|Publication number||US2606775 A|
|Publication date||Aug 12, 1952|
|Filing date||Mar 23, 1946|
|Priority date||Mar 18, 1946|
|Publication number||US 2606775 A, US 2606775A, US-A-2606775, US2606775 A, US2606775A|
|Inventors||Douglas A Newman|
|Original Assignee||Columbia Ribbon & Carbon|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (20), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Patented 12, 1952 i MANIFOLDING Douglas A. NevvmanyPoi-t Washington, N.'Y., assignor to Columbia Ribbon and Carbon Manufacturing Company, Inc., Glen corporation of New York Cove, N. Y., a
Application March 23, 1946, Serial No. 656,558
1 Claim. (C1. 282'-28) This invention relates to manifolding, particularly to the manufacture of business forms having one surface adapted to receive an inscription for record purposes, and the opposite surface having a transfer coating for producing a copy of the recorded inscription on anunderlying copy sheet.'V Y
It is Well known in the art to apply transfer compositions to the rear surface of record sheets, either over the entire rear surface, or on `selected areas `thereof in registration with form material printed on the record side of the sheet, so as to transmit only data inscribed in the Vareas corresponding to the transfer-coated portions to the copy sheet, such application of transfer material to selected areas of the sheet being known as spot carbonizing."
The transfer compositions employed generally contain a coloring matter, i. e. a pigment or dyestuiincorporated as uniformly'as possible with a wax-like material to which modifying ingredients, for example softening oils, plasticizers, solvents, hardeners such as ester gums, and the like may be added. The transfer compositions are compounded to yield a substantially solid wax-like coating, but are ordinarily applied to the surface of the paper in liquid state, by printing or analogous procedures. Thus,.a transfer composition of the aforesaid type may be applied in molten condition at elevated temperatures and allowed to harden on cooling, or, the mixture may contain a volatile liquid .which ,renders the composition fluid during application, the .liquidfbeing evaporated to obtain a solid Wax-like transfer coating. y i 'V `An 'advantageous transfer coatingy procedure,
and compositions therefor,y are disclosed .inmy
co-p'ending U. S. patent applications, .Serial NumbersV 572,699 of .January 13, 1945, and 581,631 of March 8, 1945, both now abandoned,.wherein a transfer composition containing a pigment,a
Wax and non-volatile liquid vehicle ingredients relatively large amounts. of pigment and dispersed Waxcan Vbe incorporated in the mixture, While nevertheless maintaining sufficient uidity With--` out vheating ofthe printing plates for application to the latter and thence to .th'epapen like an ink by ordinary printing methods. After f application to the surface of the paper, thevolatile liquidi is evaporated and the residue is temporarily fused to blend the Wax, pigment and vehicle together, and upon congealing, toform a continuous transfer layer.
, A serious disadvantage in-carbonizing the reverse side of a record sheet for manifolding purposes, .particularly in spot carbonizing, lies in the tendency of the'transfer material to objectonably discolor or darken the record side of thesheet by reason' of penetration of the pigmented composition into the paper, or even if the pigment is retained onvthe surface of the paper by penetration of the oily or Wax-like components into. the paperrendering the latter relatively translucent. Moreover, Whenordinary paper is used, the liquid components of the transfer composition gradually bleed out of the transfer layer and are absorbed by the paper, causing a virtual drying out of the transfer material during aging whereby its transfer properties are seriously impaired.
These difficulties do not arise in the manufacture of carbon paper. The latter comprises a relatively thin tissue as a foundation Which is initially flooded with the transfer composition in uid (generally molten) condition, the excess being subsequently removed .before solidiiication. In the interim, the paper foundation absorbs a suiicient amount of transfer Vcomposition to render any subsequent absorption during aging negligible. Since the opposite side of such a sheet is not intended or required to receive inscriptions, the penetration ofthe" transfer composition and consequent dark color of the reverse side of the sheet is of no disadvantage. In carbonizing the rear surface of a record sheet, application of an excess of transfer composition and consequent penetration of the paper thereby must be avoided as much as possible.
