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Publication numberUS2603693 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 15, 1952
Filing dateOct 10, 1950
Priority dateOct 10, 1950
Publication numberUS 2603693 A, US 2603693A, US-A-2603693, US2603693 A, US2603693A
InventorsReymond J Kircher
Original AssigneeBell Telephone Labor Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Semiconductor signal translating device
US 2603693 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 15, 1952 R. J. KIRCHER 2,603,693

SEMICONDUCTOR SIGNAL TRANSLATING DEVICE Filed Oct. 10, 1950 FIG./

SEMICONDUCTOR /6 13 \METAL J- lN l/E N TOR R. .4 K/RCHER ATTORNEY Patented July 15, 1952 ,fUNITED STATE C SEMICONDUCTOR SIGNAL TRANSLATING DEVICE Summit, N. J., assig'nor aboratories, Incorporated,

Iteymond J. Kireher,

to Bell Telephone L Y., a corporation of New York New York, N;

Application October 10, 1950, Serial No.-189,387 I.

8 Claims. (01. 115-366) #This invention relates to semiconductor si nal translating devices and more particularly to semi-conductor amplifiers of the type disclosed in the application Serial No. 33,466, filed June 17, 1948, of-J. Bardeen and W. H. Brattain, now Patent 2,524,035, granted October 3, 1950.

Devices of this type comprise, in general, a body of semic'onductive material for example germanium, a pair of connections, for'example point contacts, designated the emitter andcol- 1ector, to the body, and a third substantially ohmic connection, referred to as the base, to the body. .Electrical carriers of sign opposite that of thosenormally in excess in the body are injected at the emitter and flow to the collector wherebyamplified replicas of input signals impressed between. the emitter and base, appear in a load. circuit connected between thecollector and base. .The semiconductive body may be of either ,conductivity type, that is N or P-type. As .is knowngeach type is associated with impurities characteristic thereof, specifically excess donor impurities'in the case of N-type material and excess acceptor impurities in the case of P-type material. If the body is of N-type, the carriers normally in excess in the bulk thereof are "electronsand the. carriers injected .at the emitter are holes- On the other hand, if the body 'is of P-typ e, the carriers normally in excess" in the bulk-thereof are holes and the injected carriers are electrons. l ---It .has beenfound that in such devices the operating. characteristics may vary from unit to unit and that, further, individual units are subject to instability as evidenced by oscillatory phenomena. i I g Onegeneral object of this invention is to improve the performance of semi-conductor signal translating devices such as amplifiers. More specific objects of this invention areto' enhance the stability of such devices and to increasethe uniformity of product in the manufacture of; the devices. l 1 ,It has been determined that ins'tablity of ideof the .typefhereinabove' referred this at: to 'the' sporadic .gjen eration forinjection of carriersv in or intoijithe body. byv mechanisms jdistinct from the emitter tributabl'e' in many cases andlthat" one source of such unwanted carriers is at the base connection. Specifical1y,,'at the base connection in a device. embodying an'N-conductivity type semiconductor body, holesmay be injected into the body from the base electrode and these 'deleteriously effect the functioning of the device. Similarly, in devices including a P-conductivity type body,.electrons may be injecte d into the ,body from the base with consequent degradation of the performance charac: teristics ofthe device. r

In accordance with one feature of this. inven-. tion, such emission or injection of carriers at the base connection is substantially inhibited. This is effected by establishing between the base electrode and the semiconductive body a barrier to the flow into the semiconductor body from the base electrode of,carriers of the sign like that of those introduced intentionally at the emitter, that is of thesign opposite that of those normally in excess of the body. .Such abarrier is created by producing at the body-electrode interface a region or zone in which the .concentration of impurity characteristic of-the conductivity type of the body is greater than that in thebulkof thebody. 1

In one specific embodiment of this invention wherein the body is of N-conductivity type, a

donor impurity is introduced into the :surface portion of the body to which thebase connection is made, thereby to make, aregion-yofthe body contiguous with the base electrode; more. strongly N.-type than the bulk of the body. The

