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Publication numberUS2609638 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 9, 1952
Filing dateMay 22, 1946
Priority dateMay 22, 1946
Publication numberUS 2609638 A, US 2609638A, US-A-2609638, US2609638 A, US2609638A
InventorsLindenmeyer Ray S
Original AssigneeLindenmeyer Ray S
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Construction toy connector
US 2609638 A
Images(7)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 9, 1952 R. s. LINDENMEYER 2 ,60

CONSTRUCTION TOY CONNECTOR Filed May 22, 1946 TSheets-Sheet 1 nmmi imam Sept. 9, 1952 R. s. LlNDENMEYER 2,609,

CONSTRUCTION TOY CONNECTOR 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May 22, 1946 jzzderzii fig 5. Zz/men/rzW 13% Wad/ 44M; @mb/ l 952 R. s. LINDENMEYER 2,609,638

CONSTRUCTION TOY CONNECTOR Filed May 22, 1946 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 fiderzzc fl -F@5ZZnaen mgyez- .13.; 6,4. J fi wwz Sept. 9, 1952 s. LINDENMEYER 2,609,633

CONSTRUCTION TOY CONNECTOR 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed May 22, 1946 1%; M4 416, W n

Sept. 9, 1952 R. s. LINDENMEYER 2,509,638

conswaucnou TOY CONNECTOR Filed May 22, 1946 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 Sept. 9 1952 R. s. LINDENMEYER 2,609,638

conswaucnou TOY CONNECTOR Filed my 22, 46 7 Sheets-Sheet e 15 a! 5. Zmde/z/myer ,wwe g Sept. 9, 1952 R. s. LINDENMEYER 38 CONSTRUCTION TOY CONNECTOR 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 Filed May 22, 1946 f I I' 'L r fiZZ/GTZZZIL Egg 5 Zmaerz mgyer y WWW Patented Sept. 9, 1952 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Claims. 1

The present invention relates in general to structural devices and has more particular reference to structural elements adapted for assembly in an infinite variety of combinations in the building of mechanical structures, the several elements being particularly well adapted for use in toy building sets for the amusement and education of youthful engineers, and others.

An important object of the present invention is to provide structural means of the character mentioned embodying elements of simplified form that are adapted for easy assembly in any selected combination, whereby a large number of different structures can be erected employing, as component elements, parts of relatively simple and inexpensive character.

Another important object is to provide a minimum number of relatively simple elements by r'neans of which realistic engineering structures may be built up, in miniature, without requiring any appreciable skill on the part of the builder. whereby the various parts embodying the present invention may be used to advantage by children, or other untutored persons, as an educational toy, the gineering elements with sufficient accuracy to impart an appearance of technical correctness in miniature structures built therefrom.

Another important object is to provide structural elements of unusual simplicity that can be produced at low cost without, however, sacrificing the desirable appearance of technical correctness in mechanical structures assembled from the parts; a further object being to provide structural elements that can be assembled readily without the aid of tools, thereby providing for utmost facility in the assembly of the parts.

Another object is to provide parts having integral cooperating stops wherever necessary in order to maintain exact over-all dimensions of assembled parts.

Another object is to provide screw threaded parts including connectors so arranged that lefthand screw threads are entirely avoided.

Another important object is to provide construction means embodying, as its important feature, spacing rods of various lengths and having tubular ends providing sockets for the reception of connectors for the conjunction of such rods with other parts in a desired assembly; a further object being to provide connectors of simple form and allowing for either frictional interconnection or screw threaded connection; a still further object being to provide connectors comprising detachable parts whereby the connector may be assembled at will for frictional engagement within a mounting socket of a connected part or for screw threaded engagement in a threaded socket.

Another important object is to provide angular coupling members for use in combination with the above-mentioned connectors; a further object being to provide plate members and plank memparts, however, simulating standard ena bers of novel construction and properly sized for attachment upon the rod elements in various assemblies thereof to serve as floors, walls and roof members in structures assembled from the parts.

Another important object of the invention is to provide structural parts well adapted for quantity production, as by die casting, molding, forging, stamping, and by turning on automatic or semi-automatic machines.

