US 2602513 A
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July 8, 1952 M. B. CONRAD ETAL WELL PACKER 2 SHEETS-SHEET 1 Filed March 11, 1949 MART/N CoA/2.40,
ALp/l IJ. MATLACK,
I N VEN TORS.
BY Mew/MJ' X41/wm rrofQ/VEYS July 8, 1952 M. B. CONRAD ET AL WELL PACKER 2 SHEETS--SHEET 2 Filed March 11, 1949 MART/1v B. CoA/eno, Q4/.PH K MATLACK,
IN V EN TOR 5.
rro/QNEYS Patented July 8, 1952 ulSJlTED STATES PATENT oFEicE K. Matlack, Maywood, Calif., assgnors to Baker Oil Tools, Inc., Vernon, Calif., a corporation of v `California Application March 11, 1949, Serial No. 80,837
The present 'invention relates to well packers adapted to be set in open well bores, as well as in casings, liners and similar conduits disposed in well bores.
An object of the invention is to provide a well packer embodyinga packing structure which, when expanded outwardly against the wall of a confining enclosure, is capable of resisting displacement upon being subjected tosubstantial pressures, and without the necessity for employing supplementary gripping devices, such as slips and the like.
Anotherl object of the invention isv to provide a well packer embodying a packing structure capable of effectively anchoring itself to the wall of the formation in o-pen hole, or wall of a well conduit. in order to resist longitudinal displacementwhen subjected to substantial pressures vin the well bore.
A further objectV of the inventionis to limit positivelyy the extent to which the packing structure of the well packer can be expanded'outwardly.
edly secured to its lower end. A packing sleeve I2 of rubber or rubber-like material is disposed around the body, with its lower end resting upon an upwardly extending annular boss I3 of the lower abutment. The upper end of the packing sleeve engages a corresponding boss I4 extending, downwardly from an upper abutment This inventionV possesses many other advantages; and has otherobjects which vmay be made more clearly apparent from aconsideration of a form inwhich it may be embodied. rIhis form is shown in the drawingsv accompanying and forming part of the present. specification. It will nowbe described in detail, for the purpose of illustrating thegeneral principles ofthe invention; but it is to be understood that such detailed description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, since the scope of the invention is best defined by the appended claims.
Referring to the drawings:`
Figs. 1 and la together constitute a longitudinal section through a well apparatus disposed in a well bore, with the parts occupyingtheir relative positions for lowering the equipment in the well bore, Fig. 1a forming a lower continuation of Fig. 1; y
Fig. 2'is a View similarjto Fig. 1a of the well packer expanded against the wall of the well bore;
Fig. 3 is a cross-section takeny along the line 3-3onFg.1a;
Fig. l is an enlargedfragmentary section of the locking device employed in the well packer;
Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary, longitudinal o section through the lower portionvof .the packing structure -forming part ,of thel well packer, disclosed yin its initial retracted condition packerjafter fle'xpansion of its packing structure against `the wall of the well bore;
I5 that is slidable downwardly along the body I0.
The packing sleeve I'2 is made of natural or synthetic rubber and the like, and is capable of being expanded outwardly against the wall of a confining enclosure, such as the wall of a well formation B. Such expansion occurs as the result of downward movement of the upper abutment' I5, andrrelative upward movement of the body III and its lower abutment II, in order to foreshorten the packing sleeve I2 and effect its outward expansion against the wall of the conning enclosure.
The packing sleeve I2 initially has substantial clearance with the wall of the confining enclosure, to insure its unimpeded lowering through the well bore to the desired point at which it is to be set therewithin. In order to prevent cold flowing of the rubber packing material through the clearance spaces I6 existing between the upper and lower abutments I5, II and the confining well bore, flow preventing rings or bridging members II are disposed at opposite ends of the packing sleeve. These rings may. be made of suitable material, such as rubber that is substantially harder than the packing sleeve. Fach` ring II is seated within a recess I8 provided by the boss I3 or I4, and is centered by engaging the periphery of the boss. Its peripheryl is initially substantially cylindrical, whereas itsr inner surface I9 is inclined, vengaging a companion inclined innersurface 20 at the end of the packing sleeve. This sleeve also has a shoulder 2| at each end engaging the small end 22 of the tapered ring` I'I.
The direction of taper of the upper ring surface I9 and the inclined surface 20 at the upper end of the packing sleeveV I2 is upwardly and inwardly, whereas vthe direction of taperof the lower ring surface and the lower inclinedsur-` time, the packing sleeve I2 is expanded against the formation wall, as is clear from Fig. 2.
