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Publication numberUS2609406 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 2, 1952
Filing dateMay 24, 1947
Priority dateMay 24, 1947
Publication numberUS 2609406 A, US 2609406A, US-A-2609406, US2609406 A, US2609406A
InventorsImre J Barsy
Original AssigneeArmstrong Cork Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Temperature-responsive device
US 2609406 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 2, 1952 l. .1. BARsY 2,609,406

TEMPERATURE-RESPONSIVE: DEVICE:

Filed may 24. -1947 2 SHEETS-SHEET 1 IN V EN TU R.

Sept. 2, 1952 L J. BARSY TEMPERATURE-RESPONSIVE DEVICE Filed May 24, 1947 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 i (COPPER) .l (coNs'rANTAN l RESISTANCE TO CONTROLS FOR DECREASING HIGH FREQUENCY POWER HIGH FREQUENCY POWER CONTROLLER A m B @FSJ Nm E R o mm m Rc ww @fw l0 HP/ O O O mm sl Lsm DMW \/mRE NCR L 0Min C CRHW como TFHP Oll O Oll.

..1 GY mc usm OUU RRQ EFR wo E4 ORWW 0| TFHW Patented Sept. 2, 1952 Partnr o-FFICE v 2,609,406 fi'rEMREaeTiIRMESPQNSWEDevice Imre J. l-1l3a`rsy, Lancaster, Pa., assigner to Armstrong Cork Company, LancasterfPa., a corpo- QClaims.

invention relates to a temperature-resoonsivefdevicegand,-mqije particularly, vto atemperaturefcontrol device "infthe nature offa lprobe which 'inaybe inserted into a mass of material under treatment. The invention nndsparticu- 5 lar'usefulness in the field otidielectric heating specifically, 'may f beuse'd Vin the control of the -heati-ng o'fia-lmass of 'cork compositionand a `binder being molded under heat pand pressure, the curing ofl the binder `being effectedby dielectr heating.

iflribjeet Qfmy invention Ais Ito provide atempefatur-resnonsive device o'vf a compactnature which meyhe readily inserted hito .lana withdl'jawn fromiamas's fi--Inaterial-undertreatment.

A f urtlier` object of my 'inventionis Ato provide a-mnlitirilev unittemperature-responsive device in the I-f Iny of Va nrebe 'which inay be disposed wi hin ab'ody u 'nder treatment lto provide mulvtiple "control'fcircuits -f`or the heatingl'apparatus '20 associated therewith.

JAntlier object f `rny'inverition `is to provide Va lprobe containing Within 'it a plurality of ternperature-:respons'ive' velements effective `for linitiatingfrnnltiple 'controls `infdielecvtric and resistaiceheating equirnent associated therewith; The provisiqn of aru'g'ged assembly arrangenient, permitting theuse ofboth a `thermocouple and fa :fine VWire "resistance element 'or two 'o'rmmore thermal ele'inents Within the saine tube' for" effectinghe'at control by means ofassociatedfequipmerit, "the" Vcontrol being effected :independently through different eircuitsfis another object. Additional Vobjects will'become 'apparei'itfupon further 'consideration of this "rspe:iic'ation7 includ- 35 ing the following detailejddescription of fthe `invention Iin conjunction with 'the `accongqaanying uns ,-1 ici-f1 ed e rterial, such as'an alloy of copper and-b wiring arrangement elnploying thefdeviceof Fig-1 ure 5.' i

