US 2608413 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 26, 1952 W, H PECK 2,608,413
PNEUMATIC HAMMER Filed Aug. 25, 1949 fz @Us 34 zz IN V EN TOR.
Patented Aug. 26, A195? UNITED STAT S OFFICE l Y 2,608,413 i PNEUMATIC HAMMER- william-.1r Peek, Royal: ommen..
Application August..25, 1949, Serial No. 112,301!` 2 Claims. (Cl. Zge-19t) This invention relates to a pneumatic hammer and more particularly tp a pneumatic hammerof theitype used in drillingJl cutting orrivet'- ing. Thehammer is operated by compressedair orother pressure uids in which a, reciprocating piston strikes a toch The tools are removablef'or replacement purposes and; require positive locking means for retaining. the tool!` Within the hammer barrel'. and" yeti a locking means. which is. easily assembled. and disassembled fior quick. adjustment or replacement.`
It is an object of the. present invention. to provide a. tooll retaining means, which` permits replacement of the. toollfromthe outer. endof the hammer barrel and provides positive. lc'icliigngen-` easement" during. operation.
Another.. object, of! the. inventionis. to provide` a reciprocating plunger with means. for. imparte ing.` a rotary motion. to. the tool during. its operas tion. andto provide a` tool. holding` means. whichA will permit iree. rotation oi the toolywithout. dise engagement of. the. holdingmeans.
Other objects andadvantages, of. .the invention willmcre fully appear, fromthe follownadcscription taken in connection with. the: accompanying drawings inwhch:
aFig. lis. a` sideelevational view ofa pneumatic. hammer embodying one form: of theinvention;l
Fig. 2. is anenlargedsectional view of a. portion othe `hammer showing the rotating` means and holding means. for the tool:
FigL 3 isa sectionalview, taken online 35-3 of.`
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on line `4--4 of Fig. 2; and l Fig. 5 is a perspective view of the reciprocating member.
Referring to the drawings, I have shown a pneumatic hammer it having a. barrel I2 and a handle` 14. The handle ispro-vided with a con nection B. for communicationL with an airgpres-e sure line la connected to a source of pressure. not shown. A control is shownat ZD for.v admit ting the air pressure vto the operating partsl of thehammer which are of conventional construe tnf;
n, .tool 2 2 removably received. ingthe barrel. end; of the hammer and is securely held in operating position by a locking mechanism which will permit axial movement of the tool, relative to the hammer barrel, and rotary movement therewith.
In pneumatic hammers of the type selected for illustrating the invention, the hammer l0 is provided with a reciprocating piston 24 which contacts the inner end of the tool 22 for transmitting Referring to Fig.. 3. l; have shown the.ratchet??y 2. the permissive forces to is supported in a' bushing' 26 at' the outer end of. the` hammer. The, cylindrical barrel l2; se..- cured'to the endof the hammer Hiby bolts.` 218 eX-,` tending through laterally disposedears 3i! on the barrel t2! and handle I4. rihe bushing 264 isproe'V vided with an outer harige 32 which is positioned;
between the adjacent ends oharrel l2 and liarrl.`
mer end'jl 0,.
The outer periphery of the piston is` provided'` with spiral splines 34;, Flip` 5j. which receive..
a ratchet Whse-51535. An internally splined hush.-
ing 38'; in` axial alignment with the bushrlllis journal'ed in the barrel. Island the ratchet Wheel"4 36 is positionedbetween the adacentlthrustfaces of the bushings 26 and 35. The ts `the splinesfl of. the piston 24T and receives rotary motion the reciprocating movement` of. the` piston 2.4.
wheel. 36 in. co.operat1`on.withdoes.40 which are pivotally supported inthe. housing. of` the. barrel.
l 2 and `are.urged.toward, the, ratchet. wheel 3.6,`
As4 is common in designsof thistype, the dogs. 40
moved axially` in the opposite, direction, the`- ratchet wheel is held against. rotation by the. dogs. 40 andthe piston is rotated.
A sleeve. 4.4, ritsV the outer. periphery ofthetool" shank 46 .and is rotatably Supportedin the outer end of thebarrel. l2.v rEheA inner end of thesleev.
44 projects beyond the, inner end of. tool shank` 4 6, andisiprovided with. notches- 4d ingitsl inner end.
whichnt correspondingly shaped*l projections jawclutch. con;j
the bushing` on the bushing 3.8,. similar to a struction, so that rotation of causes rotation of the sleeve 44.
