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Publication numberUS2600870 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 17, 1952
Filing dateFeb 20, 1947
Priority dateFeb 20, 1947
Publication numberUS 2600870 A, US 2600870A, US-A-2600870, US2600870 A, US2600870A
InventorsJarrett L Hathaway, Joseph G Petit
Original AssigneeRca Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Synthetic reverberation system
US 2600870 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 17, 1952 J HATHAWAY ETAL 2,600,870

SYNTHETIC REVERBERATION SYSTEM 2 Sl-iEETS-SHEET 1 Filed Feb. 20, 1947 HI Cali l7 INVENTO June 17, 1952 J. L. HATHAWAY ET AL SYNTHETIC REVERBERATION SYSTEM 2 Si-IEETS-SHEET 2 Filed Feb. 20, 1947 7 w M Y m m r m MUM .n N A n Patented June 17, 1952 UNITED STATES PATENT QFFICE SYNTHETIC REVERBERATION SYSTEM Application February 20, 1947, Serial No. 729,774

12 Claims. (Cl. I'm-44) The present invention relates to a system for lengthening pulses whereby trains of incoming wave energy of short duration may be effectively lengthened. The system has a particular application as a means for producing artificial reverberation without requiring the use of reverberation chambers.

An object of the present invention is to provide means for increasing the time duration of pulses of any given frequency so that they may be more readily utilized in succeeding devices, or more readily heard by the human ear or viewed on the screen of an oscilloscope.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a. device capable of producing a gradual decay following short pulses fed into the device.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide a device for introducing artificial reverberation on voice or program signals.

Another object of the present invention is to artificially produce reverberation without requiring the use of reverberation or echo chambers.

The foregoing objects and others which may appear from the following detailed description are attained by utilizing a number of sharply tuned circuits, each of which may be excited into oscillation by signals of the frequency to which it is tuned. For frequencies other than those exactly resonant, the circuits most closely adjacent the frequency are excited to the greatest extent. After the incoming signal or pulse has ceased the circuit or circuits continue to oscillate, the amplitude of oscillation decaying at a rate depending upon the circuit Q or figure of merit of the resonant circuit. The circuit Q may be defined as a quantity proportional to the ratio of the energy stored to the energy 10st per cycle. The quantity Q is a measure of the damping of a freely oscillating circuit. Thus high Q circuits provide for a greater degree of pulse lengthening but require the use of a'larger number of resonant circuits since each circuit is more sharply tuned and thus responds to a narrower frequency spectrum. Expressed in another way, since the decay period is a function of the Q of the resonant systems involved approximately Q cycles are required for any system to reach a final steady set value. Thus, if the applied frequency is 1,000 cycles per second and the Q of the circuit 1,600, the decay period will be one second. When long decay periods are required, it will thus be apparent that the tuned circuit resonators must be tuned to closely adjacent frequencies to provide a substantially uniform response. Thus to cover a broad band of frequencies a large number of resonant circuits are required.

However, another aspect of the present invention provides a system whereby each of the resonant circuits individually responds to a larger number of frequencies, harmonically' related to one another, thus decreasing the number of reso nant circuits required.

In the electrical circuit embodiment, to be later described, regenerative amplification is utilized in the tuned circuits, thus producing extremely high effective values of Q which are well above those ordinarily obtainable.

The present invention will bemore fully understood by reference to the following detailed description which is accompanied by a drawing in which:

Figure 1 illustrates in block diagram form, one type of pulse lengthening circuit, while Figure 2 shows a typical simplified regenerative arrangement whereby the Q of the circuits of Figure 1 may be increased many fold.

Figure 3 shows another type of pulse lengthening circuit whereby longer decay periods may be obtained.

Figure l'illustrates in perspective a structural embodiment utilizing the principles shown generally in Figure 3, and g Figure 5 is a diagram illustrating a typical circuit arrangement which may be employed with the structure shown in Figure 4.

Referring now to Figure 1, a pair of input terminals I and 2 are shown to which the signals are applied for adding the artificial reverberation. From the line connected to terminal 2 are bridged isolation resistors'd, 6, 8 and I2. These resistors connect at junction points I4, [6, l8 and 20to the high Q circuits 22, 24, 26 and 28 and also to the output isolation resistors 30, 32, '34 and 5:6. The output isolation resistors 30, 32, 34 and 36 are connected through variable attenuator resistor 38 to output terminal 40 and load resistor M. The other input terminal is directly connected to output terminal 42. This connection may constitute a point of zeroreference potential or ground. Signals without added reverberation are fed directly from input terminal 2 to output terminal 40 through resistor it. The incoming frequencies excite the particular high Q circuits 22, 24, 26 and 28 which are most closely adjacent to resonance. The particular circuits which are actuated into electrical vibration continue after the exciting waveshave stopped. The amplitude of vibration in the high Q circuitsdecays in a manner similar to that of acoustical reverberation systems. By adjustment of attenuator resistor 38 the desired amount of electrical reverberation effect may be added to the signals and by varying the Q of the high Q circuits, the time of reverberation may be varied. While only four high Q circuits have been shown in Figure l, in practice several more would be added as indicated by the dotted line portions in the center of the figure.