Another important object resides in providing construction elements including rods, nipples, angle connectors, flanges, clevis connectors, wheels, pulleys, universal joints, drums, bearing blocks, bolts, planks, gears, clutch mechanism, multi-way connectors, and a novel bolt and nut structure adapted for universal application in joining other parts.

A further object is to provide, for incorporation in structures, sub-assemblies including a clutch structure, and a universal joint provided for assembly with the various coupling elements of a construction set.

The foregoing and numerous other important objects, advantages, and inherent functions of the invention will become apparent as the invention is more fully understood from the following description, which, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, discloses a preferred embodiment of the invention.

Referring to the drawings:

Figs. 1 and 2 are sectional views of connectin rods;

Figs. 3 through 16 are views of connector elements adapted for interconnection in various combinations with each other and with the connecting rods;

Figs. 17 and 18 are views of an eye connector, while Figs. 19 and 20 show a clevis connector, both connectors being sized for interfitting assembly with the elements shown in the preceding figures of the drawing:

Fig. 21 is a perspective view of a Washer sized for use with the connectors shown in Figs. 3 through 16;

Fig. 22 is a view of a sleeve connector, while Figs. 23 through 33 are views of angle coupling elements adapted for interiitting engagement with certain of the connectors shown in Figs. 3 through 16;

Fig. 34 is a perspective view of a four-way connector adapted for interfltting assembly with certain of the elements shown in Figs. 1 through 16;

Figs. 35 and 36, respectively, are side and face views of a coupling flange sized for assembly with certain of the elements shown in Figs. 3 through 16;

Figs. 37 and 38 show, respectively, a bolt and nut sized for use with the coupling flange, and for other purposes;

:end of the members -I I.

Fig. 39 is a perspective view showing a plain pulley;

Fig. 40 is a view or 'amulti-istep pulley;

Fig. 4'1is a'sectional'view of a Wheel;

Figs. 42 and 43 are, respectively, side and sectional views of a hub element;

Fig. 44 is a view of a winding drum;

Figs. 45 and 46 are, respectively, side and sectional views of a spur gear;

Figs. 47 and 48 are, respectively, top and end views of a pedestal bearing;

Fig. 49 is a perspective view of a splineelement sized for use with the elements shown in Figs. 39 through 46 and for interfitting engagementwith the coupling devices shownin-Figs. Bthrough 16.

Figs. -50 through 53 are face views of connector plate elements;

Fig. 54 'is a sectional view taken substantially alongthe linefiL-fiin Figs. 50, 51, 52and 53;

Figs. 55 and fi,'respectively, are end and bottom plan views of aplank element;

Fig. 57 is a side view-of a universal joint unit;

Fig. S8 is a side elevation of a clutch assembly;

Fig. 59 is a side"elevation view of a crane assembly constructed oi'parts embodying the present invention;

Fig.'60 is a top plan view of a portion of the crane shown in Fig. 59;

Fig. '61 is a side elevation view of a wheel structure made from parts embodying therpresent invention;

FigpfiZ 'is a sectional view taken substantially along the'line 62-fi.2 in Fig. 61;

63 is a'perspective view of asubassembly portion of the structure shown=in Figifilp and '64 is a front view of' the subassembly portionshown'in Figx63.

Foillustrate the invention the drawings show structural'devices comprising elements adapted for :assembly. in any selected combination for building desired structures, on a miniature scale, in close simulation of 'the mechanicalstructure and appearance of corresponding full size devices. Construction sets'embodying the present invention include elongated spacing members or rods l I, in'variousselected lengths, the members being formed at their opposite ends-with sockets I2 sized to reoeive therein-themounting portions iii of coupling members 14, which are preferably provided inseveral forms, -"as shown in Figs. 3,4 andfi.

. omthough the 'members H may'have anydeisire'd sectional configuration and :may comprise either solid or hollow rods, it ispreferablethat *the'members H, in the=interests of maximum strength, minimum weight, and low cost, comprise tubular members of preferably'cylindrical configuration, wherein theboreof the tubular Tmembers forms the sockets 2 at the opposite The members ll thus may be fabricated, at minimum expense-by cutting ofi' suitable lengths from standard low-cost tube stock having desired diametral dimensions, such tube stock being of any preferred material, such as metal, including steel, or aluminum, where minimum weight is desired; or plastic material may be employed if desired.

