US 2598207 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
E. G. BAILEY ET AL May 27,1952
VALVING APPARATUS 2 SHEETS-SHEET 1 Filed June 14, 1946 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIlllllllllllwl% III/IIIIIIIIIIIIIII FIG. 3
I \l I7 INVENTORS ERVIN e BAILEY, AND PAUL s DICKEY, y JACK F. SHANNON W W THEIR A ORNEY FIG. 4
May 27, 1952 Filed June 14, 1946 E- G. BAILEY ET AL VALVING APPARATUS 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 AND INVENTORS ERVIN s. BAILEY, PAUL s. DICKEY JACK F. SHANNdN THE ATTORNEY Patented May 27, 1952 UNITED orslcs Ervin G. Bailey, Easton,
Pa, and Paul S. Dickey, and Jack F. Shannon, Euclid,
Ohio, assignors to Bailey Meter Company, a
eorporation of Delaware Application June 14, 1946, Serial No. (576,742
7 Claims. 1
Our present invention relates to valving means tor shutting 01?" or regulating the flow of fluid or oi materials whosemovem'ent through a conduit, is similarin nature to the flow of a fluid. By fluids, of course, we mean to include gases, vapors, liquids ormixtures thereof. Fluids are frequently used as carriers for pulverized or granular material, such as pulverized coal, cement, flour or the like. Still other materials, such as coal, ore, grain or the like are moved through closed conduits, usually by gravity, but the movement is analogous to a fluid flow. It is to the valving of such flows or move ments that our invention is particularly directed,
While not limited thereto, our invention is particularly useful in controlling the movement of; an abrasive granular material, such as pulverized coal or cement in suspension in a stream of carrier air. We will describe the invention as applied to the transportation of pulverized coal 1n air.
When pulverized coal is moved through a condui-t bymeans of carrier air, there is a maxi mum proportion that can be held in suspension. The limit is imposed by particle size and density, as well as. velocity of movement. Beyond the limit the coal will settle out or drift. Sudden change in velocity may cause the coal to drop out. Ledges, crevices or other irregularities of the flow path within the conduit will drop the coal out of suspension. When this happens, then drifting or fil-ling up ofirregularities occurs, which not only tends to reduce the crosssection of the path, but may result in a nonuniiori feed of fuel to a burner. This is particularly true if the coal deposits out for awhile and then suddenly the stream picks up and carries along a slug or accumulation of non-aerated coal. Particularly troublesome is the tortuous path through any valve or regulating device known to date. Abrupt and radical changes in velocity or direction of flow through known al es. (e n. f de. n.) aus h a to drop out of; suspension and usually to fill up the passages and perts of a valve so that it cannot hereafter be shu Qfl? Q o ed.- Fur the abrasive action of such material will very shortly cut the seats of known valves so that th y will not lo ebfi t e terinbi the v lq i a s re m r pulveri whi en? er 1 -pp F? y an in ate. o o 511B 2 ply, maintaining the same air-coal ratio, means a lowering of velocity with resulting poor furnace conditions. No' valving means has been available for effectively decreasing the area of the burner pipe, and thus maintaining desired velocity. To date the only possibility has been to increase the air-to-coal ratio with consequent dilution of the mixture; or to place burners in or out of service. Neither of these procedures is most desirable and precludes the use of automatic control. By means of our invention the operation of such burners may be varied over a considerably wider range either by hand control or automatic control.
A particular object of our invention is to provide a valving means for shuttingv off or. regulating the flow. of a stream of pulverized coal carried in suspension in air.
A further object is to provide a valving means having advantageousand novel features in the control of the flow or movement of fluids general.- ly, and of materials which are moved through a confining conduit.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of a portion of a conduit to which our invention has been applied.
Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view through the conduit of Fig. 1 along the line 2 in the direction of the arrow.
Fig. 3 illustrates the invention as applied to. a conduit in slightly different construction than is shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a section of the conduit of Fig. 3 along the line 44 in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 5 illustrates our invention as applied in the curved section of a conduit. 4
Fig. 6 illustrates another embodiment of our invention. V
Fig. 7 in longitudinal section, and Fig. i} in cross-section, illustrate the application of an inflatable bag to control the velocity in a relatively long length conduit.
Figs. 9 and 10 are diagrammatio arrangements of pressure control systems applied to our invention.