The packing is heldin such expanded condition by a lock device including a split, inherently conresult of pressure or other forces imposed upon it vfrom above, or from below. In order to increase its resistance to such displacement, a circumferential groove 3I is formed at each end portion of the packing sleeve a short distance from the flow/preventing. ring I'I. This groove Y is of `\f'shape, being dened by atransverse outer tractile sleeve 23 disposed withinv the abutment i.: and having internal annular ratchet teeth 23 adapted to engage the periphery of the body I0. The sleeve is also provided with external teeth 2:3 possessing back cam faces 25 engageable with the companion cam faces 23 on internal teeth 2i formed within the movable abutment member l5. The exterior 2B of theA body IE! may be roughened, if desired, to insure gripping of the ratchet teeth aagainst the' body.
The internal ratchet teeth 23a on the sleeve face upwardly in order to grip the body I!) and prevent upward movement of the movable abutment I5 along the body; or, conversely, relative downward movement of the body I) within the abutment. The cam'faces .25, 26 slope in an upward and outward direction, in order that any tendency for the` abutment I5 to move upwardly, or vthe body I!) downwardly, will cause the cam faces to engage and press the ratchet teeth 23 morenrmly into engagement with the roughened exterior 28 on the body, thereby precluding movements in the directions referred to.
The cam teeth 25, 21 and ratchet teeth 23 may be formed conveniently as buttress types of threads, since a machining operation can be performed readily with a thread cutting lathe. The roughened exterior of thebody may be formed by cutting shallow, downwardly facing ratchet teeth 28 that may also be formed as a buttress type of thread having the same pitch as theY internal thread 23 of the lock sleeve 22.
The lock device constitutes a one-way coupling permitting relative downward movement of the upper abutment I5 along the body IG, in order to expand the packing sleeve I2 outwardly against the formation B. Once such expansion occurs, the lock device prevents return movement of the movable abutment I5 in an upward direction, or downward movement of the body I3 within the movable abutment, insuring the retention of the packing sleeve I2 in its expanded condition.
In the. event that the diameter of the open hole in which the packer A is to be set is too great,
shoulder 32 and an inner inclined base portion 33. The shoulder surface is displaced a short distance from the now preventing ring I'I, to provide an elastic flange 34. Y
It is to be noted that the grooves 3l at the end portions of the packing sleeve I2 are alike, but
' that they are cppositely arranged. Thus, the
sloping face 33 of the upper groove is tapered in an upward and inward direction, whereas the v' sloping face of the lower groovel is tapered in a it is desired to avoid setting the packer in such portion of the open hole. This is done by limiting the extent to which the packing sleeve I2 can be expanded.
As shown rin the drawings, a tubular stop member 3B is disposed around Vthe lower portion of the body i0, and rests upon the lower abutment boss I3 within the packing sleeve. This tubular member extends only partially upwardly alongv the body; so that movement of the upper abutment I5 along the body toward ,the lower abutment II is limited by its engagement with the upper end of the tubular sto-p member. vIn this manner, a definite limit is placed upon the degree to which the packing sleeve I2 can be foreshortened, and the extent of its radial expansion.
When expanded against the formation, the n packing sleeve I2 will resist displacement, as a downward and inward direction.
It has beenfound that when the packing sleeve I2 is foreshortened and expanded against the wall of the formation, the V-shaped groove 3'I is closed by the elastic rubber material of which the packing sleeve I 2 is formed. The rubber material I2o in the sleeve on the sloping face side of the .groove SI flows around the exterior of the flange portion 34 of the sleeve, and becomes tightly clamped between this flange portion and the wall of the formation, or other confining enclosure. This condition is exemplified in Fig. 6. This wedging ofv the rubber packing material I`2a between the packing flange portion 34 and the formation'wall greatly increases the resistance of the set packer to longitudinal displacement, and, accordingly,
requires a much greater pressureV to force the set packer longitudinally along the hole. `Actual demonstrations have proved this to .be the case, since the packing sleeve I2! provided with. 'the groo-ves 3| required much higher pump pressures to effect longitudinal displacement of the well packer than packing sleeves without the grooves formed therein.
The effectiveness of the groovedpacking sleeve is so pronounced as to enable the packer to be set in a well conduit, such as aswell casing C (Fig. 7)'. Despiterthe fact that the inner wall surface of such a well conduit is relatively smooth, the packing sleeve I2 still becomes anchored tothe casing tenaciously. It cannot be displaced unless subjected to substantial pressures. As in the setting of the well packer in open hole, the packing material I2a on the inner side of each groove 3| tends to flow around the packing flange. or endV portion 34, and becomes wedged between snch portion and the wall of the well casing C, providing a greater friction forcebetween the packing structure and the well casing, and requiring mulch greater pressures to displace the well packer than was heretofore necessary.