' donor impurity may be introduced, forexamplc, by utilizing a tin-antimony solder for afiixing the base electrode to the body orfby plating the surface with antimony and. affixing thebase electrode to the plated surface under conditions effecting diffusion of the antimony into. the body. The, invention :and the above-noted and other features thereof --yvill be understood more clearly and fully from the following detailed descrip: tion with reference to the accompanying draw:

am-whi Fig. 1 depicts a semiconductor amplifier illus-. trative of one embodiment of thisinventloni; and I 3'- .Fig. 2 is 1 a sectionalview to an enlarged-scale ia t on Q1. v mp i e se i c o s uc u .11; x 1 z In the;drawing, for the sake of clarity, di;- mensions of; the semiconductive j body have: been greatly exaggerated. In a, typical-device, the

em e n u five. y st n 100. 5.0 aside'and about 12 milsthick. I Referring now to the drawing, the signal translating device illustrated in Fig. 1 comprises a body' 10 .of semiconductive material, for ex-. ample of germaniumor silicon, ofeither con-.- ductivity type. The germanium material may 5 connected to said body, and means comprising an acceptor material in excess of that in the bulk of said body defining a barrier at the junction of said base electrode and said body. 7

5. A signal translating device comprisin a body of N-conductivity type germanium, emitter and collector connections to said body, a base. electrode, and a solder containing a donor imconnection to said region.

7. A signal translating device comprising a body of P-conductivity type germanium having at one surface thereof a region containing acceptor impurity in excess of that in the bulk of Number 6, the body, emitter and collector connections to said body at points spaced from said region, and a base connection to said region.

8. A signal translating device comprising a body of N-conductivity type germanium having at one face thereof a region containing antimony and of greater donor impurity concentration than the bulk of said body, a base connection to said region, and emitter and collector connections to the opposite face of said body.

' REYMOND J. KIRCHER.

REFERENCES CITED The following'references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date 2,524,035 Bardeen et al. Oct. 3, 1950