The coupling members I4, as shown in Fi:;s. 3, 4 and 5, may comprise solid rod l .atcriul of preferably cylindrical shape havng a central portion l5, the diametral :iimen n f r hlc preferably corres ends I h E it. 1 :i eier of the :m'urs ne. c. an; portions 52. of the co .piin3 menrb. rs e..iend outwardly of and in axial alignment with the central portions i5 at the opposite ends thereof. The mounting fpoitidns F3 may'comprtse diametrally split rod- =like extensions lfi-adap'ted to friotionally lit within the sockets i2, said extensions being of substantial length to firmly mount the coupling members at the end of the members ll.

The'mounting portions l3 may also comprise screw threaded extensions ll adapted for threading engagement in the outer portions of the sockets l2, which may be internally threaded, as indicated at 8, to a depth sufficient to receive the threaded mounting portions of the coupling members. It will be noted, however, that the diametrally slotted mounting portions Ili'are substantially longer than the threaded mounting portions Fl to frictionally engage the inner portions of the sockets l2 inwardlyof the threaded portions f8, where such sockets are provided with threads 'for the reception of the threaded mounting portions [1. It will be noted also that the diameter of the portions [Bis substantially equal tothe diameter of the threaded portions 1 measured at the base of the threads.

As a consequence, all of the mounting portions of the coupling members, whether threaded or not, may interfit in the threaded sockets l2 of all of the members ll. Thus, when any coupling member is mounted at the end of a member II, the enlarged portion iii of the-coupling member may form a continuation of the external'surfaces'of the-member H on which it is mounted. 'Ihecoupling members l4may each be formed as an integral part comprising the enlarged portion lfi and a mounting portion-I3 of either sort, at either or both ends of said enlarged portion. As indicated in dotted lines in Figs. 3, 4 and 5, howeveneach coupling member may be formed as a. .pair of cooperating parts I5 and 10 for threaded interconnection, the coupling member, in such case, being divided at the enlargedpor- *tion tito provide athreaded connecting projection [1, on one part =20, and an internally threaded socket F8, on the other part is, whereby the parts may'be threadedly interconnected or maybe used separately, or in combination with still other parts. The threaded connecting projections on the-parts 20 preferably correspond in size and shape with "the threaded mounting mounting I portions it formed at the -0pposite ends of the coupling -meriibers.

v In such case the sockets need not lee-threaded By threading the "sockets l2, 'howevenan'd by 'supplyin integral coupling members of th sort-shown in ines. -3 and 4-as well as-couplings 0'1 the'sort shown in'Fig. 5 the'fiexibility of-theconstruetion 'setmay be greatlyincreased. -Maximum'struc- "tural flexibility, however, is-aflorded wheresplit coupling members, comprising the separable parts 1'9 and '20, "are provided. Such arrangement feiiiuires thejprovisionor'onlyiour clinerent .parts, namely, a part [9' as shown in Figsx3 and L5, with friction connector portion lfiyapart'w" as shown .inFig." 4, with'threaded connector'portionfl ;"a partZO' as shown in.Fig.5,with i'riction connector portion [3; and a part 2 "as shown'in Figs. 3 and 4 with threaded connector portions l7. Tese four tarts not only allow cou ling .meinbersof the three kinds 'shownlin Figs. 3, 4 and 5 to be assembled, but permltsthe assembly of other connector forms, hereinafter described.

Assembly of a part 28" with a part I9 provides the coupling member shown in Fig. 3, while use of the part 23" in combination with a part 19" produces the coupling member shown in Fig. 4. Conjoint use of parts l9 and provides the coupling member shown in Fig. 5.

By joining a pair of members 19' by use of a member 20" as shown in Fig. 10, an elongated version of the coupling shown in Fig. 5 may be produced. In like fashion, extended forms of the couplings shown in Figs. 3 and 4 may be produced, as shown in Figs. 12 and 13. Coupling members of any desired length may thus be built up from the four basic parts heretofore mentioned.