The well packer A can be set in several ways, so.
long as the upper abutment l5 is movablev downwardly and the packer body I0 shifted upwardlywith respect to eachV other.V As shown in the drawings, the packer is run in the Vwell bore by means of a wire line D, and is set inthe well bore by a setting tool E. Y Y ,y f Y The setting tool E includes a cylinderBe-having upper and lowerA heads 3138 threadedinto the opposite ends of a cylinder sleeve-39. The upper head 31 is threaded ontoa vcable-headt secured to the wire line Din aknowrr manner; Also threaded into the cable headis a gun barrel ISI having al blank cartridge 42 connected electrically to the conductive coref`14`3-of :the -wire line. This cartridge 42, when-fired, ignites ,the supper end of a combustible .cha'fged't ruches' @railway j flare, disposed `within a, combustion chamberi in theupper head 3 1. llie-combustiblegchargegenerates gases under pressure withinthe cylinder,36,'forcing a piston 4B downwardly ,within= the cylinder, or reactivelyv elevating the cylinder itself. This piStQn is secured to a depending pis.-
apart ofthe stud atthis point when the ultimate load capacity of the stud vin tension is exceeded.
'I fhe piston rod has a cross-piece 53 mounted in its lower slot 55, which extends in opposite directions from the rod through aligned elongate slots 55 in the tubular mandrel 48. The crosspiece extends beyond these slots and into aligned slots 55 in as etting ring 51, on whih the upper end of a setting sleeve 58 is threadedly secured. This setting sleeve extends downwardly along themandrel and has an adapter ring59 secured to its lower end, to which an adapter sleeve. 68 is attached, as by use of welding material 6I. The lower end of this adapter sleeve 60 bears upon a shoulder 62 of the movable abutment member I5.
Leakage from and into the cylinder 35 is preceeded, upon increasein` the pressure within' the cylinder to a value corresponding to the ultimate strength ofv the tension stud,.the latter will be pulled apart at its reduced diameter portion 52, automatically releasing the setting tool E from thev well packer A., The setting tool may now be removed from the .wellbore by elevating the wire line Following release of the setting tool E' from the packer iA, the .latter will remain locked in its packed-off condition. YSuch locking action is assisted by the Wedging of the packing material I 2a behind the flanges 34 at the end portions of thepackingsleeve I2. Movement of the abutments I I, I 5 away from one another is prevented bythe one-way ratchet sleeve 22.
The inventors claim:
l. In a well packer: a body; a packing sleeve disposed around said body; means for expanding vented by the seal rings 83; whereas leakage f along the piston 45 is prevented by the piston rings 64. Y
The well packer A, with its parts in retracted position, is secured to the setting tool E, and this combination is lowered on the wire line D within the well bore or casing to the desired setting point. When such point is reached, the blank cartridge VA24 is fired electrically to ignite. the upperv end ofthe power or combustible charge 44. Burning of this charge exerts a downward force on the piston 45 and piston rod 41, shifting them downwardly within the cylinder 36` and also moving the cross-piece 53, setting ring 51, setting sleeve 58, adapter ring 53 and adapter sleeve 65 in a downward direction. Such downward movement first disrupts a shear pin 65, holding the upper abutment I5 to the body I0, and shifts the upper abutment downwardly, as permitted by ratcheting of its lock sleeve 22 downwardly over the body IIJ, toward the lower abutment II, in order to foreshorten the packing sleeve I2 and expand it outwardly against the well bore or conning casing, in the manner described above.
The pressure in the clinder continues to increase, as the result of continued combustion of the charge 44, urging the piston 4G downwardly with a greater force, and moving the cylinder 36 relatively upwardly. As described above, the piston 46 exerts its force downwardly upon the packing sleeve I2 through the piston rod 41, cross-piece 53, setting ring 51, setting sleeve 58, adapter ring 53, adapter sleeve 60 and upper abutment I5. 'Ihe cylinder 36 exerts an upward force on the packing sleeve I2 through the tubular mandrel 48, tension stud 5I, packer body I0 and the body abutment II. Thus, the upper abutment I5 and lower abutment I I are urged toward one another with an increasing force, as the power charge generates gas under pressure, packing the sleeve I2 more securely between the body and the confining well bore or casing.
