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Publication numberUS2605765 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 5, 1952
Filing dateJun 5, 1947
Priority dateJun 5, 1947
Publication numberUS 2605765 A, US 2605765A, US-A-2605765, US2605765 A, US2605765A
InventorsKollsman Paul
Original AssigneeKollsman Paul
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Automatic syringe
US 2605765 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 5, 1952 KOLLSMAN 2,605,765

AUTOMATIC SYRINGE 2 SHEETS-SHEET 1 I Filed June 5, 1947 INVENTOR.

@ L KQLLSMHN A; ATTORNEY Aug. 5, 1952 P. KOLLSMAN 2,605,765

AUTOMATIC SYRINGE Filed June 5, 1947 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 /0/ Fig. 6

Fig. /0

INVENTOR,

ATTORNEY Patented Aug. 5, 1952 "T' UNITEDqSTATES PATENT OFFICE Paul Kollsman, New York, N. Y. Application June 5, 1947, Serial No. 752,787

This invention provides a device for continuously and automatically administering medicinal compositionsin fluid fornito a patients body.

' In the treatment of disease by hypodermic or oral medication, it is frequently the aim to maintaina certain concentration of a medicinal'composition in the body fluids of the patient over extended periods of time. The concentration must be sufiiciently high to produce the desired beneficial effects, but should, at the same time, be as low as possible so that the total quantity of the medicinal composition which is administered and its toxic effects are small.

The body eliminates or inactivates at a certain rate medicinal compositions introduced into it. It is therefore evident that a dose of a medicinal composition administered sufficiently small to make its toxic efiects tolerable soon loses its effectiveness.

In cases where, for the purposeof treatment, a certain concentration of medicinal compositions in the body fluids hasto be maintained over ex-v tended periods of time, it has become the generally accepted practice to administer doses of medicine repeatedly within predetermined intervals of time in order to counteract the tendency ofv the body to eliminate or inactivate the compositions. As a result, the total of the individual doses of compositions isconsiderably in excess of the quantity needed if it were possible to main: tain the concentration within the body fluids constant. A certain amount of the compositions is thus wasted. It is also evident that the toxic effect of individual periodic administrations of doses isrelatively great since the concentration immediately following an administration must necessarily be greaterthan the required minimum in order that the effect of the dose be extended.

The present practice of administering medicinal compositions therefore I puts an unnecessary burden on the patients system.

If the time intervals between administration of individual doses is short, for example, of the order of two hours, and if the total time of treatment is relatively long, for example two to four days, the patient is robbed of the benefit of natural and uninterrupted sleep. Doses administered in the form of hypodermic injections may therefore add up to a total of48 individual injections for a certain treatment. Such treatment is necessarily very painful to the patient. It is also The present invention overcomes the'various '7 Claims. (Cl. 1Z8-218) disadvantages of the conventional practice of administration of medicinal compositions in providing an apparatus for the continuous administration of medicinal compositions at a predetermined rate over extended periods of time.

The novel device consists, in effect, of an automatic syringe including an injection needle, a charge of medicinal composition in fluid form, a self-contained source of power, and means for controlling the rate at which the composition is continuously discharged through the injection needle. The device is sufficiently small so that it may be: attached to a portion of the patients body. Once attached, itmay be'carried without interference or substantial annoyance of the patient over periods of theorder of several days during which period a continuous rate of discharge of fluid composition is maintained.

The concentration of the-composition and the rate of its discharge are so selected that a predetermined minimum concentration'of the composition is maintained in the patients body throughout the treatment. Thejvolume is so selected as to be readily absorbable' without formingp'oo1s-ordepots;'

Since thevolumetric 'quantity per hour is extremely small, it is not'necessary to insert the injection needle deep into a muscle, but it is sufficient in most instances to insert it slightly below' the skin. This particular property and feature of the presentinvention greatly reduces the discomfort of thep'atieht. The injection needle can accordingly be {made thin and relatively short. 1

injection devices embodying the present invention may be made for single use, to be discarded after thetreatment, or may be made as rechargable'unitssuited forirefilling. They may also be constructed of two'units, a re-usable power unit to which adisposableinjection unit is attached.