Referring now to Figs. 1 and 2 we show there: in a preferred embodiment of our invention comprising an expansible bag I fastened within a generally cylindrical conduit section 2. The bag I is of a general rectangular shape when deflated and is preferably "of a resilient or elastic ai i a y iwh a r ibber s n h u ber or the like. It may be 'n force'd with fabric and under certain operating conditions maybe preferably made of a material adapted to withstand wide variations in ambient temperature. Certain of the synthetic rubbers are particularly adapted for usage under elevated ambient temperature and against the abrasive action of pulverized coal or cement carried in suspension in a stream of air.
The conduit section 2 is preferably cast or otherwise formed with an offset portion 3 having an interior depression of substantially the same shape and depth as the deflated bag I. In folding or forming the bag I we prefer to include stiffening or strengthening strips 4 of fabric or similar material. The bag I is held in place within the conduit section 2 by means of clamping members 5 pulled down by screws 6 which are threaded into the ofiset portion 3. When the deflated ba is properly installed in the conduit section 2 it assumes the position shown in Figs. 1 and 2 wh erein there is substantially no obstruction or change in dimension of the circular interior of the conduit to distort in any respect the flow of fluid or material therethrough.
We show at 'I an ordinary automobile tire valve stem fastened in known manner to the bag I, projecting therethrough and through the conduit portion 3, to be held in place by the lock nut 8. The inner valve portion of the nipple I is preferably removed so that fluid pressure may be applied or removed from the interior of the bag I at will. In Figs. 1 and 2 we indicate by the dotline 9 the position which will be assumed by the bag I when it is inflated to completely shut off the conduit 2.
Referring now to Figs. 3 and 4 we show therein the adaptation of our invention to an existing conduit 2A without the necessity of providing a specially formed portion of the conduit 2, as at 3', previously described. The bag IA may be a length of ordinary automobile inner tube with its ends normally open but clamped to the interior of the conduit 2A by recessed clamping portions 5A. Such structure presents a slight irregularity within the inner passage of the conduit 2A when deflated, but has the advantage of eliminating the specially cast or otherwise formed conduit portion 2, 3 and the specially molded inflatable ba I. Of course these ideas are interchangeable. The inner tube section may be used in a shaped conduit, or the molded bag may be used in a regu- I lar conduit.
In Figs. 3 and 4 we indicate at 9A a position assumed by the wall of the bag IA when inflated to shut ofi passage through the conduit; and indicate at I some intermediate position assumed by the wall of the bag IA under a partial inflation. It will be appreciated that the structure being described provides not only for a complete shutofi of the conduit 2 or 2A, but also for a regulating of the flow or movement of material through said conduit by partial inflation through control of fluid pressure applied to the interior of the inflatable member.
In Fig. we have illustrated in somewhat diagrammatic form how the inflatable valve member may be located in a curved section of conduit. In other words, it is not necessary that the containing conduit be a straight portion, and this provides the advantage of being able to locate the valving member in locations which might otherwise be relatively inaccessible or in conduits not normally containing straight sections.
In Fig. 5 we indicate diagrammatically that the nozzle I may 'be connected by a pipe II with a selector valve I2 having two positions. In the position shown the valve I2 connects the pipe II with a pipe I3 joining a regulator I4 having a source I5 of fluid pressure such as compressed air. In its alternate position the selector valve I2 connects the pipe II with a pipe I6 leading to atmosphere or to a source of negative pressure or suction.
Usually in a conduit carrying pulverized coal in air to a burner a pressure of about 2 p. s. i. maximum exists during operation. For regulating or shut off purposes the air applied to the nipple I for completely or partially inflating the inflatable member may be in the range of 5 to 10 p. s. i. Such air under pressure may be applied through the pipe I3 from a hand actuated regulator I I or the regulator I I may be automatically positioned by known regulating instrumentality responsive to any desired variable. We desire to indicate that the element I4 is a means for manual or automatic regulation of the pressure applied to the interior of the inflatable element I to either completely close ofi the conduit or to variably restrict the flow or movement of material therethrough. It is readily appreciated that any ascertainable relationship between pressure applied to the interior of the element I and area restriction of the conduit is obtainable so that a regulation of the air pressure within the pipe I3 by agency I4 will result in predictable restriction or variation in flow through the conduit.
If the pressure of the fluid or other material within the conduit is relatively slight, then release of the pressure within the bag I to atmosphere may not be sufiicient action to completely retract the movable wall of the bag, and it may be desirable to apply a suction to the interior of the bag for more positively collapsing the same. Thus we indicate that the selector valve I2 may be moved to connect the pipe I I with a pipe I6 either discharging to the atmosphere or connected to a source of negative pressure or suction.
While we have shown in connection with Fig. 5 the preferred arrangement for inflating or deflating the member I we intend that such arrangement is equally applicable to the other figures of the drawing without complicating them by duplicating the showing in each.