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2524035 *Jun 17, 1948Oct 3, 1950Bell Telphone Lab IncThree-electrode circuit element utilizing semiconductive materials
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2689930 *Dec 30, 1952Sep 21, 1954Gen ElectricSemiconductor current control device
US2733390 *Jun 25, 1952Jan 31, 1956 scanlon
US2748041 *Aug 30, 1952May 29, 1956Rca CorpSemiconductor devices and their manufacture
US2757323 *Feb 7, 1952Jul 31, 1956Gen ElectricFull wave asymmetrical semi-conductor devices
US2761800 *May 2, 1955Sep 4, 1956Rca CorpMethod of forming p-n junctions in n-type germanium
US2762953 *May 15, 1951Sep 11, 1956Sylvania Electric ProdContact rectifiers and methods
US2785095 *Apr 1, 1953Mar 12, 1957Rca CorpSemi-conductor devices and methods of making same
US2787745 *Dec 10, 1952Apr 2, 1957Int Standard Electric CorpCounter electrode for dry disk type rectifiers
US2811653 *May 22, 1953Oct 29, 1957Rca CorpSemiconductor devices
US2811682 *Mar 3, 1955Oct 29, 1957Bell Telephone Labor IncSilicon power rectifier
US2817607 *Aug 24, 1953Dec 24, 1957Rca CorpMethod of making semi-conductor bodies
US2837448 *Oct 26, 1953Jun 3, 1958Bell Telephone Labor IncMethod of fabricating semiconductor pn junctions
US2837704 *Apr 5, 1955Jun 3, 1958SiemensJunction transistors
US2849342 *Jun 28, 1954Aug 26, 1958Rca CorpSemiconductor devices and method of making them
US2857296 *Aug 2, 1956Oct 21, 1958Gen Electric Co LtdMethods of forming a junction in a semiconductor
US2857527 *Apr 28, 1955Oct 21, 1958Rca CorpSemiconductor devices including biased p+p or n+n rectifying barriers
US2859394 *Feb 27, 1953Nov 4, 1958Sylvania Electric ProdFabrication of semiconductor devices
US2865794 *Dec 1, 1955Dec 23, 1958Philips CorpSemi-conductor device with telluride containing ohmic contact and method of forming the same
US2867732 *May 14, 1953Jan 6, 1959IbmCurrent multiplication transistors and method of producing same
US2867899 *Jun 26, 1953Jan 13, 1959IttMethod of soldering germanium diodes
US2868683 *Jul 1, 1955Jan 13, 1959Philips CorpSemi-conductive device
US2874341 *Nov 30, 1954Feb 17, 1959Bell Telephone Labor IncOhmic contacts to silicon bodies
US2879457 *Oct 28, 1954Mar 24, 1959Raytheon Mfg CoOhmic semiconductor contact
US2895058 *Sep 23, 1954Jul 14, 1959Rca CorpSemiconductor devices and systems
US2909715 *May 23, 1955Oct 20, 1959Texas Instruments IncBase contacts for transistors
US2916806 *Jan 2, 1957Dec 15, 1959Bell Telephone Labor IncPlating method
US2930108 *May 4, 1956Mar 29, 1960Philco CorpMethod for fabricating semiconductive devices
US2930949 *Sep 25, 1956Mar 29, 1960Philco CorpSemiconductive device and method of fabrication thereof
US2947925 *Feb 21, 1958Aug 2, 1960Motorola IncTransistor and method of making the same
US2960418 *Jun 29, 1954Nov 15, 1960Gen ElectricSemiconductor device and method for fabricating same
US3012305 *Jun 7, 1957Dec 12, 1961Licentia GmbhElectrically unsymmetrically conductive system and method for producing same
US3076253 *Mar 10, 1955Feb 5, 1963Texas Instruments IncMaterials for and methods of manufacturing semiconductor devices
US3085310 *Dec 12, 1958Apr 16, 1963IbmSemiconductor device
US3226608 *Jun 24, 1959Dec 28, 1965Gen ElectricLiquid metal electrical connection
US3322516 *Mar 3, 1964May 30, 1967Philips CorpMethod of coating p-type germanium with antimony, lead or alloys thereof by electrodeposition and product thereof
US3579278 *Oct 12, 1967May 18, 1971Varian AssociatesSurface barrier diode having a hypersensitive {72 {30 {0 region forming a hypersensitive voltage variable capacitor
US4380114 *Feb 20, 1981Apr 19, 1983Teccor Electronics, Inc.Method of making a semiconductor switching device
DE966906C *Apr 9, 1953Sep 19, 1957Siemens AgVerfahren zur sperrfreien Kontaktierung von Flaechengleichrichtern oder -transistoren mit einem eine p-n-Schichtung aufweisenden Halbleitereinkristall
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DE976402C *Jul 29, 1952Dec 19, 1963Licentia GmbhElektrisch unsymmetrisch leitendes System mit einem eine Sperrschicht enthaltenden Halbleiterkoerper aus Germanium oder Silizium
DE1005194B *May 21, 1954Mar 28, 1957Rca CorpFlaechentransistor
DE1032407B *Sep 29, 1955Jun 19, 1958Licentia GmbhElektrisch unsymmetrisch leitende Halbleiteranordnung und Verfahren zu ihrer Herstellung
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DE1153460B *Jan 28, 1959Aug 29, 1963Siemens AgVerfahren zum Herstellung und Kontaktieren einer Halbleiteranordnung
DE1262388B *Sep 19, 1961Mar 7, 1968Gen Dynamics CorpVerfahren zur Erzeugung eines nicht-gleichrichtenden UEbergangs zwischen einer Elektrode und einem dotierten thermoelelktrischen Halbleiter fuer ein thermoelektrisches Geraet
Classifications
U.S. Classification257/41, 428/642, 148/33.3, 136/237, 428/620, 257/E21.174, 148/33
International ClassificationH01L29/73, H01L21/00, H01L29/72, H01L21/288, H01L29/167, H01L29/00
Cooperative ClassificationH01L29/72, H01L21/288, H01L21/00, H01L29/00, H01L29/73, H01L29/167
European ClassificationH01L29/73, H01L29/72, H01L29/00, H01L21/00, H01L29/167, H01L21/288