US 2600408 A
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June 17, 1952 G. KOMAREK FLUXING APPARATUS 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 15, 1951 N QFK hh aik Hus INVENTOR 61min? 76/120291 I BY Maw) ATTORNEYS June 17, 1952 G. KOMAREK FLUXING APPARATUS 3 Sheefls-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 15, 1951 V WNW 1N VENTOR 611x141 [Kama/2% WGQW fMM? I ATTORNEYS J n 1952 G. KOMAREK FLUKING APPARATUS 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Jan. 15 1951 l N VE NTOR fiZmareZ Q 0 BY 944% 6 W 7 ATTORNEYS Patented June 17, 1952 FLUXING APPARATUS Gustav Komarek, Chicago, Ill.,
assignor to Komarek-Greaves & Company, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Illinois Application January 15, 1951, Serial No. 206,035
This invention relates to new and useful improvements in fluxers or masticating apparatus for preparing briquetting material.
It is well known that, in order to produce marketable birquettes, a granular material and a liquid or semi-liquid binder must be mixed to a homogeneous consistency and, furthermore, the air which has been entrapped in the granular material must be expelled so that the particles of granular material are evenly coated with binder and brought into intimate contact with each other. Moreover, the mixture must be produced in a continuous flow, the rate of which may be controlled to meet the above requirements when different grades or diiferent materials are being prepared in the fiuxer.
The primary object of this invention is to provide a fluxer in which the material is thoroughly mixed and simultaneously fed gradually throughout the entire area of the fluxing chamber toward the discharge opening thereof.
Another object is to provide a fluxer in which fiuxer blades or masticators operate upon the material to expel entrapped air as well as simultaneously convey the material through the mixing chamber.
A further object is to provide a fluxer with fiuxer blades or masticators which are adaptable to increase or retard the rate of flow of the material through the mixing chamber.
Further objects will be in part obvious and in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention and the novel features thereof may best be made clear from the following description and the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a plan view of the fluxer and the driving mechanism thereof;
Figure 2 is a sectional view through the line 22 of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a sectional elevational View along the line 3-3 of Figure 1;
Figure 4 is a sectional view through the line 4-4 of Figure 1;
Figure 5 is a sectional view through the line 55 of Figure 3;
Figure 6 is a side elevational view of the discharge end of the fluxer;
Figure 7 is a partial top view showing the discharge end side scrapers;
Figure 8 is a perspective view of one of the iiuxer blades;
Figure 9 is a cross-sectional view through the gate screw journal box taken along the line 99 of Figure 6;
Figure 10 is a perspective View of one of the side end scrapers, and
Figure 11 is a side view of one of the side end scrapers.
Referring to the drawings, the fluxer comprises a horizontally disposed trough or mixing chamber I0, made of a plurality of cast plates forming two parallel channels II and 12, which are semicircular in cross section and joined along a relatively narrow central longitudinal flat portion at the bottom, as shown in Figure 5. The upper edges 13 of the channels II and [2 are provided with vertical flanges [4, also as shown in Figure 5, having plates I5 secured thereto to form vertically upstanding extensions for the sides of the trough. The ends of the mixing chamber or trough ID are closed by end walls I 6 and I1, respectively, shown in Figures 6 and 4, each provided with a pair of journals 19a and [9b, 20a and 20b, for rotatably supporting two parallel shafts Zla and 2Ib concentrically with the semicircular channels.
Fixedly mounted on the shafts 2la and HI), respectively, are two series of fiuxer blades 23a and 23b which are shown in Figure 1 and will be referred to in more detail below.
As viewed from the driven end of the shafts, namely from the right of [Figure 1, the shaft 2 lb is driven clockwise and the shaft 2la counterclockwise by gear 26 on shaft 21a, meshing with the gear 25 on shaft 2 lb which is driven by a large reduction gear 21 mounted on shaft 2| b. The gear 21 is, in turn, driven by gear 28 mounted on the stub shaft 29, which is driven by a suitable motor connected thereto through a suitable belt and pulley, as shown.
The end walls I6 and I! are provided with Wearing liners 30 and 3|, as shown in Figure 1, each of which is inserted in a depression or recess in the respective end wall, so that the wearing surfaces of the liners are flush with the end walls. countersunk screws are used to secure the liners in the depressions.
As shown in Figure 1, end scrapers 22, shown in detail in Figures '10 and 11, are secured to the ends of each shaft 21a and 2Ib and rotate, respectively, in a vertical plane adjacent each of the wearing liners 30 and 3| and between the same and the last fluxer blade or masticator 23a-23b on the end of each shaft, as shown in Figure 1. The end scraper blades at the driven ends of the shafts are ofiset circumferentially from each other, as shown in Figure 10. Each scraper is provided with a semi-circular or half-hub for securing the scrapers to the shafts and a radially extending blade portion disposed at an angle to the direction of rotation, as indicated in Figure 11. As shown in Figure 10, the blade portion is provided with a thin edge 22a and a blunt edge 22b, either of which may act as the leading edge of the blade.
