US 2599127 A
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Patented June 3, 1952 STERILIZING DETERGENT COMPOSITION 1 ANDMETHOD OF USE John Charles Lovell R'esug'gan, London, England,
assignor to Industrial and Commercial Detergents'Limited, London, England a, Drawing. Application February 19, 1948, Serial No. 9,636. In Great Britain March 28, 1946 This invention relates to a method. of cleaning milk bottles and other returnable containersfor food products and beverages and to detergent compositions more particularly for use in machinesfor washing milk bottles, beer bottles and like containers for edible and potable'products' and for cleaning apparatus and equipment concerned in the manufacture and transport of such products. Detergents for these purposes are 're-' quired to have a combination of properties peculiar to the particular purpose for which they are required. Not only must they have the power of quickly removing tracesof food products adhering firmly to the bottle or other object to be cleaned but in order that, e. g., bottle washing machines may function correctly any excessive foaming must be avoided and it is also necessary to commercially sterilize the bottles or other equipment. At the same time it is necessary that in sterilizing no poisonous material should be used.
Proposals have previously been made for using alkyl quaternary ammonium compounds as surface active agents and it is'known that such compounds possess bactericidal and bacteriostat'ic properties. It is also known to incorporate quaternary ammonium compounds with other detergents but compounds containing upwards of twelve carbon atoms in the alkyl group possess considerable foaming properties, which render them quite unsuitable for bottle and like cleaning equipment.
The lack of an emcient detergent which has adequate bactericidal properties and does not foam has made it necessary hitherto to employ caustic alkalis'ata high temperature in bottle washing equipment, the high temperatures-causing considerable breakages of bottles and the caustic alkalis being dangerous to the operatives. It is an object of this invention to provide a method of cleaning and sterilizing milk bottles and like containers and a composition which will have adequate bactericidal potency for this purpose so that what is known as a commercialwithout using strong alkalis, or high tempera- 1y sterile"-bottle or other container is obtained- 15 tures, and in particular, a composition which will v not foam unduly.
It has now been discovered that by a suitable selection of the substituent groups in an organic quaternary ammonium compound, it is possible to produce a composition which will fulfil the above requirements without foaming excessively or even 3 Claims. (Cl. 252-106) as much as the normal strong alkalis foam in the concentrations in which they would be normally employed-in bottle washing and like equipment to give the required sterilization for which purpose a concentration of the order of a 0.25 to 2% solution of a detergent containing 0.5 to 5% of the quaternary compound is required.
The invention is based on the discovery that tetra-alkyl quaternary ammonium halides or hydroxides in which two of the alkyl groups contain not less than six and not more than nine-- carbon atoms in each hydrocarbon group while the other two alkyl groups contain up to nine carbon atoms but preferably not more than three carbon atoms in each group. have the property of being compatible with all the alkaline de tergent compounds other than silicate-containing I detergents used in bottle washing and like equiptrations in which they have to be employed to give the required sterilization.
It has further been found that water-soluble or water-miscible quaternary ammonium halides or hydroxides have the aforesaid properties if one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the six to nine carbon alkyl chains are alkyl-substituted or if one or more of the hydrogen atoms in asix to nine carbon alkyl chain (other than a hydrogen atom attached to the omega carbon atom) in a seven to nine carbon atom chain is substituted by an alkoxy alkyl or acylamino alkyl group or are alkyl chain groups containing a polar group and having six to nine straigh H chain carbon atoms in the chain.
According to the invention, a method of cleans-'- ing and sterilizing milk bottles and like returnable containers comprises scouring the said containers with an aqueous solution containing a tetra-alkyl quaternary ammonium compound having the following general formula: V
R, x R:
wherein X is an anion. R1 and R2 are organic radicals selected from the group consisting of alkyls, alkoxy alkyls, acylamino alkyls including cidaL arid yconsiderableg detergent, pro'perti'esaiw-ithr as'so diunrhydroxide;
alkyl chain groups containing a polar group, the
said groups containing at least 7 and not more than 9 carbon linkages and including water soluble aryl substituents of the said radicals. R3 and B4 are selected from the same group of organic radicals as R1 and R2 but containing any number of carbon atoms up to nine and including watenscluble aryl substituentswofythe said; radicalsa V L According to a further feature of the invention there is provided a sterilizing detergent COmpOSi-:
tion which in aqueous solution isoi low surface,
tension and produces an unst'ahlefoafni ris ing an alkaline detergent other than a siIicate-' containing detergent and tromii'Q.-.-53 to;-.5:inverse, of a water-soluble or water-miscibleaalkyl quate nary ammonium halide or hydroxide whereofitwo of the alkyl groups each haven tlesstha nor;
more than 9 carbon atoms in m'gha I lie; ore than other two alkyl groups each have not three carbon atoms in the chain.