Additional coupling flexibility may be accomplished by providing the auxiliary parts shown in Figs. 6 through 9 and Fig. 16. In Fig. 6 is shown a stud 2i formed with a head I5 sized to conform with the diameter of the portion I5 and a threaded portion l1 adapted to fit the sockets l8 and It. The stud 2i consequently may be used to close the end of any rod II or the socketed end of any of the members l3, as shown in Fig. 11. In Fig. '7 is shown a stud 22, like the stud 2! but having, in addition to the portion IS, an integral enlarged and preferably knurled head, which is formed with an axial internally threaded cavity I8" corresponding in size with the cavities l8 and 3'. In Fig. 16 a modified form 22' of the stud 22 is shown, in which the portion I5 is omitted. Either form may be mounted on any of the sockets i8, H3 or l8", as shown in Figs. 14 and 15.

Fig. 8 shows a sleeve member 24 formed with an enlarged, preferably knurled head, and a sleeve portion 25 having an outer diameter matching the diameter or the rods H and the portions iii of the connectors, the sleeve member having an axial bore equal in diameter to the bore of the tubes ii. The sleeve member may also be internally threaded. It consequently may frictionally fit on the connector portions l6 and also may threadingly engage the threaded connector portions l1, l1 and IT".

Fig. 9 shows a nut 23 sized to fit the threaded connector portions l1, l1 and I1" being also Irictlonally fittable on the connector portions i6.

Fig. 21 shows a washer 26 sized to fit on any of the mounting portions 13. If desired, this washer may be internally threaded to fit the portions II, II and H, the threaded washer also slidingly fitting the portions Hi.

It will be seen from the foregoing that a large variety of coupling devices may bebuilt up by the screw threaded interconnection of a relatively few interfitting elements in order to allow for the interconnection of the various parts or the construction set, including the mounting of coupling members at the ends of the rod members II in order to provide either frictional mounting portions IE or threaded mounting portions ll, projecting at the ends of the members H, for attachment with other members Ii, either directly or by way of additional coupling devices hereinafter more fully described. The coupling members also provide means for mounting the enlarged portions l5 at the ends of the members II to serve as axles, pivot pins, mounting pins, and other types of connectors, for wheels, pulleys, rollers, and other elements of the set, as hereinafter revealed.

An eye fitting 21 is shown in Figs. 17 and 18,

and a clevis element 28 is shown in Figs. 19. and 20. These elements comprise cars 29 of washerlike configuration having central openings 30 therethrough. The cars are supported on nut portions 3i. The eye fitting comprises a single ear 29 formed on and lying in a plane extending axially of its supporting nut 3|. The clevis element comprises spaced ears on the supporting nut, the openings in the ears being in axial alignment. The spacement of the ears 29 of the clevis element is preferably equal to the thickness of the ears, whereby the ear of the eye element may be assembled between the ears or the clevis and pivoted thereto, as by pin elements of the sort shown in Figs. 3 through 15, the openings 30 being sized to fit the portions l5 of said elements, as well as the rods II. The nut portion 3! of each element is preferably configurated in conformity with the shape of the nut 23 and the heads 22 and 22' of the studs heretofore described. The not portion 3i preferably has outer knurled surfaces and an axial threaded cavity adapted to threadingly connect with any of the threaded mounting portions l1, H and ll" of the coupling members, said threaded cavity preferably having its axis extending at right angles with respect to the axis of the openings 30.

In Fig. 22 is shown a connector 32 comprising a cylindrical block of metal having an axial threaded bore sized to fit the mounting portions I6 and for threading engagement with any of the threaded mounting portions H, II and I1, heretofore described. The connector 32 has outer surfaces, preferably knurled so that, if desired, the connector 32 may be applied as an extension between a pair of rod members H, fitted with coupling members mounted in the ends thereof to provide projections It or H for engaging in the bore of the member 32. The member 32 also may be used as a handle.

