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Publication numberUS2602516 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 8, 1952
Filing dateMay 2, 1949
Priority dateMay 2, 1949
Publication numberUS 2602516 A, US 2602516A, US-A-2602516, US2602516 A, US2602516A
InventorsPaxton Gray David
Original AssigneePaxton Gray David
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for removing oil sands from oil wells
US 2602516 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

` D. P. GRAY July 8, 1952 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REMOVING 'OIL SANDS FROM OIL WELLS 5 Sheets-Sheet l Filed May 2. 1949 LLs D. P. GRAY METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REMOVING OIL. SANDS FROM OIL W Filed May 2, 1949 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 CJNA B FG July 8, 1952 D P GRAY 2,602,516

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REMOVING OIL SANDS FROM OIL WELLS Filed May 2. 1949 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 July 8, 1952 D. P. GRAY 2,602,516

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REMOVING OIL. SANDS FROM OIL. WELLS Filed May 2. 1949 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 WELLS July 8, 1952 D. P. GRAY n APPARATUS FOR REMOVING on. SAND METHOD AN S FROM OIL 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed May 2, 1949 TCSUV BF Patented .uy 8, 1952 UNITED 'STATES PATENTOFFICE f David-Paxton Gray," Lloyilniinster, Saskatchewan,

' Y Canada-v Appiicatiim May 2, wia-serial' No. 90,304-

, Y 13v yThis .invention relates-,to ratus for removing oil sand from drill holes,

1a Claims.- (el. iso-2m a method and 2113133- .A

and .more particularly to a circulating swab for use .in removing sand stage of oil wells.

It is necessaryV in many oil elds .in North America,'particularly in the Lloydminster area,

during the 'development to remove a large quantity of oilsandyfrom the Y reservoir before placing the' Wellin commercial production. TheA presence of such sand .in the' during later operations, due to less pump wear andthe smaller amount of servicing due to -sand pluggedoil pumps required.V In addition, the productivity of the Well `is, usually improved' and faster rates of oil recovery-are obtained.

,. .Two generalmethods are currently in'vgusewfor removingsand from oil wells. Ther-most common .oflthese is'that of- Bailing which is generally .carried out by ,lowering vthrough the conductor pipe casing a sectionof piperequipped -with a `'fluid .type check valve at its lower endi Assthefoil comes into the well bore it is picked up bythe .bailer and Ideposited on the surface with the idea in mindl that if`tne oil is removed -fast enough the loose sand willv be carried into the Well bore Y and removed with theoil, Bailing operations,v lioweven require ,av considerable amount-oi time,

Yand the amount ofisandremovedkis not sommier-1-V surate economically to, the cost of theroperation. The second method ofremoving sandwhichis Vcurrently in use is known as. the circulatingy method. This method consists.. in lowering a string pipe toV the bottomof .the well andrei-roulating the sand out by pumpinga fiuiddow-nvthe pipe, forcing theoiljsands outthroughthe annu- .lusgbetween Ythe string-jot pipe vand lthe casing. However, the :hydrostatic -headof the fluidvcolumn on thelsandiace prevents the entrance-into l'l'.helbor'eof additional sand, so thatonly a limited amount of' sand isoapable.- of removal in :this manner. Y

Economic considerations makeV4 it desirable. to remove 'aSlarge as. possiblea quantity =off sand :ironia .new well in. as short atime ,as-.epossibla order speedily to 'bring the well into v production natthefsame.-ti-me reducethe cost; of the daeupnimf they-Well.y

Aooordingly, it is the object of the present inventionr to provide' a method of removing a large `quantity ofjoil sand :from anoil `well in a relatively. short period. v s

It-isV another object ofthe inventiongto provide `aV relatively simple and .rugged appara-tus for carryirlefout the :aforesaid removal; I

It fisfa further object-of thei-nvention Ato provide such an apparatusA which will not become clogged or fouled by sand vduring normal operatingY conditions.

It; is. a still further object ofv the provide lsuch an valcu'giaratus which, lwhen removed from the oil well bore, vwill leave `the same free from sand with the inside yofthe oil wellicasing clean.l y

Variousv other obiects and advantages of the invention will becomehapparent as .each embodimentthereof is-described-.in detailin the followfv ing-specification. y w

According tov` the invention I .remove voil .sand from the reservoir 4of an foilwell-:by causingtlie sands to cave inwardly 1by producing aredueed pressure in the4 vicinity Aoi" .the bottom of the well casing, circulating iiuid to ,wash .outthe .sands so dislodged-and repeating l'theoperation ciency` of theoperation.

In-order to carry out the methodofthe invention, I employ a swab which is lowered into :the oilwell casi-ng on a `stringiof pipe, the; periphery of the swab being adapted closely Ylsoft-:vine the inside ofthe well casing. The s wabitself is provided with a vplurality of 'longitudinal-charit .nels connecting `the `lower part of thej-wellbore with the. part thereof above-the iswab.. Valvev means-are providedin each of ythe vsaid y,channels permitting flow an upward direction, but fore- Venting flow therethrough in a downward direction. y Y f f Preferably, :accordingt0 -rivention, Il fprovide means.. for providing communication be tween the inside of the pipe and the interiorof the .bore casing, .operable trom the surfaceof .the ground, sothat `when the swab'isito ,ber-emoved iromjthe welt it! 'may be-,raised in the invention to operable vfrom ground level.

next after that shown in Figure 7 wherein coinmunication has been established between the interior of the pipe string and the interior of the bore casing.