The various objects, features and advantages of this invention will appear more'fully from the detailed description which follows accompanied by drawings showing, for the purpose of illustration, preferred embodiments of the invention. The invention also consists in certain new and original features of construction and combination of elements hereinafter set forthand claimed.

Although the characteristic featuresof this invention which are believed to be novel will be particularly pointed out in the claims appended hereto, the invention itself, its features and advantages, andthe manner'in which it may be carried out-may be better understood ,by referring to the following descriptiontaken in connec timing unit to which a disposable injection unit isattached;

Figure 6 is a detailed view, partly in section, of

an injection unit including a separate injection needle;

Figure 7 is a sectional view of an automatic syringe powered 'by'aspr ing motor; Figure '8 is a detailed view of elements er the device of Figure "7, a section beingtaken "on line 8'8 of Figure 7;

Figure'9 is 'a plan view 'of the device shown in Figure 8; 'and 'Figu're 1.0 is 'a sectional view of anautomatic syringe including a power unit 'o'perat'i'ng with gas pressure. V

In the following description and'i'n the claims, various details will be identified by specific names for convenience. The names, however, are intended to be as generic-in their application as the art will permit. Like reference characters refer'to like parts in'the several figures of the drawings.

In the drawings accompanying, and forming part of, this specification, certain'specific disclosure of the invention, is made'for'thepurpose of explanation of broader aspects ofthe invention, but it is understood that the details may be modified in various respectswithout'departure from the principles o'fthe invention and that the invention may be appliedto other 'structuresthan the ones shown. Any permissible'changes inthe constructions disclosed herein'must fall within the purview of the claims appendedhereto.

The syringe shown in Figurefl comprises 'a housing ll consisting of twotubular portions'lZ and'l3. A variable'volume chamber I4 is formed in thepreferably transparent housing portion 12 by a movable wall which," in the illustrated example has the form of a free movable piston l5 sealed with respect to the inner cylindricalsurface I6 of the housing by -a gasket ll. The variable volume chamber M has a discharge passage l8 leading to a hollowinjectionneedle i9 which extends approximately at right 'anglesiwith 'respect to the bottom'surf'ace '20 of the housing 'I I. During non-use of the syringe, the injection needle is protected by a removable cap 2l preferably seated on a knob-shaped projection 2 l The projection 2| besides forming a tight seatfor the cap 2! facilitates insertion of therelatively short needle l9 through the skin which, were it not for the projection, wouldyield appreciably without being penetrated by the needle, or if punctured, would not permit the needle to penetrate to its full length.

The cap 2| is preferably made of relatively rigid material such as metal ora plastic and is lined on the inside with a relatively soft'liner 2 l adapted to form a seal for the needle IS.' The liner 2 I' may be made of a soft or pliable material, for example soft rubber, into which the ,13. cured at 21v and forms the seat for a helical 4 needle'is pressed when the cap 21 is attached. The liner 2| seals the point of the needle to prevent accidental discharge of medicinal fluid, if the fluid is under pressure, and provides mechanical protection for the needle. In addition, the cap maintains the needle sterile until its actual use.

The two portions of the housing l2 and I3 are secured together by a threaded plug 22 which also forms a partition in the housing,'the threads being cemented for tightness.

A power piston 23 sealed by a gasket 24 is movable in the rearward housing portion [3 and has a piston guide rod 25 whose end passes through a collar '26 closing the end of the housing portion The collar 26 is threaded or otherwise sespring 28 Whose other end bears against the power piston 23.

The power piston may be maintained in inactive position in which the spring 28 is compressed by "ar'elease cap'29 sho'wn'in Figure 2. The cap 29 h'a's'an internal threadeil fitting on a corresponding'thread 3 l onthe end portion: of the piston 'gui'derod 25. r