Figure 2 shows a typical electrical resonant circuit whereby a sufficiently high Q may be obtained from an ordinary tuned circuit to make it have a satisfactory decay time for use in the system shown in Figure l. The terminals a and 52 serve as connections to the circuit of Figure 1 while the tuning elements consist of inductance 56 and capacitor 54. Grid 58 of a vacu um tube is connected to one side of the tuned circuit while the other side of the tuned circuit goes to the negative side of the anode supply battery which is usually grounded or at zero reference potential. The anode 62 of the vacuum tube is connected to the positive side of the anode supply battery 60 while the cathode 64 of the vacuum tube is connected through resistor 59 to an intermediate tap on inductor 56. It will be recognized that this circuit is similar to a conventional oscillator circuit. If resistor 58 is made sufficiently low in value, self oscillation will occur. However, in practice resistor 59 is so adjusted that oscillations do not occur but instead the vacuum tube merely acts to increase the effective Q of the circuit as seen from input terminals 58 and 52. Thus resistor 59 serves as regeneration control and determines by its adjustment the decay of signals applied to the circuit.

In effect the vacuum tube may be considered a negative resistance device capable of neutralizing to any desired extent the inherent resistance of the tuned circuit 54-56.

While the operation of the system as described above is entirely feasible at any desired point in the frequency spectrum, it has been found that many tuned elements are required ample, be utilized to increase the time duration of pulses so that they may be more readily viewed on an oscilloscope.

A different arrangement for providing many high Q circuits with a small number of circuit elements will now be described with reference to Figure 3. Figure 3 shows a mechanical resonance system involving a magnetic string stretched across bridges 65 and 66 suitably arranged on a supporting base II. The arrangement may be tuned by adjusting the tension of the string 14 by means of tensioning screw 12. The tension may be adjusted so that string 10 resonates at a fundamental frequency low in the audio frequency spectrum. It may be driven by applying an audio frequency voltage across the polarized electromagnet 68 placed as close to the wire 10 as is practical with due consideration to the vibration amplitude of the wire. That is, the wire must never vibrate into or touch the metal pole piece of the electromagnet 68. The distance along wire Hi from bridge 66 to the driver electromagnet 68 determines the ratio of fundamental to harmonic response amplitudes. A small distance results in a greater percentage of harmonics and the production of a greater number of measurable high harmonics. The magnetic pick-up unit 61 is similar to driver 68 and is similarly adjusted close to the wire 10 and to the bridge 65.

Now, since a single string 10 will produce reverberation not only in its fundamental frequency but also in a large number of harmonic frequencies, it is possible, by employing a relatively small number of differently tuned wires, to derive reverberation at closely spaced harmonics over the entire audio spectrum. The wires may be used with separate driver and pick-up magnets but in order to simplify the apparatus, it is preferred that a number of strings be em ployed with a single set of driver and pick-up magnets. Such an arrangement is shown in Figure 4.

Here, the bridges 66 and support a number of wires 18, all of which are adjusted to slightly different tensions by tensioning screws I2. In the figure we have shown in more detail the construction of the driver electromagnet 68 and the pick-up electromagnet 61. The electromagnets may be similar in form to an ordinary electromagnetic earphone with the diaphragm removed. That is, a pair of closely adjacent rectangular soft iron pole pieces are surrounded by windings 8| and 82. A suitable polarizing magnet, not shown, is connected to the rear ends f pole pieces 80. The leads from the ends of coils 8| and 82 are connected to terminals 83, suitably supported on an insulating block 84. The wires 10 of Figure 4 may be tuned, for example, to 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 and 75 cycles per second. With this tuning, harmonics would fall as follows over the medium low frequency range: 50, 70, 75, 90, 100, 105, 110, 125, 130, 135, 140, 150, 165, 1'75, 180. 195, 200, 210, 220, 225, 260, 270, 275, 300, 325, 330, 375. It is evident that more strings, tuned to still other fundamental frequencies, would cause the harmonics to fall even closer together and thus fill in the audio spectrum more completely. It is desirable, in attempting to duplicate the reverberation of larger rooms or caverns, to have the reverberation frequencies as closely spaced as possible; that is, no voids should exist.