Figure 9 illustrates in similar manner, the pulling of the swab.

Figure 16 similarly illustrates the operation of the-auxiliary means for vpreparingthe swab for removal from the bore.

ports only will allow the operator to apply pres-vr f sure against the bridge without putting same against the oil sand itself.

In brief, the operation of the device'is as follows: The swab is nrst lowered on a string oiv pipe into the well and when it is desired to re- Figure l1 illustrates circulation of iiuid above the swab following operation of the auxiliary means referred to above.

Referring now more particularly to the draw- Y ings, in Figures l, Zand 3 an oil well casing is move sand, a reduced pressure is created inthe reservoir at the bottom of the bore casing, byA raising the swab some to Si) feet, This reduc-- tion in pressure causes caving in of the loose sands in the neighbourhood of the bottom of the well casing and at this point, if necessary, circulating fluid isfpumped down the string `of pipe,

to circulate in the reservoir, and rise through the annulus lbetween thel pipe and the well casing, carrying the loosened sand with it. As the fluid is being circulated Uin this manner, the-swab is slowly lowered to its original-position in accordance with Vthe amount of fluid withdrawn from the top of the annulus. Circulation of fluid is continued until according to the judgment of the operator it is desirable to repeat the operation. Checking total depth vof well or the drilling ci new hole can be accomplished by the lowering of and/ or rotation of thecheck valve equipped drilling bit installed on the bottom oi the tail pipe. If, in the opinion' of the operator, a fluid mixture of sand and oiljeXists-below the swab, the swaby may be lowered without the circulation of uid to the starting point. Another strokemay be taken, and again theresults observed. VIf continued displacement ojf the fluid-takes place it would be Safeto continue the swabbing action above the swabwithout circulation. In thesev cases the swab actually acts as the plunger of a pump, the pipe as a connecting rod, the'well casing as the barrel, andthe sand formation as a check valve.

One embodiment o 'the apparatus, accordingA to theinvention, is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, which also illustrate diagrammatically the operation of the device.

In the drawings: Figure 1 is a cross'sectional view of the circulating swab according to the invention.

' Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view of the portion of the tubing string above the swab and containing the secondary circulating means which are Figure 3 is a cross section taken 3 3 ofFigure l.

Figure e is a diagrammatic illustration of the device according to the invention, and the Vacalong the line and sand mix is iorcedup out through the annulus. Y Y

Figure 7 illustrates in similar manner the prep- 'eration of the swab for removalfrom the hole. ll'igure S illustrates in similar manner, the stage 'to provide separate vloading for each swab'ring.

companying equipment in position at the bottom indicated at A and a swab according to the invention is situated within the casing as illus- Y trated generally at B, The swab is generally cylindrical in shape and comprises an inner tubular vportion. li) and an cuter cylindrical swab supporting portion li connected to the portion lil by the web portion l2, in this case four in number, which dividethe annular space between the portions lo and ll into four channels i3. It will be obvious, of coursathat the number of channels' i3 provided is purely arbitrary, a greater or lesser number than illustrated being equally as effective. At the lower end of each of the channels l3, the body of the swab B is suitably recessed to seat the valve seats lIt and suitable tapping is provided to permit the screwing into position of the tightening glands l5 which hold the valve seats I4 firmly vin position. An annular recess IGis provided on the outside of the tubular member io to allow for the proper entry of the glands lil when the same are being'screwed into position. The glands are also inside threaded to allow fitting ofiluid screens to keep out large chunks of formation which might clog valves. Above each of the valve seats i4 is provided a steel ball adapted to seat on the valve seat, to

prevent flow of fluid therethrough in a downward direction and aY ball retainer pin il is provided for each ball Il to permit only limited raising of the balls during flow through the valve in an upwarddirection. rihe outside of the cylindrical swab supporting member ll is suitably recessed as at i3 to provide for the seating of the lower swab ring 26. This lower ring is retained in posivtion by the retaining ring 2l which also acts as a seat for the swab rubber Illa. Swab rubbers I 9b and i90 are similarly seated and retained by theretaining rings Zia and 2lb. The top swab rubber l 9d is retained above by the retainer ring 2 lc which in turn is held tight by the gland ring 23 which is interposed between it and the swab ring led and retaining ring 22. VThe gland ring l23 is adapted to screw on left handed to a suitable screw threaded portion 24 on the tubular vgland supporting portion l l. The retaining rings 2l, 2l a and 2 lc are held by Allan set screws 5I The bottom ring 2t is not intended to swab. It

ismade of hard rubber and will act as a guide rand to stop hard formation particles which might work behind the softer swab rubbers and injure them. Any other arrangement of swab-ring designed to give a substantially fluid-tight seal between the swab and the casing would, of course, be equally effective.