The thin edges 22a of all the blades 22 at the driven end of the shafts bear against the wearing liner 3! and act as the leading edge of the blades with the pair of blades on shaft Zla cast righthanded and the pair on shaft Zlb cast lefthanded. so that the material is scraped from the liner 3! and propelled toward the opposite or discharge end 16 of the chamber Ii).
At the discharge ends E6 of the shafts, as shown in Figures and 10, one of the blades 22 of each pair on the respective shafts 2la and Zlb is cast left-handed and one right-handed. The thin edge of the right-hand blade on shaft 2la acts as a trailing edge and causes the material to be hand blade removes material from the liner 3i) i and forces it rearwardly, while the left-hand blade forces the material forwardly through the the gate 18.
As shown in Figures 1, 3, 5 and 6, the gate I3 is located centrally in the discharge end wall 16 of the trough l0 and consists of a flat plate having bevelled side and bottom edges which bear against complementary bevelled surfaces in the wearing liner 30, as indicated in Figure 6. Referring to Figures 3 and 6, the horizontally extending flange 24 of the end wall l6 supports a screw journal box 32. A screw 33 is rotatably supported in the journal box 32 and threadably engages the nut 34 secured to a flange 35 extending horizontally from the top of the gate I8, as shown in Figure 3. Screw 33 may be rotated by a suitable hand wheel, as shown, to cause the nut 34 to ride up or down the screw 33, thereby opening or closing the gate l8. As shown in Figure 9, the journal box 32 includes a cylindrical body having a journal or guide 36 for maintaining the end of the screw 33 in axial alignment. The shoulder 3'! provides a support for the ball thrust bearing 380:. An annular shoulder 39 integrally formed with the screw 33 bears downwardly against the bearing 38a and is prevented from axial movement upwardly by a ball thrust bearing 3812, which is, in turn, prevented from axial movement by a bronze plate 40, secured to the journal box 32 by screws, as shown.
Each individual blade of the series of fluxer blades or masticators 23a and 23b is V-shaped in cross section and provided with an integrally formed half-hub 4|, as shown in Figure 8. The half-hub 41 has a key slot 42, whereby it is keyed to a shaft 2|a--2lb as shown in Figure 2, and also has holes 43 which align with similar holes in the half-hub 41a. By means of suitable fasteningmeans 44 and a key 25, as shown in Figures 2 and 5, the fluxer blades are fixedly secured to the shafts Ma and 2 lb. A similar construction is employed with the scraper blades 22, as shown in Figure 10.
On each of shafts 2m and 2119, the adjacent masticator blades are offset circumferentially 90 4 with respect to each other as shown in Figures 1, 3 and 7. Referring to Figure 2, the masticator blades on the respective shafts which rotate in the same vertical plane are offset circumferentially.
Referring to Figures 2 and 8, each V-shaped blade 23 projects from the half-hub 41 at an angle to the axis of the shaft, e. g., at an angle to a plane passing through the free end 46 of the blade and the axis of rotation of the shafts am or 211). The apex 41 of each V-shaped blade leg is thereby inclined rearwardly with respect to the direction of rotation, as shown in Figure 2. The width of the flank 48 of each blade 23 on the shaft 2lo; or 2!?) progressively increases from the hub to the free end 46, as shown in Figure 3, so that the blade area acting upon the material progressively increases from the hub. The flank 49 of each blade is of constant width throughout its length and of smaller working area than the flank 48. All the long flanks 48 on the respective shafts have their working surfaces facing toward the discharge end W of the mixing chamber, as shown in Figures 1 and 3. In effect, the blades comprise a pair of oppositely disposed oblique working surfaces and the blades on shaft 2lb are left-handed and those on shaft 21a are right-handed, with the long flank 48 of the blades on both shafts 2m and 2lb facing the discharge end of the mixing chamber to direct material in that direction.
As previously described, the shafts Ma and 21b rotate in opposite directions, as shown in Figure 2. The shafts are displaced from each other a distance slightly greater than the length of the blades. As the blades plow through the material, it is caused to sweep transversely across the flanks of each blade, and as the blades on each shaft sweep by each other, the transverse thrust of each blade causes the material to be compressed. The result of this coaction of the blades approaches the action of passing the material through rollers, whereby the resultant compression force exerted on the material as it is squeezed between the blades expels entrapped air from the granular material in much the same manner as entrapped air would be expelled by a set of rollers. In addition, the plowing action of the blades causes the liquid or semi-liquid binder to evenly coat the material. Moreover, since the long flank of each blade faces the discharge end of the chamber and the summation of the transverse forces from the long flanks is greater than the summation of the forces from the short flank of each blade, the material will be caused to flow toward the discharge end (6 of the chamber.