Referring `rst to Figures 4l to 4 which .i1l'us. f trate one embodiment of the invention, :therefi's: disclosed a probewhich is in ade up of a-socket' which Vmay be screw threaded, as indicated at 3, to receive a standard electrical connectonsueh' aslan Amphenol connector. A tube 4 I'Jrojeets"` from-the coupling Tandis received therewithin.- The tube 4 is flanged at its inner end, 'as indi'eated-'`V at 5, and is held in fixed position Aby a pl'ugi'v which A'is screw threaded'and is received `witl'iinthe socket 2, engaging complementary' screw threads provided therein. `'It Vvvill be noted by `V reference torFigure l that the tube 4 lies-in eh-A j gagement with a substantialportionofthe socket 2, and when clamped at theiflangebytheI s, the Ahihewiu -be heidlnijiniyj-ihposiitioh saigairist both axial and radial displacement.' Y J The device -is-adapted to be inserted Ineela cally into a `Ina-ss (if material under treatment and it is essential, Atlierefcire that -the'fjtbe bef of relatively small diameterds'ofasnot toldai'age i the bodyof'mateifiai-ihte whi'ehit is inserted@ di; sincetliefinserto'n uand reinovall are 5to be; -me-f'E ehahi'eaiiy ,eeeompiished, the device must berugge'd. "Where thaniat'erialunder treatment a corlg composition `held funden` lico'mpressio A a rnold, it-has been -foiindthatv a'fc'irceibetvveen'f` about 5o and 55 pounds is requiredfteiiieertfthef" sprche. I have @reune that the tube #may bei formed of Ineenei Whiehie'lah "alley 'cfeolfyzs' nickel, -13% chrorninn`1,"and the bal'anceiron "'i is sold VbynInter'national iNickel-'-fConinany; nc.f The material is resistant to corrosion and-t he t"l and retains its strengthiatter-repeatedheatingl and cooling. Ithas good resistance to bend and successfully resists oxidation] In a devic for use in a corkcompkosition bakingroeessjtlfi f tubemeyhaveanetsiie diameter ibut ,14 and a length of about 111.10%, The showing ``f l" all of thev viewsis enlargedorfthesakeof lari .1' Figure l is generally infthe ealewof about tvvj inches equal one-inch.

The-tube -4 isj provided witheA tipa' which enses the endgof the tube@ V'Ihe'tip is A,'olr'jovi'ffed\with a `rounded Aorogival noseso'as to facilitateur 5 insertion and 'removal-of`thejprebe in the Arnass under treatrnent'.l "The tip of 'a Wear-resistant and heat-cond sa nascente@ mme @55 v threaded opening 3 in the socket 2.

element II.

chamber I3 which receives the thermocouple ele-v 3 tip, as will be more fully hereinafter described, and it is essential to rapidly conduct heat from the mass under treatment to the heat-sensitive element or elements in order to effect proper control of the heating.

In the embodiment shown in Figures 1 to 4, the heat-sensitive elements consist of-a thermocouple 8 and a ne'wire resistance element 9, both being positioned within the probe, as shown in Figure 2. Both elements are responsive to temperature within the mass under treatment upon insertion of the probe therein, and each may serve to control a separate electric circuit. For example, the

quency power to the mass under treatment, cutting off the supply of power when the mass attains a desired temperature. The resistance element 9 may be connected in a circuit with another heat-responsive resistance element to control'the supply of high frequency power to the mass in accordance with differences in temperature' between that attained within the mass and'- that `of the mold element, as discussed in the vc opending application of George E. Gard, Serial No. 702,559, iiled October 10, 1946, now Patent No. 2,508,382, assigned to my assignee. Awiring arrangement of this type has been diagrammatically illustrated in Figure 6 where numberscorresponding to those of Figures 1 to 4 have been applied, and the other elements have been provided with identifying indicia. The device of this invention is not limited, however, to any particular control circuit. In fact, it may be used for initiating indicating means rather than effecting controls or may be used for a combination of both purposes. f

Y The tip 1 is provided with a chamber I 0 which receives an anchoring lead II which is silver soldered to the tip 1. Theanchoring lead may, and preferably does, constitute one element of a two-element thermocouple. The anchoring lead IIfmaylbe a constantan thermocouple wire of B 8; S gauge No. 28. The portion received within the tip 1 will' be bare so that a proper contact with Ithe tip and with the other element of the thermocouple may be made, but the remaining portier-1v of the constantan element will be insulated; aglass fiber insulation with a silicone impregnant has been found acceptable. As shown-A -in Figure 2, the element II extends ,throughout the length of the probe, and pre-A ferred practice-is tohave the wires extend'to the connector `which is received within the screw- The wires are shown outof scale in Figures 2 and 5 to illustrate their positioning. Normally, they substantially completely ll the chambers in which they arereceived.

Y The other element of Vthe thermocouple is formed of B & S lgauge No. 28 copper thermocouple wire which is indicated by the numeral I2 in Figure 2 and is attached to the constantan The tip 1 is recessed to provide va ments, and after insertion, the chamber I3 .is filled with silver Solder.