rThe bypass ports 25 are provided in the inner tubular portion-Ill of the swab B providing communication between the interior thereof and each ofthe channels I3. 4The ports 25 are masked by the sleeve member 2E;V which is provided with the ball seating shoulder 27 and the inner ysurface ofv vwhich tapers upwardly.: as at. 28 so thatA thel'ball ZQK'Seated-'on the shoulders 25|. preventsdownward flow civ iiuid: in the pipe'string. The sleevervmember isA equippedwith rubber-rings 28 to prevent leakagethrough ports. The lower por. tion of the inner tubular portion l is shown `Vin the drawings as being inside threaded. asjat 3l and adapted tobethreaded to the sleeve. retain-1 inglmember 32, which-is preferably 'ofl the slightly outwardly buiging shape indicated, and which carries the bypass pin 33' which isv preferably madelof Asteel'. -f-'The sleeve-retaininglrnember- 32V isdesigr-ied-to; catch the sleeve. member. 2e: when tlf-'1e pins 39 have-l been sheared, land prevent. it from being'drcpped into the reservoir by: raising of1-theswabto the surface. The member. 32- may be-disconnected andthe sleeve 26 recovered.

' The lower portion of-'the sleeyeretaining mem.-v ber 32 is threaded toa flush joint with. the? tail pipe" 34 which is adapted. to. deliver thedown.- Wardly pumped-duid to .the Well reservoir through a-v check-valve-equipped drillingY bit.V (not shown) onthe-vbottomoi the tail pipe. Thecheck- Valve isfarranged toy keep fluid from. backing upinthe tail pipe. The upper end-ofl the inner tubular member lil. is externally. threaded atA the portion 31fto connect tothe auxiliary sleeve.; supporting member 38- which is ofalarger. internalk diameter than the adaptor. 36. The auxiliary sleevefsupporting member is screw-threaded; atits upper end atvthe. portion 39. forconnection tothe pipe 40, andthe ports Mare provided through the walls thereofto providecommunication between the inside ofi the well casing and thef inside of the-tube. 38. The ports Hare masked, by the auxiliary sleeveememberf 4,3. This.sleeye.fmemf4 ber is. equippedwith. a rubber seal ring, provided with a seating shoulder 4.4. The innersurfacepf .the sleeve-.member 43 is outwardly tapered over thev portion 45; similar to. the portions 2.8,in the sleevesmember.A 26, rll'le auxiliary;` sleeve-mem; loer. ll'3v is reta-inedin positonby Ythe s hetA pins 4.6whicharesimilar in nature to the, pinsV 3.0,v A plug-41 is adapted to belowered onthewireeef cured inthebail veye Band the lower. end thereof carries-a ball Q'Lwhich isaolaptedto seat, on. .the seating shoulder 4.4 to. preventdownward flower fluid. w-ithin`the interior of. the. pipe string:l be-.f .ynnd that ,point-l, Increased downward pressure vor a hammering action will causetheshear pins 46:.-to shear allowing the auxiliary-sleevermembel? 3.8.. to dropdowrrthe. tube and rest on thetop 5B of the adaptor member,l 3.6i." Y

-. Figures 4.to 11;inclusiyeillustrat.dietgrammlir leally. tneoperationcf the device.'A Eeurelxa swab B aceerdingtothe inrentionis. illustrated 11.1

positionwithn awelleasine A. prior; to the Carryine.. out of.; the.. removal of. the. sand.. The swab B is supported on the pipe string .@whichpasses through the; headerD.. A. flexible.Y counlinezl'for .thezeireularineline is provided. at tlJeftQnOEtbe ou.. :iig-pi eateh1 .f0reis. mat ials...whi.c might drop wn @and ieu-l tbe-swab@ .The .cheelevalve means Wit.. in

the swab are illustrated bythe channels. F. and; they; balls.. while the sleeve. member within. the. swab is' illustrated at` I-Ii; The undliar-YA Sleeve. memberr-abovethe. swabisillustrated at J pumped. down: thev pipe. string C is de liyered` to the bottom of the Well .throughv thotail.` pipe, and check4r valve equipped. drilling bit- (not shown). The. tailpipe is madeupfinseetions to allowior. the-various lengths required. Y Figure 5 shows dagrammatieallythe. operation ofV rais-ing. the swabt to. cause reduced pressure; in. the. vicinityof the bottom; ofthe wall. It. .;willv be. seen .that theswab. has. been raised. which closes the yalvesfG, reducing. the pressure. in spalle; thereby.` causingv loose sands tocave inwardly?. Y

Figure fillustrates the .operation of" circulating uidto wash theloose-sands.l out ofi thegwell is-indicated bythe arrows, fluidisnumpedzdown. the pipe. string C, out. through thetail piper. into the space. MWhere loose sand is, ent-rained, The fluid is then forced up through,- thee. Casing', causing thezballsin the check-valves to benny. sea-ted. and passes. upwardly throughgthev channels F and; 'upthrough- Vthe annulus. il` to; the surface where; it is drawn off at the casing.- head and passed to thekv settling tank-s- (notr shown) befolf being rfc-circulated. It will be noted thatv the swab vBv has.` been partially :lowered toits original, position. This, is vdonein accordance with the amountof .uid removedthroueh the-.casing-head Not; specifically illustrated, is the action-v pre vicusly` referred to whereby the swabisi lowered for a second stroke, withoutv circulating fluid. The Weight of the pipe string forces theJ swab through the sand-oil mixture, said mixture beine retained. in. thehole-.by theformatiomsresistance and. thereby being directed through the. cheek vals/esto aposition; above. 'lheoreratorwill .repeat this.. Operation as many times ese neeesserr to obtain. @Satisfactory conditi. Slelid'eandfer particles noti .floated up from t bottom. willbe circulated; out.; asberetofore described..

