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Publication numberUS2601729 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 1, 1952
Filing dateSep 7, 1948
Priority dateSep 7, 1948
Publication numberUS 2601729 A, US 2601729A, US-A-2601729, US2601729 A, US2601729A
InventorsBennett Underwood John
Original AssigneeBennett Underwood John
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Atomic model machine
US 2601729 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


July 1, 1952 J. B. uNDERwooD ATOMIC MODEL MACHINE Filed sept. 7, 194s M l H a L 1J @y )u July l, 1952 J. B.r uNDERwooD 2,601,729


Patented July 1, 1952 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ATOMIC MODEL MACHINE John Bennett Underwood, Grass Valley, Calif. .Application September 7, 1948, Serial No. 48,107

2 Claims.

My invention relates to improvements in atomic models in which balls representing atomic particles are caused to move in circular orbits within or about a central nucleus simulating the supposed movement of particles within the actual atom. The object of my invention is to demonstrate the motion of the particles composing the atom in a manner similar to that of a planetarium in showing the movement ofplanets about the sun.

Before proceeding With the description of my invention, I wish to state some tenets of the atomic theory it is intended to portray. According to the Bohr theory, the atom is made upof a central nucleus of protons and neutrons which mill about in a limited space and which are held in place by nuclear forces not fully understood. About this nucleus in eliptical or circular orbits, revolve electrons, or negative particles of electricity, which are held in their orbits by equal positive charges of protons within the nucleus. Evidence of atomic magnetic effects, indicate that the protons, neutrons, and electrons, as well as the entire nucleus, each have a spin motion. Properties of atomic weights depend principally upon the number of protons and neutrons within the nucleus of the atom, the weights of the electrons being negligible. Chemical properties and emission of radiant energy depend upon the electrons. Chemical valence is due to electrons in the outer or valence orbit of the atom. Finally, most scientists think of electrons as consisting of cloud layers rather than particles. The mass of the electron increases with its velocity. Without restricting the scope of my inventionto the validity of all the points mentioned in the theory as herein stated, it is the object of my invention to demonstrate mechanically this conception of the atom.

The model used in the following description is that of the oxygen atom, which has eight protons and eight neutrons within its nucleus, and eight electrons in its planetary orbits, two of which are in the inner or 7c orbit, the remaining six being in the outer l, or valence orbit. Two hydrogen atoms, each having one proton and one electron, are shown for the purpose of demonstrating' the water molecule. The machine may be adapted for use in demonstrating other elements or compounds.

I attain these objects by mechanism illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which- Figure 1 is a vertical view of the entire machine with its supporting standpipe broken near the middle; Fig. 2, a plan View of one of the lateral 2 miter gear assemblies; Fig. 3, a plan View of an attachable hydrogen atom assembly; and Fig. 4, a vertical section of the head of the machine on a line through the center parallel to the plane of the drawing sheet.

The balls representing atomic particles are lettered N, P, and E, meaning neutron, proton, and electron, respectively. The spokes carrying these balls are labelled s, and the darts hereinafter mentioned, d. All other parts are represented by numerals which refer to similar parts throughout the several views.

The pedestal or supporting base Il and vertical pipe 2, shown broken near its middle, constitute the framework of the machine. (See Fig. 1.) At the upper end of pipe 2 is mounted the head, consisting of cross-T 3, carrying miter gear assemblies 4, 5, 6, and 1; Vertical shaft 8 to which is secured miter gear 9 at its lower end, extends up inside pipe 2, and through cross-T 3, to miter gear 5, which is also secured thereto. At the lower end of shaft 8, miter gear 9 engages miter gear I0, which is secured to the hub or spur wheel II, to which is attached crank I2. Spur wheel II may be driven by pinion I3, secured to the shaft of motor I4, as shown, when lever I5, which is secured to the base of motor I4, is moved in shifting the position of said motor I4, until pinion I3 engages spur wheel `I I. Thus, spur wheel I I may be caused to rotate by use of either motor I4 or crank I2. Pipe 2B, to which is secured cross-T 3, as shown in Fig. 4, is fitting closely and making a long bearing in and with collar I9, so that the head can rotate only when forced by the pinion hub of gear IB, under the leverage of the teeth of the larger circumference of said gear IB. Gear 'I can turn much easier on ball bearings 2 Il. When shaft, 8 is caused to rotate as described, miter gear 5 drives miter gears 4, B, and 1, which are engaged in the system, causing the four gears to rotate in unison.` i

On the lowerface of miter gear I are cut teeth which engage gear wheel IB, carried by axle I1, which is secured to collar I8, free to turn on pipe 2, as shown. On the hub of gear wheel I6 are teeth which engage teeth on the lower end of collar I9, which is secured to, or really a part of pipe 2.

Details of the head are best shown in the cross section, Fig. 4. Pipes 2 and 20 serve as a common axle for miter gear 1, at the lower end of which is a circular groove retaining ball bearings 2|, which carry the weight of the entire head, as shown. Pipes 22 and 23, which are screwed into cross-T 3, are axle for miter gears 4 and B. Miter gear 5, secured to shaft 8, which turns in bearing 211, screwed into cross-T 3, is the driver. As the four miter gears 4, 5, 6, and 1, rotate in unison, bevel gear I6 is caused to rotate, and since the teeth on the hub of said bevel gear I6 engage the teeth on collar I9, and since further, axle I l, which carries bevel gear I6, is secured to movable collar I8, the entire head will rotate on pipe 2, but at a slower speed than miter gears 4, 5, 6, and 7.