In order to provide different degrees of damping of the strings, a mechanical damper arrangement may be utilized. One form which the mechanical damper may take is a thin strip of rubber 85 arranged to be contacted against strings 18 with a varying pressure and at a suitably chosen position along the length of string 10. The variable pressure of the edge of rubber strip 85 against string 18 may be provided by arranging the rubber strip 85 on a carrying member 86 mounted for rotation in bearings 81. By rotating knob 88 the pressure of the rubber strip 85 may be varied. Since it may be desirable to shift the position of rubber strip 85 along the length of wires 10, the bearings 81 may be supported on a carriage 89 slidable along rods 90 and 9| arranged on base plates H parallel to and beneath strings 10. If desired one end of the carriage 88 may be split and a thumb screvg fl provided for clamping th carriage on rod Figure 5 shows a complete controllable artificial reverberation system utilizing the structure of Figure 4. In this figure the structure of Figure 4 is again shown but in schematic form. Here, input terminals and 2 are connected across a variable potentiometer I00, the slider of which is connected to grid I02 of vacuum tube I05. The driving electromagnet 68 is connected between plate I03 of tube I05 and a suitable source of anode potential as indicated by the terminal labeled +B. A suitable grid bias for the proper operation of vacuum tube I05 is provided by connecting a resistor I06 between cathode IN and the ground or B terminal. The variable potentiometer I adjusts the amount of artificial reverberation relative to the direct program. The tube I provides isolation between the reverberation unit and the input terminals, and amplification for feeding the driver unit 68. The pickup unit 61 is connected to apply the reverberating signals from wires I0 to grid II2 of output tube II5. Direct program is supplied from input terminal 2 to the grid I22 of tube I25. The anodes H3 and I23 of tubes H5 and I25 are connected together and through the primary I30 of output transformer I3I to the source of anode potential. Cathodes III and I2I of tubes H5 and I25 are connected through resistors H6 and I26 to the ground terminal or to a point of zero reference potential whereby the resistors H0 and I30 furnish operating bias to the grids H2 and I22. Since the anodes H3 and I23 are connected in parallel to the primary 130 of output transformer I 3| their outputs are combined and appear at the output terminals I40 and MI for application to the desired utilization circuit. Thus, by suitably adjusting the position of the variable tap on potentiometer I00 direct program only may be fed through to the output terminals I40 and MI or any desired amount of artificial reverberation may be added.

What is claimed is:

1. A device for operating a train of wave energy within a, band of frequencies including a pair of input terminals adapted to have wave energy applied thereto, means for coupling a control electrode of a vacuum tube to said terminals, a pair of output terminals, means for coupling the output circuit of a vacuum tube to said terminals, a third vacuum tube having its control electrode coupled to said input and its output circuit to said output terminals, a number of stretched strings resonant to low frequencies within said band, a coupling from the output of said first tube to said strings, a coupling from said strings to a control electrode of said second vacuum tube and means for varying the coupling of said first named coupling means.

2. A device for operating a train of wave energy within a band of frequencies includin a pair of input terminals adapted to have wave energy applied thereto, means for coupling the control electrode of a first vacuum tube to said terminals, a pair of output terminals, means for coupling the output circuit of a second vacuum tube to said output terminals, a third vacuum tube having its control electrode coupled to said input terminals and its outputcircuit coupled to said output terminals, a number of stretched strings fundamentally resonant to frequencies within the lowermost portion of said band of frequencies, magnetic means coupling the output of said first tube to said strings, magnetic means coupling said strings to the control electrode of said second vacuum tube, and means for varying the coupling of said first named coupling means.

3. A device for operating train of wave energy within a band of frequencies including a pair of input terminals adapted to have wave energy applied thereto, means for coupling the control electrode of a first vacuum tube to said terminals, a pair of output terminals, means for coupling the output circuit of a second vacuum tube to said output terminals, a third vacuum tube having its control electrode coupled to said input terminals and its output circuit coupled to said output terminals, a number of stretched strings fundamentally resonant to frequencies within the lowermost portion of said band and harmonically resonant to frequencies within the remaining portion of said band to provide a response substantially uniform over said band of frequencies, magnetic means coupling the output of said first tube to said strings, magnetic means coupling said strings to the control electrode of said second vacuum tube, and means for varying the coupling of said first named coupling means.