Angle connectors are shown in Figs. 23 through 33, the same preferably comprising metal castings providing preferably cylindrical portions forming ends or bosses 33 extending outwardly in various directions from the medial portions of the couplings, said outwardly extending bosses 33 being provided with internally threaded sockets 36 sized like the sockets i8 to threadingly receive the threaded portions l1, l1" and ll" of the coupling members shown in Figs. 3 through 16.

The coupling 34 shown in Fig. 23 provides four bosses 33 arranged in pairs, the threaded sockets of each pair being in axial alignment and facing outwardly in opposite directions, and the axes of said socket pairs lying in a common plane and intersecting at right angles at the center of the coupling. If desired, a fifth embossment 33' may be provided on one side of the coupling and formed with a threaded socket, to form a fiveway coupling 34', the axis of said socket extending in a direction normal to the plane of the axes of the sockets of the bosses 33 and intersecting said plane at the intersection of the axes of the aligned pairs of sockets of the bosses 33. If desired, as shown in Fig. 24, a sixth embossment 33" may be formed on the side of the coupling opposite from the embossment 33', in order to form a six-way coupling 34", said sixth embossment having a threaded socket in axial alignment with the socket of the embossment 33.

As shown in Fig. 25, a three-way coupling 35 may comprise a pair of embossments 33 having sockets 36 in oppositely facing axial alignment, and a third embossment 35 disposed medially of the other two embossments and having a socket, the axis of which extends at right angles and in a. common plane with the axis of the aligned sockets of the coupling embossments 33.

The three-way coupling 31 shown in Fig. 26 may comprise a pair of embossments 33 having threaded sockets in oppositely facing alignment, and a third embossment or lug 3'! disposed medially oi the other two embossments and having an opening 30' formed through the embossment, the axis of the opening 30' being spaced from the axes of the aligned cavities of the cmbossments 33, the opening 33 being similar in diameter to the holes 33 of the fittings shown in Figs. 17 through 20, and hence adapted to receive the rods I I or the portions S of the connectors shown in Figs. 3 through 15.

In Figs. 27 through 30, modified forms of the couplings shown in Figs. 23 and 25 are illustrated. The coupling 38 shown in Fig. 27 comprises three embossments 33 having outwardly opening, inteimally threaded sockets, the axes of which extend mutually at right angles, said axes intersecting at a common point in the coupling. The coupling 33 shown in Fig. 28 embodies four embossments 33 having internally threaded sockets, the axes of three of which extend mutually at right angles and meet at a common point, the axis of the fourth being in alignment with the axis of one of the other three. The elbow coupling 40 shown in Figs. 29 and 30 comprises two embossments 33 formed with threaded sockets having axes meeting at right angles. The cou pling 4! shown in Fig. 31 is also a modification of the form illustrated in Fig. 25, the coupling comprising a pair of embossments 33 having threaded sockets in oppositely facing alignment, and a third embossment 4| disposed medially of the other two embossments and having a socket, the axis of which extends in a common plane with the axes of the aligned sockets by making an angle other than a right angle, preferably a 45 angle with the axes of said aligned sockets.

If desired, the aligned pairs of sockets in the couplings shown in Figs. 23 through 31 may be formed in the coupling as channels 42 extending completely through the coupling, the sockets comprising the internally threaded, outwardly opening ends of said channel. In the connectors shown in Figs. 25 through 30, also, sockets 36' may be formed in the walls of the connectors in line with sockets 36, and also transversely, as at 36", in Fig. 29. The channels 42 thus will frictionally receive the mounting portions it as well as the threaded portions H, II and I?" of the connectorsshown in Figs. 3 through 16.

The couplings 43 shown in Figs. 32 and 33 each comprise an arcuately curved body providing embossments 33 formed with sockets 36 having relatively inclined axes lying in a common plane and intersecting at a right angle, as shown in Fig. 32, or at other than a right angle, preferably an angle of 135 as shown in Fig. 33. If desired, the couplings may be provided with a third embossment 43 medially of the arcuate coupling body and formed with an internally threaded socket 36, as shown in dotted lines, said socket having its axis lying in a common plane with and bisecting the axes of the other two sockets 36. If desired, the couplings shown in Figs. 32 and 33 may be provided with a perforated embossment like the embossment 31' of the coupling shown in Fig. 26, in place of the embossment 43' heretofore described.