Figure?? illustrates the operation :of preparing the; swab. for ltsremoval from; the. well. emil showsfthecondition ef. tbeeweb immediately fbfefore the. ball. 2.9V le flreppeelV from. thewell .head down the. eine strinse etftbissteeethe reser- Voir M vfull of cleanluid and itr isl desiredto raise the swabout Vofthe jwell witlfiout. dislodg'ing any more Sand which might. become entefled with; theoil and clos.,theaulne-VV f Figure 8,illustrates, the opening of the bypass ports 25 inthe swablpermitting..communication between. tliejiuterier 0f thepiee. String andthe channels E inthe swab- Itlwill beseen that the ports! are Vnow.fopen. and the sleeve. with the ball seated onthe, valve seat, withinfit has dropped, and. is. henry .rheretainerfata TheA shearing of the pins. holding the. sleeyehas been accorn plshel. bypump pressure. applied in. a down-V ward direction. by the uid. within. the. Dine string. n. Figure 9 illustrates the. next step whieh'bonisists in *thel pullingfof the K swab, and asindicated by the arrows; the fludebove the. eWob--W.i. tbe annulus. N llewsdewn through thelebami. Fi. through.the portsp25-lnto the. pipe string. and down. pest-- the; Sleeve. retainer Re. anda down thlQllg'h theta-l1 Vpipe K. Theffreedomfofthe fluids: to move, as indicatedy prevents any-neuh. stantial' lowering. of; pressure within the.` reserv oir .M so, that. there. isf. no further tendency.- for sand? to.V care into.. it,-.. and. when thef-swabeisnallyremoved: the:y well: is: left: freer from. sand. Eigure' 10:. illustrates ther. 'operationoff.A the auxiliarysleevef means 'J In theevent that cir# culation cannot belobtained dueto a clogging of the swab, or a large amount loi sand beingleft above the swab, preventing it from being pulled, the auxiliary sleeve meansare called into operation and the' plunger b'ar Sis lowered into the pipe string on lthe cable T to sit on` the shoulders 44 in the auxiliary sleeve J. At this stage, cir=` culating fluid is pumped downthe .pipe string from the circulating pump and forces the sleeve J in a` .downward direction, shearing the retainer'pins and opening the ports U. vThis can alsolbel 'done by a hammering action on Ithe sleeve. The sleeve" is prevented from falling down the pipe'. to any extent, by the shoulder V andfin Figure 11,- circulation about the swab through the `ports U .is illustrated. This circulation cleans out the casing removing the sand and the like, which has lodged abovek the swab and prevented its removal. Following the circulation indicated in Figure l1, the plunger bar S may be removed, and the' swab may be with drawn without further loosening of the loose sands in the reservoir, as illustrated in Figure 9.

It will be seen from the foregoing that the present invention provides a very simple and easily operated method for removing as large a quantity of sand from an oil'well as is desired. Furthermore, the operation is' one which may be carried outin a relatively short time, and may be completely' controlled from the surface without the necessity for continually pulling and ree placing of operating parts.

I claim: f

ll.. A method of removing oil sands and the like from oil wells comprising causing a reduced pressure at the lower endfof an oil well by raising a swab in the lower portions of the well casing, whereby to cause inward collapse or" loose sands in the Vicinity of the endof the swab casing, washing vthe saidfloose sands out of the well by circulating fluid therethrough and simultaneously with such washing Vand substantially in accordance with the amount of fluid removed irombelow the said swab lowering the said swab to its original position, the'sequence of operations being repeated until sufcient sand and the like has been removed from the well to 'render the same fit for lfurther development, fluid communication beingv festablished in a downward direction throughthe swab, and removingthe swab fromthe well casing whereby fluid may freely flow downwardly past the said swab during the removal thereofV and the consequent maintenance of the pressure of nthe fluid column prevents ,f urther loosening of sand in asY the vicinity of the bottom of'thezwell casing and the casing itself is left'in a clear condition substantiallyi'reefrom sandl and rthe like.

2. A method of removing oil sands and the like from oil wells comprising causing a reduced pressure at the lower end of an oil well by rais- 'inga swab .in the lower portions of the well casing, whereby te 'cause inward 'collapse of .loose-fsads in the vicinity of the end of the swab'casi'ng, lwashing the said loose sands out ofthe well by circulating :duid therethrough and simultaneously with such washing and substantially in accordance with the amount of fluid Vremoved from below the said swab lowering the saidswab to its original position, the fluid circulation being continued until the bulb ofthe sandrwvhich has been inwardly collapsed has ,been raised Aabove theVV level ofthe swab, the seguence oi" 'operationsxbeing repeated. until sufflcient sandland the like has been removed from the well to render `the same fit1 for further development, lduid ,communication being established in a, downward direction through the swab, and removing the swab from the well casing wherebyiluid may freely cw downwardly past the said `swab during the removal thereof and the consequent maintenance of the` pressure of thefluid column prevents further loosen-'- ing of sand inthe vicinity of the bottom of -the well casing, and the casing itself is left in a clear'condition substantiallyfree from sand and the like; Y Y I `3. Apparatus for removing sand and the like from oil wells comprising a swab adapted to be lowered into an oil well casing and raised and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to said swab and designed closely to t the interior of said casing,means within said swab for permitting flow of fluid between theY portion of the wellbelow said swab and the annular portion above said swab between said string of pipe and the casing in an upward direction only, land pumping means for pumping Iiuid down said string of pipe to a point of discharge below said swab, the said swab comprising an outer cylindrical portion designed to swab the inside of the casing,` an inner tubular portion adapted to conn nect with said string of pipe and conduct iiuid pu'znped therethrough, and a plurality of web members circumferentially lspaced in the annular space betweensaid inner tubular portion and said outer cylindrical portion, dividing said space into a plurality of channels, and check valve means disposed within said channels designed to permit ow of fluid therethrough in an upward direction only.