4. A device for incorporating a reverberatory effect into a train of wave energy within a band of frequencies including a pair of input terminals adapted to have wave energy applied thereto, means for coupling the control electrode of a first vacuum tube to said terminals, a pair of output terminals, means for coupling the output circuit of a second vacuum tube to said output terminals, a third vacuum tube havin its control electrode coupled to said input terminals and its output circuit coupled to said output terminals, a number of stretched strings fundamentally resonant to frequencies within the lowermost portion of said band and harmonically resonant to frequencies within the remaining portion of said band to provide said reverberatory effect substantially uniformly over said band of frequencies, magnetic means coupling the output of said first tube to said strings, magnetic means coupling said strings to the control electrode of said second vacuum tube, variable means for damping the action of said strings, and means for varying the coupling of said first named coupling means.

5. A circuit arrangement for synthesizing reverberation having a pair of input terminals to which pulses of energy Within a given frequency band are applied and a pair of output terminals from which said pulses of energy are obtained in substantially original form Within said band together with added reverberation effects, said circuit arrangement including one circuit path substantially directly intercoupling said input terminals to said output terminals and another circuit path having means for introducing said reverberation effects interposed therein between said input and said output terminals, said means comprising a plurality of resonant elements quiescent in the absence of said applied pulses and having coupling means connected in parallel to said input terminals and output coupling means connected in parallel to said output terminals to deliver said reverberation effects from each of said resonant elements to said output terminals in the same polarity as that of the energy presented over said direct path, and means interposed in said second path to vary the proportions of said direct and reverberating intercoupling.

6. A wave train system for synthesizing reverberations including a pair of terminals to which wave energy occurring within a band of frequencies is to be applied and a pair of output terminals, a number of elements resonant to frequencies within said band coupled to said input terminals, said resonant elements being dormant until excited by said applied wave energy and having a high figure of merit at which when excited into oscillation said oscillations decay over a relatively long period of time, means for coupling said input terminals directly to said output terminals, means for coupling said resonant elements also to said output terminals to deliver thereat energy from each of said resonant elements in the same polarity as that from said direct coupling, and means for varying the proportions of said direct coupling and said coupling through said resonant elements to said output terminals.

'7. A circuit arrangement for synthesizing reverberation having a pair of input terminals to which pulses of energy within a given frequency band are applied and a pair of output terminals from which said pulses of energy are obtained in substantially original form within said band together with added reverberation effects, said circuit arrangement including one circuit path substantially directly intercoupling said input terminals to said output terminals and another circuit path having means for introducing said reverberation effects interposed therein between said input and said output terminals, said means comprising a plurality of resonant elements comprising an inductor and a capacitor tuned to a frequency within said band shunted by a negative resistance device for neutralization to a desired extent the losses in said element and having input coupling means connected in parallel to said input terminals and output coupling means connected in parallel to said output terminals to deliver said reverberation effects from each of said resonant elements to said output terminals in the same polarity as that of the energy presented over said direct path, and a variable resistor interposed in series in said second path to vary the proportions of said direct and reverberating intercoupling.

8. A circuit arrangement for synthesizing reverberation having a pair of input terminals to which pulses of energy within a given frequency band are applied and a pair of output terminals from which said pulses of energy are obtained in substantially original form within said band together with added reverberation effects, said circuit arrangement including one circuit path substantially directly intercoupling said input terminals to said output terminals and another circuit path having means for introducing said reverberation effects interposed therein between said input and said output terminals, said means comprising a plurality tuned inductance-capacity circuits tuned to desired frequencies within said band and at least partially shunted by a regeneratively coupled vacuum tube circuit, there being isolating resistors connecting said circuits in parallel to said input terminals and further isolating resistors connecting said circuits in parallel to said output terminals to deliver said reverberation effects from each of said tuned circuits to said output terminals in the same polarity as presented over said direct path, and a variable resistor interposed in series in said second path to vary the proportions of said direct and reverberating intercoupling.

9. A circuit arrangement for synthesizing reverberation having a pair of input terminals to which pulses of energy within a given frequency band are applied and a pair of output terminals from which said pulses of energy are obtained in substantially original form within said band toh gether with added reverberation effects, said circuit arrangement including a resistive path substantially directly intercoupling said input terminals to said output terminals and another circuit path having means for introducing said reverberation effects interposed therein between said input and said output terminals, said means comprising a plurality of parallel connected circuits comprising inductors and capacitors tuned to desired frequencies within said band and having connections to the grid circuit of a vacuum tube across at least a part of the inductor isolating resistors individual to said circuits connecting all of said circuits in parallel across said input terminals and further isolating resistors connecting all of said circuits in parallel across said output terminals to deliver said reverberation effects from each of said parallel connected circuits to said output terminals in the same polarity as the energy presented over said resistive path, and a variable resistor interposed in series in said second path to vary the proportions of said direct and reverberating intercoupling.