I have referred to miter gears 4, 5, 6, and 7, meaning not only the miter gear itself, but the attached spokes carrying the balls representing the atomicparticles. Protons P and electrons E are carried on spokes, common to both, as shown in plan view Fig. 2 of one of the miter gear assemblies removed. This feature illustrates the mutual and equal attraction of the negative electron for the positive proton. The spokes Which carry neutrons N, which have no charge, terminate with the balls N, Each 0f the balls N, P, and E is'free'to vrotate on itsV spoke axis. This feature is intended to portray the magnetic effects of these particles according to the theory already described. The objects used to represent particles N, P, and E are preferably hollow rubber balls 28 and -2 9, best shown on spoke s, cross section, Fig. 4. The electron particles E, have flexible Vdarts d, projecting therefrom. Thus, in rotating on their axis or revolving in their circular orbits, they have the appearance of increased size, Which for the purpose of demonstration, may simulate increased mass, illustrating the theory that the mass of the electron increases with its velocity. Y

While particles N. P, and E are to be given distinguishable colors in'actual construction of the machine, it is not deemed necessary to try to illustrate this feature in the drawings.

When the machine is in operation, the motion of the various ballsin their circular orbits, produce the illusion of a large spherical mass or blur, giving the appearance of a single mass, having a distinguishable nucleus, which is quite in conformity with the theory the machine is intended to illustrate.

In Fig. 1, some of the nuclear particles are omitted from in front of the head in order to better expose the gears. It will be noticed that in the lower gear assembly l, the spokes s are shorter than those of the other gear assemblies. (See Fig. l.) This provides for representing the inner or 7c orbit and the outer or Z orbit for the two electron shells.

In accordance with chemical theory that the valence of a chemical element depends upon the nearness to completion of the outer valence orbit of the atom to a maximum saturation of eight in the Ycase of oxygen, this atomic model lacks two electrons of completing its outer orbit, and hence has a negative valence of two. Hydrogen,

with only one electron, has a positive valence of 4 one. This brings us to Fig. 3, and also to 25 of Fig. 1, and explains the use of the threads on the hubs of miter gears 4 and 6. The hydrogen assembly, Fig. 3, having shaft 2l, secured to screw cap 26, may be attached to the screw hub of miter gear 6, Fig. l, in the manner shown by a similar hydrogen assembly 25, which is shown secured to the hub of miter gear 4. Thus, the two electrons from the two hydrogen atoms, ll the incomplete valence orbit of the oxygen atom and form a model of the water molecule H2O. The

`machine may now be operated as before, but more slowly.

At this point it may be desired that the head be prevented from rotating, permitting only the four miter gear assemblies 4, 5, 6, and l to rotate. To accomplish this, screw 39, Fig. 4, may be loosened, allowing collar It, which carries axle l? and bevel gear I6, to slide down on pipe 2, until screw 30 aligns with hole 32, common to pipes 2 and 20, thus securing the two pipes 2 and 29, as one, and carrying bevelgear I5 out of contact withgear wheel l. In this adjustment only the miter gears 5, 6, and l are free to rotate, miter gear 5, being the driver.

I am aware that prior to my invention atomic models have been made. I am also aware that planetariums to represent the movement of heavenly bodies have long been'V made. I therefore do not claim such broadly but I claim:

1. In a -dynamic atomic model machine ofthe character described, a standpipe support mounted on a pedestal and housing a drive shaft, a crosstree secured at the top of said standpipe and providing aXle for miter gears and a means of driving them, a miter gear assembly having four spokes upon two of which are mounted terminally,-balls representing neutrons, and upon two of which are mounted balls representing protons but carrying also other balls terminally and representing electrons.

2. In a dynamic atomic model machine, projecting spokes attached to miter gears mounted on axle at the head of a standpipe housing4 a, drive shaft driven from a supporting pedestal, each spoke carrying balls representing atomic particles, said balls being free to rotate to illustrate the magnetic effect said to be the result of actual rotation of atomic particles.


REFERENCES errer) The'following references are of record in the le of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Wittigschlager J une 18, 1940

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2846809 *Apr 17, 1956Aug 12, 1958Majewski Eugene JToy construction sets
US2920401 *Nov 18, 1957Jan 12, 1960Kenneth A LennonMeans for demonstrating nuclear energy concepts
US2942357 *Dec 11, 1958Jun 28, 1960Adler Alan DAtomic units for molecular models
US3866337 *Jul 26, 1973Feb 18, 1975Burns Thomas DApparatus for demonstrating atomic structure
US4074443 *Nov 16, 1976Feb 21, 1978Wilkerson Edward DAtom demonstrator
US7284987Nov 24, 2004Oct 23, 2007Mcgrath Terrence SPhysical quantum model for the atom
US20040082074 *Oct 10, 2003Apr 29, 2004Mcgrath Terrence S.Axial atomic model for determination of elemental particle field structure and energy levels
US20050153266 *Nov 24, 2004Jul 14, 2005Mcgrath Terrence S.Physical quantum model for the atom
US20060099877 *Nov 9, 2004May 11, 2006Anderson George RChemical modeling apparatus
US20080145911 *Nov 1, 2007Jun 19, 2008Mcgrath Terrence SPhotocontrol of sugar redox reactions
U.S. Classification434/281
International ClassificationG09B23/00, G09B23/26
Cooperative ClassificationG09B23/26
European ClassificationG09B23/26