4. Apparatus for removing sand and the like from oil wells comprising a swab adapted to be lowered into an` oil well casing and raised and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to said swab and designed closely to fit the interior of said casing, means within said swab for permitting flow of fluid between the portion of the wellbelow said swab and the annular portion above said swab between said string of pipe and the casing in an upward direction only, and pumping means for pumping uid down said string of pipe to a point of discharge belowsaid swab, the said swab comprising an outer cylindricalportion designedV to swab the inside of the casing, an inner tubular portion adapted to con.- nect with said string of pipe and conduct fluid pumped therethrough, and a plurality of web members circumferentially spaced in the annular space -between said inner tubular portion and said outer cylindrical portion, dividing said space into a' Vplurality of channels, and check valve means disposed within said channels designedto permit flow of fluid therethrough in an upward direction only, the said check valve means comprising Valve seat 'means within each of saidchannels, ball members adapted to seat upon said valve seat means and retaining means above said ball members adapted to limit upwardV motion thereof.

Y 5. Apparatus for removing sand and the like fromoil wells 'comprising a swab adapted to be lowered into an oil well casing and raised and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to said swab and designed,v closely to fit the interior of saidvcasing, means within'said swab `for permitting ow of uid between the portion of the well below 'said swab and the annular portion above said swab between said string Vof pipe and 9, the-casing in an upward direction only, and pumping .means for pumping iiuid down said stringof vpipe to a point of discharge below said swab, the said swab comprising an outer cylindrical portiondesignecl to swab the inside of the casing, an inner tubular vportion adapted to connect with said string Aof pipe and conduct fluid pumped therethrough, a 4plurality of web members circumferentially spaced in the annular Aspace between said vinner tubular portion and said outer cylindrical portion, dividing saidspace into a plurality of channels, the said inner tubular portion having means Vtherein for establishing fluid communication between the interior ,thereof and the interior of said channels, the said means being operable from ground level, and check valve means disposed within said channels designed to permit iiow of uid therethrough inan upward direction only.y

v6. AApparatus for removing sand and the like from oil wells comprising a swab adapted to be lowered into an oil well casing and raised and -lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to said swaband 'designed closely to fit the interior of said casing, means within said swab for permitting flow of iiuid between the portion of the well below said swab and the annular portion above said swab between said string of pipe and the casing in an upward direction only, and pumping means for pumping fluid down said string of pipe to a point 'of discharge below said swab,the said swab comprising an outer cylindricalportion designed to swab the inside of the casing, .an inner tubular portion adapted to connect with said string of pipe and conduct uid pumped therethrough, a plurality of web members circumferentially spaced in the annular .space between said inner tubular portion and said outer cylindrical portion, dividing said space into -a plurality of channels, the said inner tubular'portion having means therein for establishing iiuid communication between the interior thereof and the interior of said channels, the said means being operable from ground level, and check valve means disposed within said channels designed to permit now of uid therethrough in an upward direction only, the said check valve means comprising valve seat means within each of said channels, ball members adapted to seat upon said valve seat means and retaining means above said ball members adapted to limit upward motion thereof.

7. Apparatus for removing sand and the like from oil wells comprising a swab adapted to be lowered into an oil well casing Sand raised and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected 5to said swab and designed closely vto fit the interior of .said casing, -means within said swab for per- Initting flow of fluid between the portion of the -well below said swab and the annular portion above -said swab between said string of pipe and the casing in an upward direction only, and pumping means for pumping iiuid down said string of pipe to a point of discharge below said swab, thesaid swab comprising an outer cylindrical portion designed to swab the inside of vthe casing, an inner tubular portion adapted to connect with said string of pipe and conduct iiuid pumped therethrough, a plurality of web members circumferentially spaced in the annular space between said inner tubular portion rand said outer cylindrical portion, dividing said space into a plurality of channels, the said inner tubu- .lar portion having means therein for establishing fluid communicationbetween the interior thereof and the interior of' s'aid channels, the said means being operable `from ground level, the said communicating means comprising ka series 'oi ports in said tubular portion communicating with said channels, a sleeve' member designed closely to it the interior of said tubular portion and adapted to mask said ports, said sleeve member being retained in position masking said ports by shearable pin means passing through suitable borings in said tubular portion and said sleeve member, said sleeve member having a valve seat formed therein, and a ballmember insertable from the 'top of said pipe .string and adapted to seat on said valve seat, said shearable pin means being shearable by pressure exerted ,by `said pumping means when said ball member is seated on-said valve seatin said sleeve member, and check valve-means disposed within said channels designed to `permit flow of fluid therethrough in an upwarddirection only. v s