Fig. 34 shows a coupling 44 comprising flat sheet metal strips forming arms 3| connected together at the medial portions of the coupling, the arms radiating thence outwardly of said arms at the outer ends thereoi, said openings 30 being circular and of the same size and shape as the coupling 30' ofjthe fittings shown in Figs. 17 through 2D and the opening 30' of the fitting shown in Fig. 26. The arms of the coupling 44 are preferably equal in thickness to the spacement of the cars 29 of the clevis 28 whereby clevis elements may be attached to any of the arms.

The openings 30, 30 and 3B" sized to receive the rods H or the the coupling members shown in 15, the tubes H and are preferably portions 15 of Figs. 3 through said portions 15, to this end, preferably having a diameter of the order of one quarter inch, and the openings 30, 30 and 30" having like diametral dimensions. 7

In this connection, 9,180, the threaded and frictional connecting portions I 6 and H, and the sockets and channels in which said portions are adapted to threadedly or frictionally interfit. may have diametral dimensions of the order of three sixteenths of an inch. Further, in this connection, the rod member H preferably has an outer diameter matching the outer diameter of the portions I5 of the coupling members and an inner diameter matching the minimum diametral dimensions of the coupling portions i6 and H.

A coupling flange 45 having a hub portion 46 and a flange portion 41 is shown in Figs. 35 and 36, said coupling having an internally threaded axial bore 43 having an inner diameter to fit the portions 16 and to threadingly engage any of the threaded portions H, I? coupling members shown in Figs. 3 through 16. The flange portion 41, also is provided with a series of circularly arranged openings 49 therethrough, the axes of said openings being parallel and extending parallel with the axis of the threaded channel 48. The openings 49 may be sized to fit the portion 15 of the coupling member or, as shown, may have a diameter of the order of one-eighth inch to receive one-eighth inch coupling bolts 53, as shown in Figs. 37 and 38, or similar fastening elements.

Figs. 39 through 46 show various turnable devices including a single pulley 5|, a multiple step drum 55, and a gear provided with a central axial bore 51 sized to turnably receive the rod members II or the able elements may the; coupling members operating as supporting ax es.

The elements shown in Figs. 39 through 46 may also be formed each with a spline groove 58 sized to receive the spline rib 59 on an axle element 6!), as shown in Fig. 49. The axle channels 51, except in the winding drum and in the pulley 52 which may be longer, are all preferably of the same length, of the order of three-eighths inch, and the axle element 83 is preferably of like length to fit all of the elements. It may comprise a cylindrical rod formed with threaded sockets, like the sockets 36, in its opposed ends, whereby the turnable elements may be mounted on the connectors shown in Figs. 3 through 16.

The axial bore 51 of the multiple step pulley 52 may include a portion sized to receive the portion [5 of a coupling member. such as the coupling member shown in Figs. 3 or 4, and a bore portion 51' of lesser diameter and internally threaded to threadingly engage any of 'the threaded extensions l1, whereby the step pulley 45 may be mounted on and threadedly engaged with any of the coupling members, as for example a member 20" attached to the end of a member 58.

By combining coupling elements, especially of the sort shown in Fig. 4, with the element 88, any of the turnable elements of Figs. 39 through 46 may be mounted in splined relation with axle forming coupling members; or the elements may be mounted for rotation freely on axle forming elements, including the rods II.

The wheel 53 shown in Fig. 41 may be formed with a threaded socket 53' formed in its rim and opening outwardly at a side, or on opposite sides of the rim, the socket being sized to receive the mounting portions I1 of connector elements, especially the element shown in Fig. 11 to form a crank handle on the wheel.

The wheel hub 54 may be formed with tangential surfaces, at its periphery, and radially extending, internally threaded channels 54' may be formed in the hub element from said tangential surfaces 54 to the axial bore 51, said channels 54' preferably having axes lying in a common plane at right angles with respect to and radiating from the axis of the bore 51. The channels 54 are internally threaded at least at the outer ends thereof and may receive the portions 18 of the coupling members; and the channels 54' also are sized to threadingly engage any of the threaded projections l1, l1 and 11" of the coupling members, whereby said coupling members may be mounted on the periphery of the wheel hub in position to receive and carry rod members 1 I as wheel spokes on said hu The winding drum 55 shown in Fig. 44 comprises a cylindrical body affording a winding surface and annular outstanding flange portions at opposite ends of the winding surface.