The plug '22 forms a' "dividing "wall between chambers 32 and 33. In the condition in which the device is ready for use, the chamber 33 is filled witha highly viscousv liquid, preferably'one having a low temperature coefilci'entof viscosity, for examplea silicone li'quidof 'appropriate viscosity which may range up to 750,000centistok'es or over, the viscosity being determined by the length of the periodduringwhichithe syringe is tooperatecontinuously'. The liquid in the-chamber 33 may beforced into'thechamber'flz'through a restricted passage fof preferably laminar flow characteristics, for example a capillary passage. This passage may conveniently be formed'by'the fine threads of a screw 34 threaded into 'a cylindricalhole 35' in theplug '2 2,ithe diameter of the hole 35 being slightly less than the outside diameter'of the screw but slightly more than'its core diameter so that a helical passage 35 is formed along therootof the threa'd'whose length may be adjusted by'varying thedepth to which the'screwextends'into the hole 35. A cylindrical hole, as-shown in the drawing, has been found satisfactory for *the purpose although it is, of course, possible toprovideinternalthreadsin the hole, the profiles'of'the threadsbeing' so selected as to provide for-clearance resulting in a capillary passage along the core or crest 'of-the screwed:

The variable volume chamber I4 is filled with am'edicinal compositionof fiuid formtobe injected; and thechamber 3?;60111331115 normally, before the-device is put 'in ope'ratibn, just sunlcient viscous liquid to result'in immediate-movement of the piston i5 if further liquid is'displaced from chamber '33; into chamber 3 2.

The device is filled'with amnedicinal fluidat the chemical factory orlaboratory distributing the device. The liquid in chamber "3 3 is-so selected and the flow resistance of the-capillary passage 36 between the chambers 32 and 33*isso selected that after release of the power piston-2 3 the piston will come to the end of its stroke after a predetermined period of time which may be; of the order of 1 48: to ,72 hours or more.

The device is applied to a'p'ortion ofthe'b'ody after removal'of the protecting cap 2! fromthe injection needle; Thehousinghas anappropri-' ately [shaped bottom surface 2 0 which may, for example, be fiat and be'provi'ded with'ja' tacky composition 6 similarv to that used "onadhesive' tape in order to prevent'shifting o'f'the' housing after it is applied. to. the body. The housing may be=provided with anenlarged head 31 to prevent tilting, and may. be. held .in place by a bandage or adhesive .tape.

Shortlybefor'ethe device is applied, the release cap 29 is removed from, the end of the piston guide rod 25, whereupon the spring 28 expands tending to move the power piston 23 towards the partition plug 22 against the resistance of the viscous liquid in chamber '33 which now flows slowly through the capillarypassage 36 into chamber 32 and, in turn, moves. the piston I5 which then displaces fluid from the chamber l4 through the injection 1168611619-5 I I ,Air is admitted into the space 38 in back of the power piston 23 through ,a vent passage 39in order, to prevent suction from being built up therein due to the movement of the power piston 23. For practical purposes, a loose fit of the piston guide rod 25 in the collar 25 is sufficient to provide this vent. 1 p

The spring 28 is preferably so dimensioned that only a fraction of its power is spent during the travelof the power piston 23 from one extreme position to the other in order to eliminate the effect of decreased spring power due to Hookes law. However, in some instances, a slight decrease in the rate of injection towards the end of the treatment is desirable. It is evident that this can be accomplished very conveniently by providing for a corresponding drop in spring power. A V V s ,1

The timing of the device is very accurate since changes in the viscosity of the liquid dueto changes-in temperature do not occur by reason of the fact that the injection device is wornron the body of the patient, whereby the device is maintained at a substantially constant temperature throughout the treatment.

Theprogress of the injection, may be observed and the total volume of injected liquid be read at a graduation printed or engraved onthe transparent housing l2 cooperating with the edge of the piston 5. v j j The syringe shown in Figure 4 comprises a housing 40 in which a step piston 4| is movable. The step piston 4| has gaskets 42 and 43 and subdivides the interior space of the housing into chambers 44, 45, and 4.6.. The chamber 46 is closed by a threaded plug 41 having a vent passage 48 therethrough and having a further centrally located hole 49 through which a release stem 50 extends. v 1

The chamber 44 is filled with a charge of a highly viscous liquid which under pressure may flow into the chamber 45 through a cylindrical passage in the piston including, acapillary restriction .52 formed by a screw 53 threaded into the cylindrical passage 5|, the inner diameter of the cylindrical passage 5| being slightly less than the outside diameter of the screw and slightly more than the core diameter of the screw.