8. Apparatus for removing sand and thelike from oil wells comprising a swab adapted to be lowered into van oil well casing and raised and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to said swab and designed -closely to nt the interior of said jcasing, means `within said swab for permitting flow of fluid between the Aportion of the well below saidswab andthe 'annular portion above said swab between said Vstring lof pipe and the casing in an upward direction only, and pumping means for pumping uid down said string of pipe to a point of discharge below said swab, the said swab comprising lan outer cylindrical portion designed to swab the inside of the casing, an inner tubular portion adapted to `connect with lsaid string of pipe and conduct Huid pumped therethrough, a plurality-of web members circumferentially spaced in the `annular space between said inner tubular portion and said outer cylindrical portion dividing vsaid space into a pluralityof channels, the said-inner tubular portion 'having means therein Vfor establishing fluid -communication between the interior thereof and the interior of said channels, the said means fbeing operable from ground level, the `said communicating means comprising a series of ports in said-tubular porition communicating with said channels, fa sleeve member designed closely -to iitthe interiorfof said tubular portion and adapted to mask 'said ports,` said sleeve member beingv retained in .position masking said portsby rshearable pin means passing through suitable borings in said tubular porti-on and said sleeve member, said sleeve member havinga valve seat formed therein, anda ball member insertable'from the .top of A'said pipe string and adapted to seat on said valve seat said shearable pin means being shearable by pressure exerted by said pumping means when :said ball member is seated onsaid valve seat in said sleeve member, and-check valve means disposed within said channels designed to permit flow' of -fluid therethrough lin an Aupward-direction only, the said check valve means comprising valvel seat .means within each of said channels, ball members adapted to vseat upon said valve seat means and retaining means above'said balll members adapted to limit upward motion thereof.

9. Apparatus for removing sand and the like from oil wells comprising a swab adapted to be lowered into an `oil well casing-and raised and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to said swab and designed closely to fit the inte'- rior 'of said casing, ymeans within said swabifor permitting flow of fluid vbetween the portionof the well below said swab and the annular 'portion above said swab between said string of pipe and the casing in an upward direction only, and pumping vmeans for pumping fluid down said string of pipe to a point of discharge below said swab, the said swab comprising an outer cylindrical portion designed to swab the inside of the casing, an inner tubular portion adapted to connect with said string of pipe and conduct iluid pumped therethrough, a plurality of web members circumferentially spaced in the annular space between said inner tubular portion and said outer cylindrical portion, dividing said space into a plurality of channels, the said inner tubular portion having means therein for establishing fluid communication between the interior thereof and the interior of said channels, the said means being operable from ground level, the said communicating means comprising a series of ports in said tubular portion communicating with said channels, a sleeve member designed closely to fit the interior of said tubular portion and adapted to mask said portssaid sleeve member being retained in position masking said ports by shearable pin means passing through suitable borings in saidV tubular portion and said sleeve member, said sleeve member having a valve seat formed therein and a ball member insertable from the top of said pipe string adapted to seat on said valve seat, said shearable pin means being shearable by pressure exerted by said pumping means when said ball member is seated on said valve seat in said sleeve member, retaining by-pass pin means below said sleeve member, designed to prevent said sleeve member from dropping out the end of said pipe string after the shear pin means have been sheared and the sleeve member has unmasked said ports, and check valve means disposed within said channels designed to permit flow of uid therethrough in an upward direction only.

10. Apparatus for removing sand and the like from oil wells comprising a swab adapted to be lowered into an oil well casing and raised and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to said swab and designed closely to iit the interior of said casing, means within said swab for permitting flow of uid between the portion of the well below said swab and the annular portion above said swab between said string of pipe and the casing in an upward direction only, and pumping means for pumping fluid down said string of pipe to a point of discharge below said swab, the said swab comprising an outer cylindrical portion designed to swab the inside of the casing, an inner tubular portion adapted to connect with said string of pipe and conduct fluid pumped therethrough, a plurality of web members circumferentially spaced in the annular space between said inner tubular portion and said outer cylindrical portion dividing said space into a plurality of channels, the said inner tubular portion having means therein for establishing fluid communication between the interior thereof and the interior of said channels, the said means being operable from ground level, the said communicating means comprising a series of ports in said tubular portion communicating with said channels, a sleeve member designed closely to nt the interior ofV said tubular portion and adapted to mask said ports, said sleeve member being retained inposition masking said ports by shearable pin means passing through suitable borings in said tubular portion Vand said sleeve member, said sleeve member having a valve seat formed therein and a ball memi2 ber insertable from the top of said pipe string and adapted to seat on said valve seat said shearable pin means being shearable by' pressure eX- erted by said pumping, means when said ball member is seated on said valve seat in said sleeve member, retaining by-pass pin means below said sleeve member, designed to prevent'said sleeve member from droppingA out the `end oi' said pipe string after the shear pin means have been sheared and the sleeve member has unmasked said ports, and check valve means disposed within said channels designed to permit flow of fluid therethrough in an upward direction only, the said check valve means `comprising valve seat means within each of said channels, ball members adapted to seat upon said valve seat means and retaining means above said ball' members adapted to limit upward motion thereof.