The fluxer, as described above and shown in the drawings, operates with a maximum rate of flow toward the discharge end of the chamber because all of the fluxer blades are represented with their long flanks facing the outlet of the chamber. For most grades of briquetting material, the rate of flow is slower than this maximum. In the event that different grades of material or entirely different materials are being mixed, the rate of flow may be decreased from this maximum rate. If the rate of flow is to be decreased, several of the "right-hand blades on the shaft 2la may be removed and attached to the shaft 211) and several of the "left-hand blades on the shaft 21b may be interchanged to. the shaft 2m, thereby changing the summation of the resultant transverse forces so that the rate of flow is materially decreased.
When the fiuxer blades have been properly arranged to provide the optimum rate of flow for the particular material to be fiuxed, the fluxer blades are rotated and the chamber is filled with material with the end gate l8 closed. The gate is kept closed until the material within the chamber is masticated to the proper consistency, and then opened, so that a proper amount of material is discharged continuously from the chamber to a briquetting press. That is, material is continuously fed to the masticator and the latter operated to continuously discharge the masticated material. The rate of travel of material through the masticator is controlled by the blades as above described and the rate discharge of masticated material is regulated by the opening of the gate l8.
While this improved fluxer construction is primarily intended for use in masticating briquetting material, such as fuel, iron ore, etc., it is also applicable for mixing various other materials, and, although the preferred form is herein shown, it is obvious that various changes and substitutions may be made without departing from the spirit of this invention.
1. In a fluxer, a plurality of parallel horizontally disposed shafts, a series of masticators fixed to said shafts and operable in Vertical planes,
each of said masticators being V-shaped in transverse cross section and having flanks of unequal Width.
2. In a fluxer, an end wall having an outlet, a plurality of horizontally disposed shafts, a series of masticators interchangeably fixed to said shafts and operable in vertical planes, each of said masticators being V-shaped in transverse cross section and having flanks of unequal width, a major number of the greater width flanks having their working surfaces facing toward said outlet.
3. In a fluxer, a plurality of counter-rotating horizontal shafts, a series of masticators interchangeably fixed to said shafts and operable in vertical planes, each of said masticators being V-shaped in transverse cross section and having flanks of unequal width, the wider flank of each masticator having its surface facing toward the outlet of the fluxer.
4. A fluxer comprising in combination a horizontally disposed casing, and a pair of counterrotating horizontal shafts journalled at each end to said casing, a series of masticators fixed to said shafts and operable in vertical planes, each of said masticators being V-shaped in transverse cross section and having flanks of unequal width, an outlet at one end of said chamber between said shafts, the surface of the wider flank of each masticator facing toward the outlet, and a gate for controlling discharge of material through the outlet.
5. In a fluxer, a plurality of horizontally disposed spaced-apart shafts, and a series of V-shaped masticators fixed to said shafts, the apex of each of said V-shaped masticators being operable in a vertical plane and inclined rearwardly with respect to the direction of rotation, one flank of each masticator being of progressively increased Width along its longitudinal axis and providing a larger working surface than the other flank.
6. In a fluxer, a plurality of parallel hori-' fixed to said shafts and operable in vertical planes, each of said masticators being V-shaped in transverse cross section, one flank of each masticator increasing progressively in width toward the free end thereof with the second flank of substantially equal width throughout its length.
8. A fluxer having a horizontally disposed casing with an open top and inlet and outlet end walls, the end wall provided with the outlet having a vertically slidable gate therein, horizontal shafts journalled to the end walls and disposed at the outlet on each side of the gate, masticators fixed to said shafts and operable in vertical planes, each of said masticators being v-shaped in transverse cross-section and havin a long flank and a short flank with all the long flanks disposed toward the outlet, whereby the material in the fiuxer is conveyed toward said outlet, and a, pair of scraper members respectively fixed to the ends of each shaft at the end walls, the faces of the two pairs of scrapers at the inlet ends of the shafts being inclined relative to their direction of rotation 50 that material is scraped from the inlet end wall and conveyed towards the outlet, and with the faces of one blade of each pair at the discharge end of the shaft inclined relative to their direction of rotation so that material is forced through the outlet and the faces of the other blade of each pair at the discharge end of the shafts inclined relative to their direction of rotation so that material is scraped from the discharge end wall and forced toward the inlet end wall.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 941,767 Dickson Nov. 30, 1909 1,430,384 Komarek Sept. 26, 1922 1,450,900 Holthofi Apr. 3, 1923 1,727,992 King Sept. 10, 1929