The chamber 45 is filled with a charge-of medicinal fluid to be injected which is discharged through an injection needle 54 communicating with the chamber 45through a passage 55. The injection needle 54 extends substantially normal with respect to the bottom surface 56 of the housing 40 which may have a layer of tacky material 51 applied to it. I

A helical spring 58 bears against the piston 4| with one end and against the threaded plug 4'! with the other.- The power. ofv thespring 58 may be released-by unscrewing the release stem 50 from the piston 4| and thusremovingi it from the device. .Removal ofthe stem 50 opensthe passage 5|. through the piston and permits viscous liquid toflow from'chamber144 into chamber 46 while at the same timethe piston 4| moves in a direction to force medicinal fluid. from the chamber.45outthroughthe needle 54.. y 7

- The :device may be initially filled by feeding viscous liquid intov the chamber 44 through a filler plug 59 and by filling. the chamber 45 with medicinal fluid. through a similar plugsfifl leading toapassage 61.1 m g The. syringe of'Figure applied and used in the-same manner as the form of syringe shown in Figure 1. It is fixed in place by the tacky composition 51- on its under surface 56 and is secured by bandages or tape. The forxn of syringe shown inIFigureA is particularly suited for one-time use, tQbediscarded after use. The step arrangement of the piston provides for a relatively large-chamber for medicinal fluid and a relatively small onefor the viscous liquid so that only a small quantity of viscous liquid is required. v The automatic syringe shown in Figure 5 comprises a re-useable power unit .62 to which a disposable injection unit. 63.,may-be attached. The injection unit is preferably transparent andmay be provided. with a .graduated scale It]. i The power unit 62 consists of a housing 64 divided into chambers 65, and 6G by a wall or a partition, 51 having a gasket 68 therein. A power piston 59 isimovable in the chamber 55 in the housing and isiacted upon by ahelical spring 10 bearing 'againstthe piston with one end and against the wall 61 with the other. A passage 1| provides communication of thechamber 65 with the atmosphere. e I

The power piston 69 has a piston rod I2v attached to it which passes through the partition wall 51 andis attached to, or integral with, a damping piston 13 provided with v gaskets 14. The damping piston divides the chamber 66 into further chambers 15 and 16. The end of the chamber'lfi is closed by a plug H through which the piston rod 12. extends. The piston .73 is sealed-against the plug 11 by a gasket I8.

The damping piston 13 has a restricted capillary passage 1 9 through it formed by a screw threaded intothe passage so that a helical capillary passage is formed along the screw surface.

A second passage 8| is normally closed by a check. valve shown, as a ball 82 forced against its valve seat by a spring 84. The spring bears against the ball with one end and against the threaded plug 85 with the other. The threaded plug 85 has a passage 86 therethrough.

The end of the housing .64 is threaded at 81 and may be connected to the injection unit or cartridge 63 containing a charge ofmedicinal fiuid ,ina chamber 88. A discharge passage 89 .leadsfrom the chamber 88 to an injection needle 90. The chamber 88 is sealed by a movable piston 9| having a gasket 9|. The piston 9| is in contact with the power piston 69 and may be mechanically moved by it in order to force fluid out of the chamber 88'through the needle 90'.

The device is put in operation by moving the piston rod in a direction to compress the spring 10. During this movement damping liquid flows from the chamber 16 into the chamber 15 through the passage 8| and past the check valve 82. An injection unit is then attached-to the power unitBZ whereafterthe device is ready for immediate use. The power piston 69 slowly urges the piston 9| in the injection unit in the direction todischarge fluid therefromnthe; rate;;f: dise charge beingudetermined: by the viscosity of. the damping liquid-in chamberi'li, theilow. resistance of the capillaryipassagelszand the iorce;ofrthe spring 10.

