its normal condition.

9. A method of treating tubular knitted fabric according to claim 8, wherein at least at the time the fabric is permitted to relax it contains moisture.

10. A method of reducing shrinkage in tubular knitted fabric which has been elongated lengthwise and narrowed widthwise by processing subsequent to knitting of the fabric, and the stitches of which are distorted lengthwise and widthwise, said method comprising supplying the tubular knitted fabric lengthwise to an expansion l1 station, propelling the fabric at said station at a predetermined speed, moving the fabric from said station at a second predetermined speed sufficiently less than said first speed to permit lengthwise shortening or condensing of the fabric, internally expanding the tubular fabric widthwise at said station to effect lengthwise shortening or condensing of the fabric, and permitting the fabric to relax, whereby to effect repositioning of the stitches substantially to their original knitted form and restoration of the fabric substantially to its normal condition.

11. A method of reducing shrinkage in tubular knitted fabric which has been elongated lengthwise and narrowed widthwise by processing subsequent to knitting of the fabric, and the stitches of which are distorted lengthwise and widthwise, said method comprising moving the tubular knitted fabric lengthwise to and from an expansion station while providing lengthwise freedom of the fabric, internally expanding the tubular fabric widthwise at said station to effect lengthwise shortening or condensing of the fabric, and permitting the fabric to relax, whereby to effect repositioning of the stitches substantially to their original knitted form and restoration of the fabric substantially to its normal condition.

12. A method of reducing shrinkage in tubular knitted fabric which has been elongated lengthknitted fabric lengthwise to and from an expan- I sion station while providing lengthwise freedom of the fabric, internally expanding the tubular fabric widthwise at said station to effect lengthwise shortening or condensing of the fabric, pressing the fabric, and permitting the fabric to relax, whereby to effect repositioning of the stitches substantially to their original knitted form and restoration of the fabric substantially to its normal condition.

13. A method of reducing shrinkage in tubular knitted fabric which has been elongated lengthwise and narrowed widthwise by processing subsequent to knitting of the fabric, and the stitches of which are distorted lengthwise and widthwise, said method comprising moving the tubular knitted fabric lengthwise to and from an expansion station while providing lengthwise freedom of the fabric, internally expanding the tubular fabric widthwise at said station to effect lengthwise shortening or condensing of the fabric, calendering the fabric in moist condition, and permitting the fabric to relax, whereby to effect repositioning of the stitches substantially to their original knitted form and restoration of the fabric substantially to its normal condition.

FRANK R. REDMAN.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 964,088 Chatfield July 12, 1910 1,280,607 Widdowson Oct. 1, 1918 1,372,766 Moore Mar. 29, 1921 1,790,655 Cohn Feb. 3, 1931 2,011,935 Kasanof Aug. 20, 1935 2,187,644 Cohn et a1 Jan. 16, 1940 2,294,642 Wedler Sept. 1, 1942

Patent Citations
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US964088 *Dec 18, 1909Jul 12, 1910Franklin ChatfieldFabric-stretching machine.
US1280607 *May 19, 1917Oct 1, 1918Walter WiddowsonFabric-finishing machine.
US1372766 *Oct 31, 1919Mar 29, 1921Sumner Moore WilliamCalendering-machine
US1790655 *Mar 7, 1929Feb 3, 1931 Method and apparatus for handling tubular textile fabric
US2011935 *Jan 19, 1934Aug 20, 1935Kriegel AbrahamFabric treatment and apparatus therefor
US2187644 *Feb 24, 1938Jan 16, 1940Samcoe Holding CorpFabric finishing system
US2294642 *May 20, 1941Sep 1, 1942American Viscose CorpApparatus for spreading and stretching fabrics in tubular form
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2661520 *Jun 19, 1950Dec 8, 1953Proetor & Schwartz IncShrinkage method for knitted fabrics
US2680279 *Oct 3, 1950Jun 8, 1954Proctor & Schwartz IncApparatus for spreading tubular fabric
US2684519 *Oct 8, 1952Jul 27, 1954Proctor & Schwartz IncMethod of treating tubular knitted fabric
US2700202 *Jul 17, 1953Jan 25, 1955Proctor & Schwartz IncMethod of treating tubular knitted fabric
US2714756 *Oct 8, 1952Aug 9, 1955Redman Frank RMethod of treating tubular knitted fabrics
US2773295 *Mar 25, 1953Dec 11, 1956Proctor & Schwartz IncApparatus and method for treatment of textile fabrics
US2791021 *Mar 26, 1953May 7, 1957Munsingwear IncProcess of making an improved resilient fabric
US4541156 *Jul 26, 1983Sep 17, 1985Pegg Whiteley LimitedMethods of drying tubular knitted fabric
US4562627 *Feb 1, 1984Jan 7, 1986Samcoe Holding CorporationMethod for finish drying of tubular knitted fabrics
US4622728 *Sep 26, 1983Nov 18, 1986Fleissner Gmbh & CompanyMethod and apparatus for shrinkproofing tubular fabric
US4875260 *Jun 17, 1987Oct 24, 1989Sperotto Rimar S.P.A.Apparatus for the presettable calendering of tubular knitted fabric
Classifications
U.S. Classification26/18.5, 26/81, 26/83
International ClassificationD06C7/00, D06C7/02
Cooperative ClassificationD06C7/02
European ClassificationD06C7/02