A pedestal bearing 6| is illustrated in Figs. 4'1 and 48, said pedestal comprising a base 62 having openings 63 at its opposite ends preferably corresponding in size with the openings 49 of the flange coupling shown in Figs. 35 and 36, whereby said openings 63 may receive the bolt 58. The bearing pedestal includes an upstanding pedestal portion 64 mounted on the base 62 medially of the opposite ends thereof, said portion 64 being formed with a bearing opening 65, including an oil hole 66 disposed medially of the opening 55. The opening 55 is sized to turnably receive the rod elements H or any of the mounting portions I of the coupling members, whereby the rods or the coupling members may be Journaled in the pedestal bearing.

Several preferred forms of connector plate elements 61, 68, 69, and 18 are shown in Figs. 50 through 54. These plate elements preferably comprise sheet metal plates of triangular, rectangular, elongated, and circular configuration, as shown. The plates are formed with openings 1i preferably arranged symmetrically in the plates and sized to receive the members ll, or the portions l5 of the coupling members shown in Figs. 3-15.

In the triangular embodiment 51, shown in Fig. 50, the openings 11 include openings at each of the corners of the element and an opening centrally of its longest side. In the rectangular embodiment '88, shown in Fig. 51, the openings are preferably placed at the corners of the element and at its mid-point. In the elongated element 68, shown in Fig. 52, the openings are placed one at each of the opposite ends of the element and one medially of said ends. In the circular form 18, shown in Fig.53, an opening may be placed at the center of the element and others formed in spaced arrangement along the periphery of the plate.

A plank element 12 is shown in Figs. 55 and 56, said plank element comprising 9. preferably rectangular strip or plate of sheet material having inwardly extending mounting clips 13 at its opposite ends. These clips 13 are curved to interfittingly engage rods H in spaced relationship, whereby the plank elements may be snapped into position on such spaced rods and held in mounted position thereon by the resilience of the clips. Planks may be formed with openings therein sized and spaced in accordance with the size and spacement of the openings 63 of the pedestal bearing, whereby said bearing and comparable elements may be attached to the planks as by the bolts 50 or other fasteners. The planks may be supplied in several lengths with clips 13 spaced thereon to accommodate various spacement of mounting rods. the invention particularly contemplating planks to accommodate rod spacements of three, four and six inches. The planks 12, likewise, may be supplied in different widths, the invention con templating planks in various widths from onehalf inch to six inches.

A universal joint 14 is shown in Fig. 57, the same comprising a pair of end portions 15 of preferably identical shape and providing hub portions formed with axially extending, internally threaded sockets 15' corresponding in size with the sockets 33 of the coupling members shown in Figs. 22 through 30, and hence adapted to receive and interfit with the extensions l6, l1, l1, and l1" of the coupling elements shown in Figs. 3-16, whereby the universal joint may be mounted on said coupling members between the abuttin ends of rod members H. The coupling elements 15 also include spaced ears 16 at the ends thereof remote from the sockets 15', the coupling comprising a coupling block 11 extending between the ears 16 of both coupling elements 15, the block being rockingly pinned to said ears, as by means of the rocking pins 18 extending mutually at right angles.

As shown in Fig. 58, the present invention contemplates a clutch assembly comprising clutch parts 19 and 80, the member 19 comprising a hub formed with a beveled flange at one end in position to engagingly enter a correspondingly beveled socket in an end of the member 88. The member 88 also includes a hub portion for mounting the same on a shaft Bl, said hub portion of the member x being formed with an axial channel 82 to slidingly receive the shaft Bl, said channel 82, on one side, having a spline groove 83, and said shaft having a radially extending pin 84 mounted for splined engagement in the grooves 83. The member Bl) thus is splined to the shaft to turn therewith while being slidable axially thereon toward and away from clutching engagement with the member 19.