Velement Bemay control the supplyY of high fre-t Y Harris No. 52 alloy, enamel covered, is acceptable. In the embodiment illustrated, the wire is 0.001 in diameter and has a resistance of 280 ohms per foot andV 0.0029 ohm/ohm/C. temperature coefficient of resistance in the range of 20-500 C. and a coeicient of linear expansion of 95 10"/C. at 20500 C. In the embodiment illustrated, the fine wire resistance element is 0.5 of an inch long and has a resistance of 13.5 ohms. A supporting tube I5 is provided for the fine wire resistance element. The tube I5 is slotted at I6 to provide an opening for the receptionl of the wire I4. The tube mayv be to heat-and I have found that a material known as Mycalex 400, which is sold by the Mycalex Vformed of any goodrdielectric 5which is resistant Y Corporation of' America, consisting of a glasspansion of the ne Wire. I4 so that uponheating and cooling of the probe inoperation, the Wire and the support will expand Vand contract .in about equivalent amounts, thus avoiding anystressing of the Wire beyond its elastic limit.

The volume resistivity ofthe dielectricis 2 1015 y ohms-cm.

The wire I4 is electrically connectedy to an outer supporting connector I1.

I1 is received within the tube 4. and is securedl to the tip 1, the tip being turned Vdown and. shouldered so as to frictionally receive the con-V nector I1. There is provided an opening lwhich The copper element,

likejthe constantan element, is bare atthe'portionrreceived within the tip but is insulated fromH that pointto the point of connection at the base ofthesocket 2.

Glass ber insulation impreg' nated with silicone is satisfactory.

VThe Ailne wire resistance element f 9 vis illus-y tratedin Figures 2 and 3. The wire is indicated.v by.the.numer al I4, A Ihave found that ari-alloy of51% nickel and 49% iron, known asV Driver extends from the inneredge of the connector I1 The connector... Y

and opens into a recessed portion I9 whichvis i turned on the connector I1. The wire I4 -passes per surface 2I of the connector to permit ready insertion of the connector into the tube.

The opposite end ofthe wire I4 is received within an inner connector 22 which correspondsj generally to the outer connectorI1. `The connector 22 isy received within the tube 4 and is frictionally secured tothe tube I5. VThe conf. nector 22 isspaced from the tube 4 andis inf sulated therefrom, vpreferably by means ofa sili. cone enamel coating which is applied yto the outer surfaceof ythe connector. vThe inner surface ofthe tubej4 may also Ybe coated with al. silicone insulating enamel, as indicated at E- in',-y Figure 2, to insure .proper electrical insulation:

of the connector 22i'ronfl` the remaining parts.

An opening 2 3 is providedA in the .connector:22,

and the Viine wire resistance element I4 passes;

through the opening 23 andissolderedQtd-the connector 22, as indicated at 24 in Fig-ure,A 3.1. .l

An insulating ring 25,r which is shownin Fig-.u

ures 2 and 4, is received within the tube4,1being` bottomed against a shoulder Zyoonstituting the.; K

base of a bore extending from the tipv end of the tube 4. The insulating ring 25 is formed ofl nylon,

and a nylon material known as DuPont FM-L.

will lbe acceptable yfor'the purpose. rIhe insulating ring 25 mustbemade ofsome materialf j which will withstand the temperatures encoun-A tered in use oftheprobe and is', preferably, made of a material which may be readily machined. and.

which possesses -sufvcientvtoughness for the pure pose intended; The ring 25V serves fafnumberof l functions, including the backing upgof the elee. lments which areI received within the: tube,.thu sl preventing potentialaxial displacement thereof accasion thetliermocouple aresolderedtotheitip 1, either" one'of the "elements H iand -l2`1nay constitute a leadifor theend of the "ne wire 'resistanceeie ment 'F4 connected "to uthe connector |=1. Thelead 29,'together-with the thermocoupie'wires lli'l and I 2 extend through thetube' andi through ai central .opening 31 in' 'thejplug 16 (Fi'gure T5" and are connected tothe prongs of 'the maleel'ement of the Amphenol .connector previously referredito.