The foregoing diiiiculties in the'manufacture Y of carbonized record sheets restricts the choice of paper therefor, particularly for` those which are to .be spot carbonized, to more expensive paper specially prepared as by coatings or filters to be resistant to penetration by transfer comp positions, and to a considerable extent precludes satisfactory use of common manifolding papers which are cheaper and have a porous or absorbent character. Thus, when ordinary papers are used, the darkening effect of the transfer composition tends to render inscriptions on they front surface of the carbonized portions of the sheet difficult to read, and produces an unsightly appearance. AIn some cases, the transfer compositionstrikes through to the opposite side of the sheet, rendering `the sheet unmarketable for use as a business record.
Briey stated, the process of my invention comprises, first, applying to those portions 'ofV the rear surface of a porous sheet of record paper j to which transfer coating is Vto be applied, Ya.
coating of an orgainc Varnish sufficient inA amount.
and of suitable viscosity to close the pores of.
the paper, but insufficient to penetrate substan- 4 able spirit varnishes are solutions or resmous or similar plastic materials, natural or synthetic, in Volatile organic solvents, containing modiers such as plasticizers, such varnishes drying by evaporation of the volatile solvent. The preferred varnish composition, employed in accordance ,with my invention, is ordinary lithographie varnish normally used as a Vehicle for printing inks,
and being essentially bodied linseed oil containing small amounts of driers such as the resinates of manganese, cobalt, or lead. A suitable spirit varnish may be composed of a solution of ethyl cellulose in alcohol (e. g. denatured ethyl i. alcohol), or a' solution of shellac in alcohol, or
Vsolutionsof other varnish resins or gums which are insoluble in the oily vehicle of the transfer tially below the superficial portion of the paper,
drying the varnish coating, andthen applying a ceraceous transfer composition in liquid form by placing an independent darkened surface under the sheet. If it is desired' to eliminate this eiect in relatively translucentpapers, an opacifying filler such as titanium dioxide, calcium carb onate or other White or light-colored pigments, or, if desired, light-colored pigments tinted to correspond with vthe 'color of the record sheet, caribe incorporated in the varnish employed as an undercoating according to my invention. In this way any darkening due to the transfer coating can be completely' eliminated, so that the carbonized portions are not readily discernible from the record side of the sheet.
In the accompanying drawings which illustrate recordsheets in accordance with my invention, anda preferred process for making them:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view of a printing press for producing record sheets in accordance with my invention. j
Fig. 2 is a rear elevation of a spot carbonized record sheet produced thereby.`
Fig, 3 is a rear elevation of a completely carbonized record sheet in accordancewith my invention. l
Fig. 4 is an enlarged section .of avtransfercoated portion lof a record sheet produced in accordance with my invention. l
Generally speaking, papers employed for record sheets in manifolding, suitable for my invention, are made of sulte stock, of any'usual degree of porosity, Such paper can be treated, in accordance with my invention, either in the form of continuous strips or as separate sheets. If desired, the paper may i have suitable indicia printed on the front or record side of the sheet.
The varnish or lacquer employed as an undercoating forv the transfer-coated portions of the sheets is -of organic nature, and can `be of the oleo-resinous or spirit type, or may be a polymerizable resin in termediate.l Suitable oleor'esinous varnishes generally include, for example, bodied drying oils containing driers, together With other ingredients such as gumsand minor amounts of organic solvents, such mixtures drying by polymerization on 'exposure towair. Suit-j composition) ina volatile organic solvent. Polymerio organic compounds which form a solid resinous coating can also be used, such as polyvinyl alcohol, or urea-formaldehyde polymers.