10. A device for synthesizing reverberation effects for a train of wave energy within a band of frequencies including a pair of input terminals adapted to have said wave energy applied thereto, a pair of output terminals, a number of elements resonant to frequencies within said band coupled in parallel to said input and said output terminals, said resonant elements being dormant until excited by said applied wave energy and having a high figure of merit at which when excited into oscillation said oscillations decay over a relatively long period of time, each of said resonant elements including a stretched string tuned to a low frequency for said band, electromagnetic means coupling said input and output terminals to said string, and means for coupling said input terminals directly to said output terminals to deliver thereat energy of the same polarity as that from said resonant elements.

11. A circuit arrangement for synthesizing reverberation having a pair of input terminals to which pulses of energy within a given frequency band are applied and a pair of output terminals from which said pulses of energy are obtained in substantially original form within said band together with added reverberation effects, said circuit arrangement including one circuit path substantially directly intercoupling said input terminals to said output terminals and another circuit path having means for introducing said reverberation effects interposed therein between said input and said output terminals, said means comprising a plurality of stretched strings each resonant to a desired frequency within said band and quiescent in the absence of said applied pulses, an input electromagnetic means coupled to said input terminals to excite all of said strings and output electromagnetic means coupled to said output terminals to deliver said reverberation effects from each of said strings to said output terminals in the same polarity as presented over said direct path, and a variable resistor interposed in said second path to vary the proportions of said direct and reverberating intercoupling.

12. A device for synthesizing reverberation of a train of wave energy within a band of frequencies including a pair of input terminals adapted to have said wave energy applied thereto, a number of elements resonant to frequencies within said band coupled to said input terminals, said resonant elements having a high figure of merit at which when excited into oscillation said oscillations decay over a relatively long period of time, each of said resonant elements including a stretched string tuned to a low frequency for said band and electromagnetic means coupling said input and output terminals to said string, means for coupling said input terminals directly to said output and means for coupling each of said resonant elements also to said output in the same polarity as that of energy presented by said direct coupling, and means for varying proportions of said direct coupling and said coupling from said resonant elements to said output terminals.

JARRETT L. HATHAWAY. JOSEPH G. PETIT.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

Number 10 UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date Miessner June 5, 1934 Wegel -1 June 5, 1934 Hansell May 14, 1935 Miessner May 14, 1935 Soller Dec. 26, 1939 Soller Feb. 13, 1940 Hammond Feb. 4, 1941 Kent Feb. 24, 1942 Olson Jan. 3, 1950 Hanert May 30, 1950

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2774043 *Mar 3, 1953Dec 11, 1956Villard Jr Oswald GFrequency selective apparatus
US2821878 *Mar 15, 1954Feb 4, 1958George R StibitzStereophonic organ
US3016498 *Oct 13, 1958Jan 9, 1962Sealectro CorpTransmission system
US3092792 *Jul 3, 1961Jun 4, 1963Daniel Nathan IElectro-acoustical delay line useful for producing reverberation in electrical musical instruments
US3110771 *Sep 29, 1960Nov 12, 1963Bell Telephone Labor IncArtificial reverberation network
US3185755 *Jun 12, 1961May 25, 1965Scope IncMusical device
US3742113 *Apr 28, 1971Jun 26, 1973Cohen MStringed musical instrument with electrical feedback
US4248120 *May 29, 1979Feb 3, 1981Stewart DicksonStringed musical instrument with electrical feedback
US4941388 *May 12, 1989Jul 17, 1990Hoover Alan AString vibration sustaining device
US5070759 *Jun 14, 1989Dec 10, 1991Hoover Alan AString vibration sustaining device
US5233123 *Feb 14, 1992Aug 3, 1993Rose Floyd DMusical instruments equipped with sustainers
US5932827 *Jan 9, 1995Aug 3, 1999Osborne; Gary T.Sustainer for a musical instrument
US6034316 *Feb 25, 1999Mar 7, 2000Hoover; Alan AndersonControls for musical instrument sustainers
Classifications
U.S. Classification327/105, 381/63, 333/148, 327/129, 381/64, 327/174, 84/DIG.260, 84/737
International ClassificationG10K15/10
Cooperative ClassificationG10K15/10, Y10S84/26
European ClassificationG10K15/10