.It" Will be db'se'rved lbyreference particularly to FigureZ that the tip 1 is shouldered; asndicated at"32`,"to .receive'the `end .of the tubef4 'and the curvedsurface 33 oithe 'tip 1 extendsf'frorn the shouldered portion '32 to tnepoint or .the tip. Thus, the en'd 'ofthe tube `4 is'pro'teetedagainst damage, arid insertion .of the `probe is :facilitated by the curved surface `of"the"tip I'Which merges smoothlyfinto the cylindrical surface Tof Ithe'tube' 4. The tip 7 'ispre'ferabiy soldered to tnetube il because .of the size of 'the parts. It r'riay be attached'by means df screw threads or .other fastening means, however, orit may Joe r'i'ctionaly '-t, as Vshown .in the drawings.

`Figure L 'illustrates 'ia modihcation l'f mylinventionin .which a thermal ,iunction constituting three thermal elementshav'ingla .commonpos'itive and Athree negative Vleads are provided in .a tip 28 -constantan -thermocouple vvire. These .wiresarefthe. same as the Wires-.tor the thermocouple fil previously :referred to, and 4they .are constructed in a manner Well known to thevart. .The I.thermaljunction .is 4received Within .a chamber r31 fprovidedoin *ther-.tip t34, -fand upon Kinsertion ofA ,the

wires, the .chamber-31 is--11ed -With silversolder.

Asin `the -iembodiment previously .describedfithe wires within the tip are-'bare but are :insulated` D70 from that point zback-l to -the connection -in the socketw2, preferably, usingglass liber.-insulation i impregnated `Withfsilicone. In .this embodiment,-

the tube f has-been designated- 1with. fthe numeral 38, fand. the .tip .-34 is shouldered ragainst .the fbase,

61T of. alboreziprovided :inthe Ytube .3 8,'. llhetipnis streamlinediand shouldered,..as inftheiotherie lio'diment, kto provide for :easy msertion .m'r'ithoiit damageto the ftube.

`Where two io'r more Atherrrial elements, Fare-iin corporated in 'ithe probe, 'they Jmay be lfuse'dor' actuating 'Yin'dependent circuits. For example, where the arrangementtshowninFigure 5Jiseni= pl'oyed, one'lthermal element:mayserve toactuate a device for findice-ting` the temperature Al`-vi'rithiri the-mass. `A-see'ond. maybe-used tofiritiatefaeoite trol eiiectiveior' i discontinuing` the s plyldiihigh attainment" of? al desired temperature, and the "thirdniayi ble interconnected With another`therrno'coup1e*pesi* triefirlf'a) moldbeleiiieiitte i 'control' 'the-Supply .Of

high frequencypower to :a massuhder treatment ini-accordance 'with differences@ihitemperatuifefhetweenthatfattained within the mass and'thetem- "per'at'ui-'e` of `:the .mold element. "Suchfanar'rangenient `is j-diagrarrnnatically VAshown in ef?.

Numbers corresponding'to those of Figure have been vvapplied t'o corresponding "parts -anl other elements have 'been provided Vwith identifying-iri- 'dalzv "Whilea single-'thermocoupleisfshownin'iiiigures 1 to 4 and three thermal elementswithacommon' p'o'sitive `and :three negative leads jare shown Vin Figure I5, the number incorporated 'in the strueture of vmy invention "may be varied, depending upon "the, requirements I'of the'particular indicate ing o'r'controlling:functions"tubeeffected. The

size ofthetube #andthe socket 2 `Will v'have-a limiting effect upon the number ftvires which may be used', but .the-dimensions of rtheprobe.

l is adapted to be inserted into a mass,"saidio`r' WardA end constituting .a heatlsensitive zone, fa fine Wire 'resistance :device insertable Withinjthe .forward 'end oi A said' tube as 'a unit 'comprising `-an insulatingV tube having Ta' "recess 'eX"tendingV longitudinally on "the 'outer vsurface theredf, 'a' heatresponsive"iinelwireresistancethermometer elementreceived within said recess, 4a connector .secured to .one `end o'f 'the insulating tube fand connectedto one .end of saidirie tvi-reresis'taiice element, a second connectorsecured'ito 'the other end of `the .insulating `tube and connected ltithe other end of said "nine Wire resistance leiierit,

hector, means for,insulatingsaidgrstineiitineii connector .from said probing tube, Aand' meaiis' closing theforvvard .end oisaid probing'tbe.