11. Apparatus for removing sand and the' like from oil wells comprising a swab adapted to be lowered into an oil well casing and raised and lowered therein on astring of pipe connected to said swab and designed closely to t the interior of said casing, means within said swab for permitting flow of fluid between the portion of the well below said swab and the annular portion above said swab between said string of pipe and the casingV in an upward direction only, secondary means above said swab and carried by said pipe string and the annulus between said pipe string and the well casing, said means being operable from ground level, and pumping means for pumping fluid down said string of pipe to a point of discharge below said swab, the said. swab comprising an outer cylindricalportion designed to swab the inside of the casing, an inner tubular portion adapted to connect with said string of pipe and conduct fluid pumped therethrough, and a plurality of web members circumferentially spaced in the annular space between said inner tubular portion and said outer cylindrical portion, dividing said space into a plurality of channels, and check valve means disposed within said channels designed to permit flow of fluid therethrough in an upward direction only.

12. Apparatus for removing sand and the like from oil wells comprising a swab adapted to be lowered into an oil well casing and raised 'and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to said swab and designed closely to fit the interior of said casing, means within said swab for permitting now of liquid between the portion of the well below said swab and the annular portion above said swab between said string of pipe and the casing in an upward direction only, pumping means for pumping fluid down said string'of pipe to a point of discharge below said swab, secondary means above said swab and carried by said pipe string and the annulus between said pipe string and the well casing, said means being operable from ground level, the said swab comprising an outer cylindrical portion designed to swab the inside of the casing, an inner tubular portion adapted to connect with said string of pipe and conduct fluid pumped therethrough, and a plurality of web members circumferentially spaced in the annular space between said inner tubular portion and said outer cylindrical portion, dividing said space into a plurality of channels, and check valve means disposed within said channels designed to permit flow of duid therethrough in an upward direction only, the said check valve means comprising valve seat means within each ofV said channels, 'ball members ennemie the well below said swaband 'the famiularspor tion above `saidzswa'b between said stringofipipe and :the .casing in .an upward fdirection-fnnly, pumping Vmeans for .pumping nuid .down said String of pipe Ato a point of .discharge below .said

swab, secondary meansabove saidswaband ,can ried by said ,pipe string and the annulus between saidpipe string and the well casing, said means being operable from vground level, the :said iseeondary means comprising at least onefluid port in "said vstring wall, sleeve means .adapted .to mask saldport on theinside thereof, valve seat lmeans y.within said sleeve large. enoughto permit passage of rthe ball vmeans which operates 'said communication means in the swab, and valve .v

closing means adapted to be `lowered `into vsaid pipe string from .the Atop thereof, said .sleeve be*- ing retained in :position ,masking :said ports by shear pin means, shearable yby the `-pressure 'of the pump means when .said valve closing means is seated on said valve seat.

'1.4. Apparatus for removing sandand the like Vfrom oil wells comprising a swab adapted :t be lowered into an oil well casing and vraised and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to said swab and designed closely to fit the interior of said casing, ball means within said swab for permitting dow of fluid between the portion of the well below said swab and the annular portion above said swab Ibetween said string of pipe and the casing in an-upwarcl .direction only, pumping means for pumping fluid down said tring of pipe to a point of discharge belowsaid swab, the said swab comprising an outer cylindrical portion designed to swab the inside of the casing, an inner tubular portion adapted to connect Iwith said string of pipe and conduct fluid pumped therethrough, and a plurality Vof web members circumferentially spaced in the annular space between said inner tubular portion and said outer cylindrical portion, dividing said space into a plurality of channels, and check valve means disposed within said channels designed to permit flow of fluid therethrough in an upward direction only, secondary means above said swab and carried by said pipe string and the annulus between said pipe string and the well casing, said means being operable from ground level, the said secondary means comprising at least one iuid port in said string wall, sleeve means adapted to mask said port on the inside thereof, valve seat means within said sleeve large Aenough to permit passage of the ball means which operates said communication means in the swab, and valve closing means adapted t0 be lowered into said pipe string from the top thereof, said sleeve being retained in position masking said ports by shear pin means, shearable 4by the pressure of the pump means when .said valve closing means is seated on said valve seat.

15. Apparatus for removing sand and the like from oil wells comprising a swab adapted to be lowered into an oil well casing and raised and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to said swab and designed closely to t the interior .orfsaid casing, ball means within .saidiswab--fior permitting flow :of liquid between the portion :of thev Ywell below said :swab .and .the-.annulara'por tion .above .said swab between zsaid string' nf .-pipe and fthe vcasing' in ian upward Vrdirection --,only, pumping means :for pumping fluid dow-n.said string of ppeto a point of discharge below said swab, 4the said swab comprising .an outer ,cylin- -drical vportion'designed to swab the inside -of the casing, an `.inner .tubular 4portion adaptedto conneet with said string `of pipe and conduct :fluid pumped therethrough, Yand a plurality ofweb members oircumferentially 'spacedin the annular space between said inner tubular portion Vand said outer ycylindrical portion, dividing said space into a plurality of channels, and check valve means disposed within said channels designed to permit flow of uid therethrough'fin.