When the tensile strength of the stud 5I is exsaid packing sleeve outwardly; said packing sleeve having an exposed external generally V-shaped circumferential groove in one of its end portions,y
an abutment engageable with said one end portion, the side wall of said groove toward said one end portion being transverse of the sleeve axis, and the side wallv of said groove toward the central portion of said packing sleeve being inclined,y to said other side wall in a lateral outward direction leading away from said end portion.`
disposed around said body; means for expanding said packing sleeve outwardly; said packing sleeve having an exposed external generally V- shaped circumferential groove in each of its end portions, said grooves being adapted to be closed by said packing sleeve upon its Youtward expansion; an abutment engageable with each of said end portions; the side `wall of each groove toward its adjacent end portion being transverse of the sleeve axis, and the side wall of each groove towardvthe central portion of the packing sleeve being inclined to said other side wall, said inner side walls of saidgrooves converging toward each other. .Y Y
3. In a well packer: a body; a packing sleeve disposed around said body; a first abutment on said body engageable with one end of said sleeve; a second abutment slidable along said body toward the first abutment and engageable with the other end of said sleeve; said packing sleeve having an exposed external generally V-shaped circumferential groove in one of its end portions; the side wall of said Vgroove toward said one end portion being transverse of the sleeve axis, and the side wall of said groove toward the central portion of said packing sleeve being inclined to said other side wall in a lateral outward direction leading away from said end portion.
4. In a well packer: a body; a packing sleeve around said body; a rst abutment on said body having a boss engageable with one end extremity of said sleeve; a second abutment slidable along said body toward said first abutment and having a boss engageable with the other end extremity of said sleeve; a deformable ring on each abutment encompassing its boss, said ring having an inner tapered surface engageable with a companion tapered surface on said packing sleeve; said packing sleeve having a circumferential groove adjacent each ring and spaced longitudinally inwardly therefrom, each of said grooves having a side wall toward its adjacent ring transverse of the sleeve axis, the side wall of said groove toward the central portion of said 2. In r"a well packer: ,a body;A a packing4 sleeve V 7 packing sleeve being inclined to said other side wall. A-
5. In a..well packer: a body; a packing sleeve around said body; a first abutment on said body having a boss engageable with one end extremity of said sleeve; a second abutment slidable along said body toward said rst abutment. and hav- Y ing a boss engageable with the other .end extremity of said sleeve; a deformable ring on each abutment encompassingits boss, said ring packing sleeve being inclined to said other sidey wall; and a tubular Vmember disposed around said body within said packing sleeve and engageable with both abutments to limit the approach of said abutments toward each other.
6. In a Well packer: a body; a packing sleeve around said body; a rst abutment on said body having a boss engageable with one end extremity of said sleeve; a second abutment sl-idable along said body toward said first abutment and having a boss engageable with the other end extremity of said sleeve; a deformable ring on each abutment encompassing its boss, said ring having an inner tapered surface engageable with a` companion tapered surface on said packing sleeve; said packing sleeve having a circumferential groove adjacent each ring and spacedV longitudinally inwardly therefrom, each of said grooves having a side wall toward its adjacent ring transverse of the sleeve axis, the side wall of said groove toward the central portion of said packing sleeve being inclined to said other side wall; and one-way lock means for preventing movement of said second abutment away from Vsaid first abutment.
'7. In a well packer: Y-a body; a packing sleeve around said body; a first abutment on said body having an. annular boss engageable with one end extremity of fs'aid sleeve; a second abutment slidablev along said body toward said first abutment and having an annular boss engageable with the otherfend extremityof said sleeve; and a deformable ring on each abutment encompassing its boss, said ring having aninner tapered surface engageable with a companion tapered surface on said packing sleeve.v
8. In a Well packer: a body; a packing sleeve around said body; a first abutment on said body having a boss engageable with one end extremity of said sleeve; a second abutment slidable along said body toward said rstabutment and having a boss engageable with thehother end Yextremity of said sleeve; a deformable ring on each abutment encompassing itsV boss, said ring having an inner tapered surface engageable with a companion tapered surface on said packing sleeve;v saidpacking sleeve having an exposed E circumferential groove adjacent each ring and spaced longitudinally inwardly therefrom, each of said grooves having a side wall toward its adjacent ringtransverse of the sleeve axis, the side Vwall of said groove toward the central portion of said packing sleeve being inclined to said other side wall, said inclined side Walls of said grooves converging toward each other.
MARTIN B. CONRAD. RALPH K. MATLAeK.
REFERENCES YCITED The following references are of recordrin the iile of this patent:
l UNITED STATES PATENTS Number