i2'. IA multiple `unit 4temperature-responsive del-r, `vice comprising .a probing tube', the orward .er'id' of lwhich isv adapted to be insertedintoa (mass. said forward .end `constituting a .heat-sensitive zone, -a tip vattached to the .forward-v .end .f'the probing tube, Asaid tip Y.being .proyi'dedivvi'th bpening -to -receive aa thermocouple, a tlier'iiocouple in said opening, `an insulating .s'pacfe'r received` .Within .said .,.probi'ng tube, .an electrical' connector .disposed within said Qrbi'ng'ltiib abuttingfrelationshiptothe spacer,a hollow Ysulating -tube disposedvvithin .said .probirig'.`tube r ,1 and-receiving'said electrical connector, and a second. connector disposed within said probing tube'and received on the opposite end of said insulating tube, said insulating tube' being provided with a recessfor the receptionof a heatresponsive fine wire resistance thermometer element and said connectors being provided with openings forr the reception .and electrical connection of a ne wire resistance element, and aheat-responsive fine wire resistance thermometer element disposed within said recess and electrically connected to said connectors, said fine wire resistancethermometer element being disposed in 'the forward end of said tube in the heatsensitive zone thereof.

z 3; Amultiple unit temperaturefresponsive de vice, comprising a hollow vprotecting tube, the;

forward end of which is adapted to be inserted into a mass, said forward end constitutingA a heat-sensitive zone, a thermocouple'electrically connected to said tube, and a heat-responsive fine Wire resistance thermometer element received Within said protecting tube, means for connecting an end `of thevflne wire resistance element to the thermocouple, and means for insulating the other end of thefine wire resistance-element from the thermocouple and the tube. c

vfi. A temperature-responsive device for independently controlling a plurality of electrical circuits comprising a heat-conducting tube, the forward end of which is adapted to be inserted intola mass, said forward end constituting a heat-.sensitive zone, Ya heat-conducting tip attached tov the forward end of said tube,z a`

thermocouple disposed within the tip, a hollow insulating tube disposed within the heat-sensitive zone of said tube, electrical connectors fitted `to said insulating tube, one of said connectors being connected to said tip and the other being insulated from both the tip and the heatconductive tube, a heat-responsive fine wire resistance thermometer element disposed withinv a recess in said insulating tube and yelectrically connected to said connectors, leads for the thermocouple passing through the opening Vin said insulating tube, and a lead attached to said insulated connector.

5. `A temperature-responsive device comprising a st ii small diameter probing tube, a connector, to which said tube is attached, a bore within said tube, a spacer of electrical'insulating material disposed within said bore adjacent the inner end thereof, said spacer having a central opening therein communicating with the opening in the tubeand having a recess inthe pe riphery thereof, a fine wire `resistance device received within said bore comprising a tube of electrical insulating material, said tube having a recess extending along the outer surface there-v of, a l,heat-responsive ne wire resistance element received within said last-mentioned recess', an electrical connector fitted tol one end of said insulating tube and electrically connectedto one end 'of said ne Awire lresistance element, the end of said connector abutting said insulating spacer and Ahaving, a lead opening therein com# municatingfwith the peripheral recess intheinsulating spacer, a leadin'said-'opening in the connector, said lead passing through the central opening in the probing tube, a second electricalv connector fitted to the opposite Vend of said insulating tube'and electrically connected to the received within said opening in the second coni` nectorA member and having a second portion received ,Within the bore of said probing tube, a shoulder on said tip overlying and protecting mass of material, said tip being provided with al leadchamber and with an intercommunicating thermocouple chamber, said chambers communicating with the opening in said insulating.. tube, an ancohring lead in said lead chamber, a thermocouple in saidr thermocouple chamber fixed Vwith respect to said anchoring lead, and

leads from said .thermocouple extending through aligned :openings in said insulating-tube, insulaty.

ing spacer, and probingv tube. Y Y.

6. A temperature-responsive device comprising a probing tube, the forward vend oi.' whichwis adapted to be inserted into a mass, said forward end constituting a heat-sensitive zone, a heatresponsive fine wire resistance device insertable within the forward end ofV said tube as aimit` and comprising an insulating tube, a heat-re- .sponsive l fine wire resistance thermometer element, a connector secured to one end of the insulating tube and connectedY to onerv end Vof said element, a second connector secured to the other end of the .insulating tube and connected to theother end of saidelement, said insulating'. tube and elementhaving substantially equivalent coefficients of expansion in the range of 25C. to 200 C'.