Referring now to Fig. 6, we show therein a section of conduit I1 having an inner shaped core member I8 supported in the chamber I! by a web member I9 and forming with the chamber I! an annulus passage 20. Positioned in the annulus 20 is an inflatable bag 2| taking the general form of a tire inner tube. In its deflated condition it assumes a generally flat collapsed appearance hugging the inner wall of the chamber II which is the greatest periphery of the annulus 20. Preferably the inflatable bag 2I may be cemented or otherwise held in position against the inner wall of the chamber H by at least a line or narrow contact strip so that it will retain its desired location in the annulus 20 in a plane normal to the axis of flow through the chamber I1. When completely inflated the bag will assume some such shape as is indicated in dotted line at 22.
For proper combustion conditions within a furnace supplied with pulverized fuel in air suspension, it is desirable to have the air-coal mixture enter the furnace at a relatively constant velocity throughout the range of operation, as expressed in terms of B. t. u. supply rate. All known valving means which have been used in the conduits leading to individual pulverized fuel burners to vary the cross-section thereof fall short of desired results because they have failed to regulate the effective cross-sectional area throughout an appreciable length of the burner pipe immediately preceding the burner nozzle itself. In Figs. 7 and 8 we have illustrated an arrangement for varying the effective cross-sectional area of a relatively long conduit effective in maintaining a relatively uniform velocity through said conduit for a selected range in weight rate of coal supplied at a relatively uniform air-coal ratio. This precludes the necesssity of diluting the air-coal mixture with a greater amount of air to maintain desired velocity at low weight rates of coal supplied.
Referring to Fig. 7, we indicate at 23 a rela tively long conduit in which may be located throughout substantially its length an inflatable rubber or similar elastic member 24. Fig. 8 shows a section taken alQng the line 8-8 of '7 and wherein the inflatable element 24 is shown as being a relatively long small diameter tube closed at the end and capable of assuming an inflated cross-sectional area 25 when subjected to internal fluid pressure. With such an ar-. rangement the cross-sectional area of a conduit 23 may be varied throughout a considerable distance, thus providing a controllable size conduit for controlling the velocity therethrough.
If appreciable variations in pressure are expected within a conduit in which is located an inflatable valve member, then it becomes desirable to take such pressure fluctuations into account in establishing the control fluid pressure within the inflatable member. In Fig. 9 we show a hand regulable arrangement for applying a shutofl or throttling inflation through the valve member, taking into account expected variations in pressure within the main conduit. Within a conduit section 26 is located an inflatable valve member 2'? connected by a pipe 28 with a pressure regulator 29. The regulator 29 is supplied with compressed air from a commercial source, and the pressure available within the outlet pipe 28 is regulated by a spring loading under the control of a hand wheel 30. Normally such a loading spring acts upon a diaphragm and the spring chamber is open to the atmosphere. In the present instance the spring chamber is closed against the atmosphere and to such chamber we lead the pressure of the conduit 26 through a pipe 3| to the end that Variations in pressure within the conduit 26 are effective along with the spring loading upon the regulating or pressure reducing diaphragm structure. lhus if the pressure within the conduit 26 increases the additional pressure acting through the pipe 3| upon the diaphragm of the regulator 29 works in a direction to increase the fluid pressure within the pipe 28 proportionately so that there results a tendency for the member 21 to retain its relative expansion irrespective of pressure fluctuations within the conduit 26.
Positioned within the pipe 28 is a small bleed to atmosphere 32, as well as a 3-way valve 33; the latter providing hand means for deflating the bag 27 through bleeding the pipe 23 to atmosphere.
In Fig. 19 we illustrate a somewhat similar arrangement, not limited however to manual control, but applicable to complete automatic control of the degree of inflation of the bag member 27 from a remote controller. In this arrangement we show an averaging relay 34 having fluid pressure chambers A, B, C and D. Chambers A and B are separated by a flexible diaphragm, as are chambers C and D in similar manner.
Chamber B and Q re nerated by a solid para tition. A spring loaded stem joins the diae phragms so that the movement of said stem is a resultant of the spring loading with the pressures available in the four chambers mentioned.
A fluid loading pressure, from the controller, is applied through a pipe 35 to the chamber A. Pressure from within the conduit 26 is applied through the pipe 36 to the chamber C. The inflatable bag 21 is connected by a pipe 31 to chamber D. to. which chamber is also connected a source of air under relatively higher pressure and a bleed to the atmosphere. Valve struc-. ture within the chamber D controls the relative opening of the admission and bleed valves, and thereby pressure within the chamber D, under the control of the stem previously mentioned.