' more' sanitary condition than hitherto.
over, the machines can give the requisite steriliza- A quaternary ammonium compound selected from: rtlreeaboveedefined groupa when dissolved? in;
wa -provides; a; compositionwithrbothe bacte out 'anu othen'a'dditionsibut-ifi is; pref erred toiuslei a jconipound; of group of quaterna-ry amel monium coinpounds-iin=f=association with ayweaka alkali or allial-inegdetergentgothepthanzwsiiicatee; containingvdetergentvwhereby h-ighl 1 eliicient cleansingamay; bezeffected;with they-usez of--oniy:= Weak' alkzalis; such'i Ease sodium.-z carlionate;:angb moiderateg temp'eratures; accordingly; the: invena tioni includes aadetergentz*comnositionw-morespar-a ticularly for cieaning hjottiesgwhich" com-prises a} quaternam ammonium; conipounda asa ahove-ade fined;together with. aiweak alkali; such a'sasodiumzcarbonate-instead of thelusuali-strongalkali; such i- 'ltupreferrdi composition-P ior carryingout? the; method; according *to -theinventions comprises: a. tetra iaikyl :quaternaryvanimon'iumihalideor by.
V dmxide ins-whichtwo alkyli groups contains not;
lesswthan.- six; 'and1¬ more' than nine'ecarbom atoms'a'm each hydrodar'h'ongroupiwhileithemther two alkyl roup's zcontain uptomina'carbonsa toms;
but preferablyv notmore-thanithree 'carboneatoms. Conveniently, according-Stu; the -invention; a;
- quaternary ammonium' compound:member-a?nuaa'mmon'ium hydroxidensuch as N.
It?lias been found thaif'compeunds aszaboveides. scribed how excellent. activity-against: thecgiam Ni.- pr opyla-iN n"tethyl :amrhoniumhys:
negative group ofiorgariisms as iwelliastthegram positive group; beingiipowerfiilly' active against Bi'GOlii V 1 The: following, aJre examples: Mai-compositions:
. suitable for the4pur-posekxem'ccdrding to the" inven'r-v tio'xrbutaare.'onlyf instanceseof many compositions-a coming within the aterm's of?thepinventionpwhicha areequally-suitable;
' Av tsrilizins det rsen z' or' s nicleam ea t e v mm lem T; A s t'eri1iZing d e't'ergei itimay' he greparu fc bottle wa'shih'g' machineconsisting c1 40 Example III A detergentconsisting of 94% NazCOa, -5% NasPOr and 1% N,N,dioctyl N,N,dimethy1 ama p %--aque0us soluh .jet-tyrie bottl iiia'hine at a temperatu e of 52 C. and during a run of one d ay using very dirty milk bottles every bottle taken from the machine was sterile.
te "-ary afnfricnium compounds as hereinscribed in detergent compositions withcausti ,-':allra;1is;- can be used in, for example, f V be washin ;equipment without any objectidnaloleafoamingeand the bottles thus cleaned terial counts than those normally gems hitherto used and'the "bottle washing machines are maintained in a Moreare vvith concentratie e n s}; 4
e e 1uressisi sw aw-s fee I unstable foam vwhen use.
inder -no1-aI2Rreciab1e-ioa indenhaszbeen allowed zto-stan What I claim is:
mo... .comaoundsharmg fi e ql fernrrulaatne'agroun onsisting-r0155,e. u but 1L s utian is?-oislowxsurfiaceztensionafl pmdimes vairfpunstabl foam; after -"canines it-io n wvhic'heis sui maz ng;detergentacomnositibmwhich nteucty lecteii from JOHN CHARLES RESUGGAN.
REFERENCES CITED The following refere'i icei are of record ln thes file or this patent:
UNITED STATES PA'mNfi's I Number Name Date Calcott et a1 ."NQ i-; 7, 1936 Domagk -Feb.-15, 1938 Tucker et a1 ar. 16, 1943 Hentrich et a1 411512, 1944 Katzman Apt-24, 1945 OTHER REFERENCES I Chemical 'Formulary, Bennett, vol. 6,;1943, DD.