The housing :oiithe power-unit rorrof .thejniection unit, or both,;may be:proyided;on'its 111116.61 surface with a coating :of tackylmateria-ljto maintain the syringe fixed: againstithe surface -of the body of the patient to which. itiis attached; Progress of the discharge of medicinal liquid may be observed by reading a graduation-.92:- on. the piston rod 12- against the'z end 'suriacezrofz .the plug. I

The injeetionunit 63". shown in Figure.. 6:has a flexible tube -=93 -co'rmected.n.tosfits discharge passage 8 9 leading tofza needle ahead .Qhcarrying an injection needle; The -hcadp94" iisa .;sma1l housing having on its other side.;a layer sot-an adhesive substance '96. i The injection1unit,.:B3f may be-used in place .of the aunitl63 shown. in Figure and permits insertion .of the "needle .35 at a point remote from the power and injection unit to which it is attached. The.hea L94; :afterv insertion of the needle 95', is tapedorotherwise secured to the patients skin, the adhesiveyflfi serving toprevient small movementsoi the head thereby preventing irritation at-thepoint of injection.

Figures 7 to 9' illustrate an injection. device comprising basically anescapement controlled spring-motor or watch movement. -A power unit 91 is housed in a casting 98. resembling. the case oi-a wrist watch having-lugs 99 -towhich securing straps may be attached. The movement otlthe watch is conventional and comprises the usual main spring, gears, and escapement. Because of thi conventional construction, these elements are not shown in detail. The watch may beprovided with the conventional'dial N10. The .power shaft llll of the main spring barrel is extended and carries apinion I02 meshing witharackqlflil', the teeth of the rack being ior-mediin when HM which is longitudinally movable and-also r0.- tatable in spaced bearings 405' and 106; 1 VA power piston It? is connected to oneend of theshaft 184 and-a'crown 1 031's connected to-the other end permitting turning of thelshaft" lfitun'til its .flat to portionlfi9-faces-the pinion Ininverted position the shaft 1% may be longitudinally moved with respect to thepinion lfiland'be reengaged ina difierent longitudinal positionby turning; the shaft lfltsoz'that-its teeth re-engage the pinion 182.

The power piston F61 bears against a piston 9i" movable inla cylindrical cartridge llflf'inr serted into the housingtt" of the injection unit. The cartridge H a" has a normally.- sealed .rubber plug HI 'at-thebottom which, upon insertion of the cartridge into the housing 33 15 pierced by a hollow needle l l2to establishcommunication with a tube '93 leading to a headM' from which an injection needles?? projects. The head 94 may be provided with an adhesive layer 95 at its-lower surface.

A further crow-n 'H3 on:the"wat'ch casing permits winding of the main spring and setting of thehands inconventional-manner.

The use and operation of the device shown in Figures '7, 8,-and-9 is asfollows:

Preparatory te the" insertion of a. filled cartridge llll into the inje'ction unit, the-power piston 101 'is moved into its extremeposition-by withdrawing --the shaft 04 into the position 8 grasping. the --CTOWI1i l 08,: turning lthe shaft approximately 180 until the teeth 01513116 rack 103 disengage from the pinion [02, moving the shaft I04 longitudinally and re-engaging the teeth of the rack lfl3 with the pinion H12. Anlled cartridge is theninserted into the housing 63'. and the housing is screwed onto the, powerv unit at 81" whereby the bottom plug vI'll of the cartridge :is automatically pierced.

The running watch mechanism. causes the shaft [OI-and its pinion I02 *to turn slowly urging the power piston I01 against thev piston .91" wherebythe medicinal fluid'in the cartridge is gradually discharged through the 1 injection needle at a constant rate; When the piston 91" reaches-the bottom of the cartridge I Hi, the cartridge is empty and the watch comes to a stop. The-total timeof the treatment maybe read at the dialwhich also furnishes a continuous indication .of the progress of-the treatment while the device is in operation. In thehereinbeforedescribed.forms of syringes the power ioroperating the mechanism is derived from Springs initially placed under tension. There are, of course; other iorms of-power available which lend themselves to use in syringes according to the invention;

Motive power may, for eXampIe -be -derived from gas or'vaporpressure. A self contained disposable unit utilizinggas or vapor-pressure as operating power is illustrated in Figure 10. It consists of a substantially cylindrical shell H4 of'sheet metalshaped to provide inwardly extending flanges I I5 and M6 for holding :the'elements of the device in pressuretight assembled position.