Y For use in my invention, the varnish applied to vthe record sheet should be substantially insoluble inthe transfercomposition to be applied thereto, land non-fusing at temperatures employed eitherduring application of the'transfer composition, or in its subsequent` treatment. Y Thus, the use of varnishes vin which some or all of the ingredients tend to harden upon raising the temperature (below their Afusion point) is particularly advantageous, as in the case ofoleo-resinous varni'shes, which are'. susceptible to acceleratedV polymerization Yat elevated temperatures. Similarly, thermo-setting resins "such as ureaformaldehyde polymers are desirable for vapplication as varnishes, or as componentsof `varnish compositions of the spirit or `oleo-resinous type. y
The varnishes are applied to the areas of the rear surface of the record sheet which are to receive a transfer coating, either by coating methods, for example; if, the entire surface of the sheet is tobe providedwith a'layer of varnish, or preferably by printing in thecase of sheets to be spot-carbonized, The Varnish is compounded to have suihcient viscosityi and is applied in such amounts that it lls the pores of the paper'but does not penetrate substantially below the surface of the paper. In general, varnishes having a viscosity of at least 8 centipoises are suitable for the purposes of the invention. lWhen the varnish has been applied 'to the sheet, it is dried by heating, polymerization, vevaporation of volatile solvents, or exposure to air.
Transfer compositions employed in accordance With this invention are of a ceraceous nature,
containing as a coloring matter, for example, a pigment such as carbon black, Milori blue or an organic pigment; or, if the composition isto be used for hectograph reproduction,the coloring matter is a Wateror spirit-soluble dyestuffsuch as crystal violet.V In conjunction with the coloring matter, thecomposition contains a Wax or wax-like material including natural waxes (e. g. carnauba wax, beeswax, candelilla wax, montan wax, ouricury wax, shellac Wax, esparto Wax) as Well as synthetic waxes, or Wax-like organic compounds of natural or synthetic origin, for
example, fatty alcohols obtained by hydrogeniza-v tion of the fatty acids contained in natural fats, Asmodifying'ingredients, the compositions may contain' plasticizers such las tricresyl phosphate,
softening oils such as" castor oil, mineral oil and the like,v and hardening materials such as ester gums. Thus, the transfer composition may contain from l0 to 25 percent of pigment, from 2Q' to on the varnish layer.
35 percent of wax, 'and from 40 tol percent of liquidA vehicle comprisingsoftening oils, plasticizers 7andthe like. A portion of the wax; for example,an,v amount corresponding to 5 to 1 5 Ip ercent of thecomposition can be replaced by hardenng'v `agents such as ester gum,` Such compositions per' se. exert no substantialdissolving effect when' in molten condition onorganic varnishes of thertype specified above. f'
The preferred transfer compositions employed in accordance with my invention comprises a volatile liquid such as petroleum naphtha (e. g. Solvesso #4) as a diluentfor the softening oils and plasticizers but of. such nature andfin such proportions that a large portion of the wax remains undissolved in the liquid ingredients, the coloring matter and the undissolved Wax being incorporated in the form of finely divided dispersed solids. A suitable mixture may comprise for example, about 22 percent of wax, 17.5 percent of pigment, 41 percent of non-volatile oils and plasticizers and 19.5 percent of a volatile organic liquid. This mixture when ground together without heating yields a dispersion of solid wax 'and pigment in a substantially saturated solution of the wax in the liquid ingredients, having a consistency similar to printing ink.
The foregoing mixture is applied without heating, by printing methods to the varnish-coated areas on the rear surface of a manifolding record sheet and the sheet is then heated, for example, by passing it over a heated roller maintained at a temperature greater than the M. P. of the dispersed wax (e. g. in excess of 185 F.), or through a heating zone, for example, a zone in which it is subjected to infrared radiation, so as to melt the wax and cause it to blend substantially uniformly with the pigment and softening oils. The volatile liquid is simultaneously evaporated, and accordingly exerts no substantial solvent effect The resulting transfer layer is prevented by the varnish from penetrating any part of the record sheet, and the appearance of the carbonized portions of the sheet is substantially undarkened, except insofar as the transfer layer may be visible by reason of the translucency of the paper.