7. A temperature-responsive devicecompris: ing a supporting tube, a heat-conductive metal tip tted into the tube Aand projecting beyond 1 the end thereof, said tip havingstwo chambers'- provided therein, a forward one of which projects j toward the extremity of the tip beyond the supy porting "tube, and a rearward one of whichl is in open communication with the forward chamf` ber, one element of a thermal junction disposedf within said forward chamber and extending into' said rearward chamber, a. secondelement of the'.V

thermal junction joined' to said iirstfmentioned element within said second chamber, and heat" conductive metal filling the. chambers and join-- j ing the element in the vforward. chamber and" thermal junction in the rearward chamber in tube, `a"heat-`c0iiducting tip Vhaving a recess and -heat-,conducting relationship to said tip, wherek by the temperature sensitivity of the device isv enhanced.

8. A holderafor a heat-responsive element 4com-V prising a socket, va tube secured tothe socket,

Aand a heat-conductive metaltip "fitted into the Y "tube andv projecting beyond the end thereof,

said tip havingV tw'o chambers providedr therein,

element `joined thereto.y

`9.-A temperature-responsive device forcon-" trolling a plurality of electricaly circuits Vcom-1, prising aheat-'conductive metal probingv tube,`-

the forward end-of which is 'fadaptedftojbe inserted into a mass, saidforward'fend constituting Y a heatfsensitive'z'one, atip attached Ato the-tube,

a thermocouple Vattached to the tip and electriJ cally'connected thereto,- 'aheat-responsive finel` wire? resistance thermometer element-l disposedV fwithi'nfthe heat-sensitive' 'Zone of said tube. means electrically connecting one end of the fine Wire resistance thermometer element to said tip,

UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date Uehling Nov. 15, 1932 Flatley May 28, 1935 States Aug. 20, 1935 Bahls Jan. 17, 1939 Alfery Dec. 22, 1942 Obermaier June 15, 1943 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date France June 27, 1905

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1887827 *Mar 22, 1929Nov 15, 1932Frederick Uehling FritzThermocouple and its electrical connection
US2002532 *Sep 24, 1931May 28, 1935Standard Oil Dev CoThermocouple
US2012112 *May 16, 1932Aug 20, 1935Central Scientific CoThermometer
US2144558 *Feb 20, 1937Jan 17, 1939Westinghouse Electric & Mfg CoVacuum-tight insulated lead-in structure
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FR353371A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2798893 *Nov 4, 1954Jul 9, 1957Eva M WinklerStagnation temperature probe
US2886683 *Sep 6, 1955May 12, 1959King Seeley CorpTemperature measuring device
US2925572 *Jul 26, 1955Feb 16, 1960King Seeley CorpTemperature measuring probe
US3048641 *Aug 21, 1961Aug 7, 1962Aero Res Instr Co IncThermocouples
US3175178 *Jan 8, 1963Mar 23, 1965King Seeley Thermos CoElectric temperature probe
US3713899 *Nov 12, 1970Jan 30, 1973Ford Motor CoThermocouple probe
US4788871 *Dec 3, 1987Dec 6, 1988Steeltin Can CorporationProbe for sensing temperature and/or pressure
US6020551 *Jul 1, 1993Feb 1, 2000Hoskins Manufacturing CompanyDetecting temperature at thermocouple junctions
US6239351Jul 19, 1999May 29, 2001Hoskins Manufacturing CompanyMulti-wire self-diagnostic thermocouple
US6462640 *Mar 28, 2001Oct 8, 2002Heraeus Electro-Nite International N.V.Sensor with a temperature-dependent measuring element
WO1995001657A1 *Jun 15, 1994Jan 12, 1995Hoskins Mfg CoMulti-wire self-diagnostic thermocouple
WO2001006574A1 *Jun 26, 2000Jan 25, 2001Bertie Forrest Hall JrMulti-wire self-diagnostic thermocouple
Classifications
U.S. Classification136/233, 427/58, 338/229, 374/155, 338/30
International ClassificationG01K13/10, G01K7/06, G05D23/22
Cooperative ClassificationG01K13/10, G05D23/22, G01K7/06
European ClassificationG05D23/22, G01K7/06, G01K13/10