It will be, apparent that the positioning of said stem is dependent upon the resultant between the spring loading, the fluid pressure in chamber A, and the fluid pressure admitted to chamber C. For any given loading pressure available in the pipe 35 the pressure within the pipe 31 will vary in accordance with fluctuations in pressure within th pipe 35 to compensate for such fluctuations. Inasmuch as the loading pressure available through the pipe 35 is under the control of a controller it will be seen that the resulting valv ng inflation of the member 21, remotely dictated by the loading pressure in pipe 35, is not ailfected by fluctuations in pressure within the conduit 26. This irrespective of whether the member 21 is inflated to a'regulating intermediate condition or to a full shutoff condition.
From the above description it will be seen that our invention is equally adaptable to the shutoff or regulating valving of'fluids in gaseous, liquid or mixture form of abrasive or similar materials,
such as pulverized coal or cement carried in air suspension, or of any material passed through a clOSQd conduit in a manner similar to the flow oi. a fluid therethrough. Among the advantageous features provided by our invention maybe mentioned the following:
1. A complete separation of the flowing fluid or material from the control pipe or mechanism to prevent corrosion, chemical attack, clogging, etc,
2. Remote manual or automatic throttling or shutoif regulation of fluids or materials moving through a closed conduit without afiecting the stream line flow therethrough.
3. Maintain desired velocity conditions of flow of air-borne pulverized coal to a burner nozzle over a wide range in weight rate of coal supply without the necessity of further air dilution or change in the air-coal ratio.
4. A valving arrangement readily adaptable to existing conduits without the necessity of there being straight runs of conduit, special piping provisions, etc. No flanged joints are needed for insertion.
5. For valving pulverized coal or similar abrasive materials carried in air suspension; there being no obstructions or radical changes in direction of flow present, as in known valves which present obstructions, ledges and the like, causing the carried materials to fall out of suspension and being extremely susceptible to wear.
6. Remote manual or automatic valving means for fluids and materials passing through a closed conduit without regard to abrasive, chemical, physical or other qualities of the fluids or materials.
It will be appreciated that we have illustrated and described only preferred embodiments of our invention, and this disclosure is not to be interpreted in a limiting manner.
What we claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is:
1. A device for regulating the flow of fluid through a conduit comprising, in combination, a recess formed in the inner Wall of said conduit and extending around a portion only of its periphery, an expansible member received in said recess and normally filling the latter flush with the wall of said conduit, means for clamping said member along opposite edges in said recess, said member cooperating with the walls of said conduit opposite said recess during expansion to restrict or out ofi completely the flow of fluid through the latter, and means for supplying or venting pressure fluid relative to the interior of said expansible member.
2. A device for regulating the flow of fluid through a conduit comprising, in combination, a recess formed in the inner wall of said conduit and extending around a portion only of its periphery, a tubular shaped member of flexibl material received in said recess and normally filling the latter, means for clamping the ends of said member in said recess, said member cooperating with the walls of said conduit opposite said recess during expansion to restrict or cut oif completely the flow oi fluid through the latter, and means operable selectively for supplying or exhausting pressur fluid relative to the interior of said expansible member.
3. A device for regulating the flow of fluid through a pipe comprising, in combination, a recess formed in the inner wall of the pipe and extending around substantially one-half of its in- 4. A device for regulating the flow of fluid through a pipe comprising, in combination, an enclosed member of flexible material received within said pipe, means for clamping said member to substantially one-half the periphery of the inner 'wall of said pipe, said member flexing on the supply of pressure fluid thereto and cooperating with the walls of the remaining half of the pener periphery, a closed member of flexibl mat riphery of said pipe for restricting or cutting off the flow of fluid through the pipe, and means for conducting pressure fluid relative to said flexible member.
5. The combination of claim 4 including means for compensating the pressure fluid for variations in pressure within the pipe.
6. The combination of claim 4 including pressure balancing means, a source of relatively high pressure fluid for the balancing means, a connection applying pipe pressure to the balancing means, and sprin loading means for the balancing means, the fluid pressure which is applied to the member being a resultant of the high pressure, pipe pressure and spring loading.
7. The combination of claim 4 including means establishing a fluid pressure for application to the member which is a control loading pressure compensated for variations in pipe pressure.
ERVIN G. BAILEY. PAUL S. DICKEY. JACK F. SHANNON.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the flle of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,586,923 Townsend June 1, 1926 1,873,138 Mitchell Aug. 23, 1932 1,918,810 Hinderliter July 18, 1933 2,038,140 Stone Apr. 21, 1936 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 873,587 France Mar. 30, 1942