Adish-shapedupper-disk I IT is filled with a charge of a highly viscous liquid 1 l8 covered-and sealed by a metal diaphragm H9. A chamber [20 is formed above-the diaphragm 1 l9 -by.a pressure resistantdome-shaped sheet metal wall l2]. The-chamber |2G contains a charge-of propane, methyl chloride or other liquid which at body temperatures partly develops sufiicient operating Pressure." 7

A restricted-passage 1.22 leads through the upper disk 1 l1 and is iormedby a screw .l23 threaded into an aperture 124- with'sufiicient clearance to providea helical-passage of'capillary flow characteristics about the screw [23. 'The lower disk: 125 also substantially of dish shape lies arranged below the upper disk H1 and is sealed with respect to the capillary passage I22 by a flexiblediaphragm 12E of rubber or other resilient material. The diaphragm |25 separates the viscous liquid entering through the restricted passage l 2-2 from the charge .of-medicinal fluid contained'in the cavity ofzthe lowerdisk at I21. The medicinal fluid may bedischarged through an injectionneedle I2 8.

The device of Figure --10 is assembled under pressure and is'closed by a pressuretight cap 2| fitting on a knob-shaped seat 2| through which the-needle 128 projects. Th viscous liquid which transmits pressurefrom-the-upper side of the upper disk to its lower side, i wholly contained in the space above the disk" H 1 and the medicinal liquid is in the'chamber I21.

Shortly'before applicatiomof the device to the body of a patient, the cap- 2 l is removedcausing medicinal fluid to be discharged through the needle I23. Viscous liquid is now being forced through'the restricted passage 422 and-causes furtherfiuid to bedischargedthrough-theneedle shown in' Figure 73 'Ihis is-accomplished by 75 128... The'action-ofthe device continue uni-l1 n of the viscous liquid haspassed through'the restricted passage l22,, whereafter the-diaphragm tient; by bandages Ortape-and may again be providedon its ,underside with -an adhesive substance to keep itfirmly in place. j "1 Because of the slow rate of injection provided by'the devices embodying the present invention, it is notnecessa-ry to use long or relatively thick injection needles, but needles as small as, onesixteenth of aninch in length and-one-sixtyfourth of an inch in diameterxare satisfactory. Such needles need not extend into the muscular tissue, but insertion into the skin is sufficient. This greatly reduces the discomfort'of the patient who may move about andeven go about his regular business without beingdisturbed by the needle.

Compared to conventional methods of injection, the invention provides various advantages. Whereas, according: to conventional injection I practices, the location of an injection needle is relatively critical, for example in a muscle or vein, it is sufiicient in practicing the inventionto insert the needle into the skin, the location of the specific point of injection being not critical because of the slow injection rate.

I Thus, any

portion of thebody may be selected where the automatic device is most convenient to carry],

According to conventional injection practices,

relatively large volumes of fluid are injected per unit of actual injection time, for example, a volume of one or two cc. over a period of five or ten seconds This ratio is favorably altered by the present invention where the quantity of liquid injected within the. same period of time is infinitesimal and 'canonly be expressed in terms of milligrams. The reduced injection rate makes the process of injection far less uncomfortable than present practices where the forming of pools of liquid in the tissue is frequently very painful.

According to the best of my information the drip method of intravenous injections is'the only continuous injection practice used at. present. In this method relatively large volumes of diluent are employed which, after injection, must be eliminated from the system of the patient. The present invention does not impOse on the patient the burden of eliminating large volumes of a diluent since none is employed. Medicinal preparations of relatively high concentration may be used, with safety because of the exceedingly slow injection rate.

The invention thus provides a greatly improved injection device which opens upan advanced form of treatment techniques havingnu merous advantages; 'The introduction intoa patients system of medicinal compositionscontinuously and at a substantially constant slow rate requires considerably less medication than if individual doses are injected periodically and the total toxic effect is correspondingly reduced. 7

The inventionis particularly suitedfor the injection of liquids, semi-liquid fluids, and suspensions, for example penicillin suspensions including beeswax and peanut-oil. Penicillin is diflicult to administer because of its limited stability in liquid form. In suspension'it is admirably suited for administration according tothe present invention.