If the paper is relatively translucent, and. it is desired to hide the transfer coating on the reverse side thereof, the varnish may contain a light colored opacifying pigment such as, for example, to 40% of titanium dioxide, incorporated in lithograph varnish. While pigments of other colors may be used (such as black), a white pigment is preferable so that the printer can better gauge the amount of transfer ink being deposited on the varnished surface. When such varnish compositions are employed, the transfer coating set out above remains substantially invisible from the record surface of the manifolding sheet. 1
Referring to the drawings, Fig. 1 illustrates the process of my invention as applied to a continuous strip or web of manifolding paper. Thus, a strip of manifolding record paper I0 prepared, for example, from suliite pulp, having a thickness of .0025 inch, is drawn from a roll and passed with its front surface under a printing roller I I, receiving ink from a fountain roller I2 and ductor I3, the paper being backed by a platen I4, whereby it is imprinted with form material I5 shown, for example, in Fig. 2. After printing the front surface with form matter, the paper passes over printing roller I6, fed by a ductor I1 from a fountain roller I8 with a varnish composition, for
example, llthographic varnish com'posed essentially of bodied linseed loil containingl -afdrier sheet in an amount' such'that the varnish closesV the pores of the paper but does not penetratesubstantially below the superficial 1ayer of the sheet,
as illustrated in Fig. 1. Thus', the varnish 20 formsal continuous film-on the surface of the paper I0 and penetrates the paper only to an insubstantial extent, indicated at' 2|, for example, not more than 20% of thethickness of the paper. The varnish is then dried by passing the `paper through a drying zone indicated at 22, whence it passes over a printing roller 23 fed by ductor 24 from a fountain roller 2 5 with a transfer composition containing, for example 22% dispersed wax, 17.5% pigments, 41% oils and plasticizers, and 19.5% volatile solvents. The wax in this composition is in finely divided solid form, dispersed together with the pigment in the liquid components of the mixture. The roller 22 prints said composition Without heating solely on the varnish-coated areas on the rear surface of the manifolding sheet. The paper then passes through a heating zone, indicated at 26, in which the volatile solvent is evaporated and the transfer coating is melted so as to blend the Wax with the pigment and the other ingredients thereof. The strip then passes through a cooling zone indicated at 21 to solidify the transfer composition, and can then be collected in the form of a roll 28, or subjected to cutting or folding if desired.
If translucent paper is used, the lithographie varnish applied by means of roller I6 may have incorporated therewith 30 percent of its weight of titanium dioxide as an opaciiier. The resulting sheets have spots 29 of transfer material V3l) as shown in Fig. 2 applied on the surface of the varnish-coated portions of the paper, which are prevented by the underlying varnish coating from penetrating into the paper, regardless of its porous nature.
A portion of the wax in the transfercomposition may be replaced or supplemented by incorporation of a hardener such as an ester gum.l Thus, the foregoing composition may contain 15% Wax, and 7% of ester gum, the remaining ingredients being the same. However, to prevent the driers in the lithographie varnish from slowly altering the hardener in the transfer composition, a small amount e. g. 1.0% of an antioxidant If desired, the entire rear surface of the sheet can be coated with varnish I9a, and likewise the entire surface can then be carbonized as shown in Fig. 3, with transfer composition 29a.
Variations and modifications may be made Within the scope of this invention and portions of the improvements may be used without others.
A record sheet for manifolding purposes comprising a sheet of porous record paper having a front surface adapted to receive a record inscription; a printed coating of lithographie varnish including a drier on at least a portion of the rear surface of the sheet, said varnish closing the pores of the paper and being disposed substantially solely on the surface and not penetrating the paper more than superiicially; and spots REERENCES vCIT-E1) The following referencesare of record'in the le of this patent: Y f
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|U.S. Classification||428/211.1, 106/231, 428/914|
|Cooperative Classification||B41M5/10, Y10S428/914|