an upward direction only, the said check valve means .comprising valve seat `means y'within Veach of said channels, ball ,members .adapted `to seat upon .said valve yseat Vmeans land .retaining means above `said ball members adapted to'limit iupward ymotion thereof, secondary Ameans above said 'swab and carried by said pipe vstring and the annulus between said pipe string Yand the well casing, said Lmeans being operable from ground level, the said secondary means comprising at least'one fluid port insaid 'string wall, sleeve means adapted to mask said 'port on .the inside thereof, vvalve Vseat 'means within said sleevelarge enough to permit passage of 'the ball means which operates said lcommunication means inthe swab, and valve closing means adapted to be lowered into said pipe Istring Y'from thetop thereof, said sleeve beingzretained `iri`position Amasking said ports by shear pin means, shearable by the pressure of the pumpmeans when said valve closing means is seated on said valve seat. i

16. Apparatus for removing sand and the like from oil wells comprising 'a swab adapted vto vbe lowered 'into an oil well casing and raised and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to said swab and designed closely lto fit the interior yof said casing, ball means within said swab vfor permitting flow of uid between the portion of the well below said swab and the annular portion above said swab between said string of pipe and the casing in an upward direction only, pumping means for pumping iiud down said string of pipe to a point of discharge below said swab, secondary means above said swab and carried by said pipe string and the annulus between said pipe string and the well casing, said means being operable from ground level, the sadsecondary means comprising at least one fluid port in said string wall, sleeve means adapted to mask said port on the inside thereof, valve seat means within said sleeve large enough to permit passage of the ball means which operates said communication means in the swab, and valve closing means adapted to be lowered into said pipe string from the top thereof, comprising a plunger bar having a substantially hemispherical lower end adapted to seat on the valve seat and hoisting means connected to the upper end of said plunger bar, said sleeve being retained in position masking said ports by shear pin means, shearable by the pressure of the pump means when said valve closing means is seated on said valve seat.

17. Apparatus for removing sand andthe like from o'il wells comprising a swab adapted to be lowered intoan oil well casing and raised and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to above said swab between said string of pipe and the casing in an upward direction only, Dumping means for pumping fluid down said string of pipe to a point of discharge below said swab, the said swab comprising an outer cylindrical portion designed to swab the inside of the casing, an inner tubular portion adapted to connect' with said string of pipe and conduct fluid pumped therethrough, and a plurality of web members circumferentially spaced in the annular space between said inner tubular portion and said outer cylindrical portion, dividingl said space into a plurality of' channels, and check valve means disposed within said channels designed to permit flow of fluid therethrough in an upward direction only, secondary means above said swab and carried by said pipe string and the annulus between said pipe string and the well casing, said means being operable from ground level, the said secondary means comprising at least one iluid port in said 'string wall, sleeve means adapted to mask said port on the inside thereof, valve seat means within said sleeve large enough to permit passage of the ball means which operates said communication means in the swab, and valve closing means adapted to be lowered into said pipe string from the top thereof, comprising a plunger bar having a 'substantially hemispherical lower end adapted to seat on the valve seat and hoisting means connected to the upper end of said plunger bar, said sleeve being retained in position masking said ports by shear pin means, shearable by the pressure o the pump means when said valve closing means is seated on said valve seat.

18. Apparatus for removing sand and the like from oil wells comprising a swab adapted to be lowered into an oil well casing and raised and lowered therein on a string of pipe connected to said swab and designed closely to t the interior of said casing, ball means with'm said swab for permitting flow of liquid between the portion of the well below said swab and the annular portion above said swab between said string o pipe and the casing in an upward direction only, pumping means for pumping fluid down said string of pipe to a point of discharge below said swab, the said swab comprising an outer cylindrical portion designed to swab the inside of the casing, an 'inner tubular portion adapted to connect with said string off pipe and conduct fluid pumped therethrough, and a plurality of web members circumferentially spaced in the annular space between said inner tubular portion and said outer cylindrical portion, dividing said space into a plurality of channels, and check valve means disposed within said channels designed to permit flow of fluid therethrough in an upward direction only', the said check valve means comprising valve seat means within each of said channels, ball members adapted to seat upon said valve sea-t means and retaining means above said ball members adapted to limit upward motion thereof, secondary means above said swab and carried by said pipe string and the annulus between said 'pipe string and thc well casing, said means being operable from ground level, the said secondary means comprising at least one iluid port in said string wall, sleeve means adapted to mask said port on the inside thereof, valve seat means within said sleeve large enough to permit passage of the ball means which operates said communication means in the swab, and valve closing means adapted to be lowered into said pipe string from the top thereof, comprising a plunger bar having a substantially hemispherical lower end adapted to seat on the valve seat and hoisting means connected to the upper end of said plunger bar, said sleeve being retained in position masking said ports by shear pin means, shearable by the pressure of the pump means when said valve closing meansr is seated on saidvalve seat.

- DAVID PAXTON GRAY.

REFERENCES CITED The following lreferences are of record in the ille of this patent:

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Classifications
U.S. Classification175/65, 175/234, 175/317, 175/320, 166/151, 175/218, 166/105, 175/88
International ClassificationE21B37/00, E21B37/10
Cooperative ClassificationE21B37/00, E21B37/10
European ClassificationE21B37/10, E21B37/00