The invention provides great economy in that the services of a physician or trained nurse are required only once when the injection device is :7

professional services: Q According to conventional practice, the elements of asyri'ng'e have to be sterilized,repeatedly, 1 once for each injection.

According to the invention, 'asterile, ready-touse injection syringe takes the place of the great number of single-shot syringes.

. The present invention permits medication at a substantially constant rate as well as at gradually increased or decreased rates by proper selection of the source of operating power, for example by selection of a spring or spring assembly or other source of power of predetermined characteristics.

The temperature coefiicient of the viscous liquid employed bythe various types of syringes or the temperature coeflicient of the hair spring in theescapement of the power unit of the device shown in Figures '7 to 9, or the temperature coefficient of other time controlling means may be so selected as to provide a compensating action, for example, to cause an increase or a decrease in the rate of injection in accordance with the change in the patients body temperature.

moval oftherelease stem50., The piston 41 advances immediately under the action of the spring 53 due to compressibility. of the air bubble in the chamber, and an initial relatively large volume of medicinal fluid is 7 injected. After compression of'the air bubble, the rate of injec tionisreduced and remains substantially constant during the'remainder of the operation of 'Fh i -Lfi In the various forms of' automatic syringes illustrated in the drawings, the operating power available for expelling the rnedicinal fluid is vastly -greater than [the actual power required forimoving the movable wall which reduces the volume of the chamber containing the medicinal fluid. The pressure in the chamber containing the viscous fluid isfor' this reason much greater than the pressure in the chamber containing the medicinal fluid. I For example, the pressure in the chamber' c'ontainingtheviscous fluid may be of the order of eighty pounds per square inch, whereas the pressure in a chambercontaining the medicinal'fluid may be of the order of onehalf pound per square inch. This relationship of pressure provides an amplesafety margin, so that variations in the friction of the piston in thech'amb'er containing the medicinal-"fluid will not affect the functioning of the device. 'Assumporarily needed; it is easilyseen' that such increases in'required'power-are still farbelow the availablezmotive power, that is eighty pounds in the specificexample.

This relationship also exists in the clockework operated form of syringe Where the power; moving the piston is vastly in excess of. the power i required; for expelling the medicinal fluid: 1 1. r

. 1,Obviouslygthe.presentinventionis not limited to; the particular; embodiments herein shown and described. "Various changes; =mod-iflcations, substitutions, additions, omissions *will'suggest themselves to persons skilled in the art as a result of the teaching of *the invention. Such changes therefore do not involve'a departure from the spirit and the teachingsof this invention.

What is claimed is:

1 An automatic syringe for the injection of fluids into body tissues comprising, in combination, a housing adapted to becarried by the patient; a movable wall in said housing forming a variable volume chamber therein for containing a charge of fluidto be injected; means for forming a discharge passage from'said chamber includingan injectionneedle; a source of motive power insaid housing tor moving said movable wall in adirection to reduce the volume of said chamber and discharge fluid therefrom; means for retardingtherate of movement of said wall said retarding means including two further chambers communicating with each other through a restricted passag at least ,one of said two further chambers having a movable wall acted upon by saidsource in-a direction to reduce the volume of saidone chamber, and a charge of viscous .liquidflin said last named one chamber. a

2. An automatic syringe-for the injection of fluids into body tissue-comprising, in combination, a housing'adapted to be attached to a portion of the patientsbody; a movable wall in said housing forming a variable volume chamber therein for containinga charge of fluid to be injected; an injectionv needle mounted on said housing and communicating with said chamber through apassagepa-"source of motive power in said housing for acting ,on said movable wall to reduce the volume of said chamber and discharge fluid therefrom; means for controlling the rate oimovement of said wall including a further chamber having. a movable wall acted 7 upon by said source in a direction to reduce the volume of said further chamber'and having a restricted passageleading therefrom, and a charge of viscous liquid in said further chamber; and means for releasing said source of motive power at will, the charge-of viscous liquid, and the restricted passage being on the same side of said movable wall in the direction of movement thereof by-the-motive power source.