AIt is. desirable to. have` the. tool.rotate during upwardmovement ofthe piston 24A and tobe none` rctatabledurina downward movement or on. the
'lherefore` the ratchetwheelA percussion stroke. 35 is. free. to rotatein, a counter clockwisedireorf tion. vvhen` the piston with the splinesi of tation of the ratchet wheel 36 and rotation of the bushing 38 imparting rotary movement to the sleeve 44.
the i001; The piston 24;.;
splinedhushing permit, rotationof the ratchet wheel inone. direction only whenthe. piston 24' moved inone axial` direction.. When thev piston 241 is movingupwardly. intothe.f hammer.. The spiral,splinesI 3.4i in coeoperation-a the l ratchet wheel, l causa roe.`
During outward movement of the i of the hammer i by the bolts 28, with the bushing 26 between the adjacent ends of the barrel and hammer, the ratchet wheel 36, bushing 38 and sleeve 44 may be inserted through the outer end of the barrel I2 with the wheel 36 and bushing 38 on the splines 36 of the piston 24. The sleeve 44 is held in the barrel I2 by a removable coil spring member 52 which lits co-operating grooves -54 and 56 in the adjacent surfaces of the sleeve 44 and barrel i2, respectively. An opening 58 through the wall kof the barrel l2 co-operates with the grooves for inserting the spring 52 into the grooves 54 and 56.
Ball receiving apertures 60 are formed in the wall of the sleeve 44 for the reception of balls '62 having a diameter greater than the wall thickness of the sleeve 44.
A retainer sleeve 64 surrounds the sleeve 4d and balls 62 and is axially slidable on the outer end of the sleeve 114. The sleeve 64 is retained on the sleeve 44 by a split ring retainer 66 which fits a groove in the outer endxof the sleeve 44. A .compression spring 68 between a shoulder on the sleeve 44 and a shoulder l2 on the sleeve 64 urges the sleeve 5G outwardly against the ring 69. In this position the shoulder l2 bears against the outer periphery oi the balls :62 holding the latter grooves 14 formed in the tool shank 46. Between the shoulder 12 and the outer end of the sleeve 64 is an annular recess 'I6 which, when the sleeve 64 is moved inwardly against the compression ofthe spring 68, the balls arefree to move radially outwardly into the recess 16, permitting removal of the tool. The grooves 'iii permit the relative axial movement of the tool and sleeve during operation.
The sleeve 6G is further provided with an in- Wardly extending portion It which normally iits over the barrel 12 and covers the opening 58 so that there is no danger of the spring 52 leaving the grooves 54 and 5S, thereby locking the sleeve M to the barrel and at the same time permitting relative rotation there between.
If it is desired to replace the tool, the sleeve dis slid inwardly and the tool removed. If it is desired to remove the sleeve M, bushings 38 and 26 and the ratchet wheel 36 the split ring 6E is removed and then the spring 52. This permits sliding the parts outwardly through the barrel l2.
vWhile have illustrated and described a preferred embodiment of the invention, it will be understood that various changes including the size, shape and arrangement of parts may 'be made without departing from the spirit of my inventiony and it is not my intention to limit itsA scope other than by the terms of the appended Y claims.
1. A releasable holding means for a shanked tool at the end of the barrel of a pneumatic hammer lcomprising. a sleeve fitted into the open end of the hammer barrel and to slidingly receive the shank of a tool therein, said tool shank having circumferentially spaced and axially extending grooves in its outer periphery, said sleeve having ballapertures through the wall thereof in axially extending I for receiving said balls so that said balls may be positioned outwardly beyond the outer periphery of said tool shank when said last named sleeve is in another of its axial positions on said iirst named sleeve, and a locking means between said first named sleeve and said barrel which will permit rotation of said first named sleeve relative to said barrel but retain the same against relative axial movement.
2. A releasable holding means for a shanked tool at the end of the barrel of/a pneumatic hammer comprising, a` sleeve fitted into the open end of the hammer barrel and adapted to slidingly receive the shank of the tool therein, said` tool shank having circumferentially spaced and axially extending grooves in its outer periphery,
said sleeve havingball apertures through the wall thereof radially opposed to the grooves in said tool shank, balls in the apertures having a diameter greater than the thickness of the wall of said sleeve, a second sleeve surrounding said iirst named sleeve and having axial movement relative to said iirst sleeve,'said second sleeve having a portion of its inner periphery substantially equal to the outer diameter of said :rst named sleeve for maintaining the outer surface of said balls substantially at the outer periphery of said rst named sleeve when in one of its axial positions on said iirst named sleeve and having a recess for receiving said balls so that said balls may be positioned outwardly beyond the outer periphery of said tool shank when said second sleeve is in another of its axial positions on said iirst named sleeve, a locking` means between said rst named sleeve and said barrel which will permit rotation of said first named sleeve relative to said barrel but retain the same against relative axial movement, and a portion on said second sleeve projecting over said locking means when said second sleeve is in either of the aforesaid axial positions. y
WILLIAM H. PECK.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of recordin the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number" Name Date 1,788,972 Bayles Jan. 13, 1931 1,921,694f Normand Aug. 8, 1933 1,968,380 Curtis July 31, 1934 1,993,502 Curtis Mar. 5, 1935 2,090,464 Allenr Aug. 17, 1937 2,248,824 Richardson July 8, 1941 2,336,953 Osgood Dec. 14, 1943