3. An automatic syringe for t1 rv injectionoi fluids into-bodytissue comprising in combination, a housing adapted to be attached to a portion of the patients body; a piston novable in said housing; formingthe movable wall of a variable volume chamber therein for containing a charge of fluid to be injected; means forming a d s har e passa e om aid chamber i ing an injection needle; a spring in said housing adaptedto act on said piston. formoving said piston in adirection to reduce'the volume of said chamber and dischar e fluid therefrom; and means for controlling the'rate of movement of said piston, said rate controlling means includ ingga. further-chamber having a movable wall acted upon 'by said spring in. a direction to reduce the Volumeztiof said further chamber by said spring, said further chamber having a restricted passage leading therefrom, and a charge of viscous liquid in said further chamber, the charge of viscous liquid, and the restricted passage, being on the same side of said piston in the direction of movement thereof by said spring.

4. An automatic syringe for the injection of tion, a housing adapted to be carried by the patient; a movable wall in said housing forming a variable volume chamber therein for contain ing a charge of fluid-to-be injected; means forming a discharge passage from said chamber including an injection needle; a source of motive power in said housing for acting on said movable wall in a direction to reduce the volume of said chamber and discharge'fluid therefrom and means responsive to lapse of time for retarding the movement of said movable wall under influence of said source to'a predetermined controlled substantially constant rate.

5. An automatic syringe for the injection of fluids into body-tissue, comprising, in combination, a first and a 'second housing attachable together to form'aunit, theunit being adapted to be attached to a, portion of the patients body; a movablewall in said first housing forming a variable volume chamber thereinior containing a charge of fluid tobeinjected; means forming a dischargepassage "from said chamber including an injection needle; a-source of motive power in said second housing adapted to act on said movable wall in said'first housing to reducethe volume of said chamber and discharge fluid therefrom; and means'in'said second housing responsive to lapse oftime for automatically retarding said ,source'of power to a'predetermined controlled substantially; constant rate, whereby a substantially uniform rate of fluid discharge from said chamber may be obtained over an extended vperiod of time.

6. In a syringe'for the injection of fluids into body tissue, the syringe containing a housing, a variable volume chamber in said housing for containing'fluid to be injected, an injection needle communicating withflsaid chamber, and power means including a source of motive'power in said housing for reducing the volume of said chamher to discharge fluid from said chamber through said needle, the improvement which comprises a housing having a substantially flat surface adapted to be placed against a portion of the patients body and, to be attached thereto; and means in saidhousing responsive to lapse of time for automatically retarding the action of said housing for automatically retarding the action of said power means to a. predetermined controlled substantiallyconstant rate to obtain a predetermined slow rate of fluid discharge over an extended period of time.

'7. In a syringe for the injection of fluid into body tissue, the syringe containing a housing, a variable volume chamber in said housing for containing fluid tobe injected, an injection needle communicating, with said chamber, and power means including a source, of power in said housing for discharging vfluid from said chamber through said needle, the improvement which comprises a housing having a flat surface adapted to be placed flat against a portion of the patients body and to be attached thereto, said needle being mounted on said housing and projecting above said surface in a direction substantially normal with respect to said surface; and, in said housinggmea'ns responsive to lapse of time for automatically retarding the action of said power means to a predetermined controlled substantially constant .rate to obtain a predetermined slow rate of fluid discharge over an extended period of time.

PAUL KOLLSMAN.

(References-on following page) 14 Name Date Douglas Jan. 26, 1943 Lowe Mar. 1, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date I Great Britain Dec. 20, 1944 OTHER REFERENCES Owen: Needle Holder for Thoracooentesis, British Medical Journal (clipping), September

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Classifications
U.S. Classification604/135
International ClassificationA61M5/142, A61M5/24, A61M5/145, A61M5/31, A61M5/34
Cooperative ClassificationA61M2005/14513, A61M5/1454, A61M2005/2407, A61M5/24, A61M2005/3125, A61M2005/3126, A61M5/145, A61M2005/14506, A61M2005/341, A61M5/14248
European ClassificationA61M5/145B4, A61M5/145, A61M5/24, A61M5/142P2