The end of the shaft 8| is provided with an extension 85 sized to fit turnably within one end of a channel 85 formed axially in the member :9. The other end of said channel 88 is internally threaded to threadingly engage the threaded extension l1 of a coupling member of the sort shown in Fig. 3 or 4. The shaft 81 pro- ,iects outwardly of the clutch member 88 and is formed with a shouldered head 81, said head heaeoacae ing provided with an. internallythreaded socket 88 for' threaded engagement with the threaded extension I? of a coupling member of the'sort shown'in Fig: 3' or 4; The coupling members; thus mounted in the threaded sockets of the clutch member 19 and shaft head 81, have their mounting portions 15 disposed within theb earing channels 65 ofpedestal bearings (it of the sort shown in 47, washers of thesort shown in Fig: 21 being mounted on the coupling members at the opposite ends of the coupling portions iii/and the bearing channels 85.- The projecting portions of the coupling members project in oppositedirections from the hearings, on the sides thereof remote from the clutch=members I9 andBU', and provide for drivingly engaging with rodmembers H.

The pedestal bearings Bl may, of course, be mounted in any preferred fashion on a suitable base to maintain them in spaced relation supporting the clutch mechanism therebetween: A base plate 89, however, is preferably-supplied'for mounting the clutch assembly, said base plate comprisin a formed-plate of sheet'metalhaving upstanding ribs 90-- in spaced relation thereon and" formed with bolt holes M in spaced relationship to register with the bolt holes 63 in'the base portions E2" of the pedestal bearings. The holes 63 and BI are of like size and adapted to receive coupling elements of the sort shown in Fig. 37, usedas anchor bolts.

'l 'heopposite ends of the base plate 89: also may bo'formed with spaced bolt holes 92: preferablyoftlie same size as theholes 8i and, consequently, adapted to receive bolts 50 or. other fastoning elements toanchor'the plate one sup-- port base; medially of the plate 89 is fastened a. bearingblocli' Behaving a base formed with holes 9! sized and spaced I to register with corresponding'holes'siiiformed in' the base plate 8! wherebysaidbearingblock 93'may be mounted on the nam plate-imam; suitable fashion. To this end, the bearing-blood may be permanently riveted onthe plate. or, the openings 9t and 95 may be internally threaded to receive the threaded stem of a. fastening stud of the sort shown in Fig. 16.

The bearing block: 93' is adapted to turnably receive a clutch operating lever mechanism comprising'a collar formed with an operating handle Bi on one side of the collar, a portion 91' onthe other side of the. collar and adapted to be'tiltably mounted intheLbearing block, as on a. pivot pin198: the medialportions of the lever member being annular and encircling the hub of the member 89. Said annular portions may have inwardly extending pins 99 on opposite sides of'said hubdn position to extend into and ride in an annular groove I: formed in the said hub. By moving the handle 96 in one direction or the other, the member 80. may be moved'on its supporting shaft 8| to engage and disengage the clutch members. Biasing spring means I (H, preferably' a helical spring, may be mounted on the shaft 81 in position to engage between the shouldered shaft head 81 and the facing end of the. hub of. the clutch'mcmbcr 88 in order to normally urge the clutch member 80 in a direction on the shaft toward clutch engaging position with the clutch member 19.

A derrick structure of the sort adapted to be assembled from parts heretofore described is illustratedinFigs. 59 and 60. Said derrick structure comprises a framework built up by assembling rod members: ll using coupling members of the sort shown in Fig. 3, in combination with therod members H, coupling membersilll", 23, 35; 37, 38; 3 9; andl'asteners of the sort shown in '1, 9 and A portion ofthe frame may be boxed in by plank members H applied between-the spaced rod members H Other plank members" may be utilized between spaced rod members H to-forma floor onwhich a bearing 61' maybe mounted as by fastening means 54) appliedthrough openings in the planks. The bearing may carry axlemeans supporting a pulley5i; driven bya wheel im'with crank-handle mounted onthe rim thereof; A clutch assembly, of the sort sh'own'in E'lg: 5'6. fittedwith pulley means; of thesort shown inFig; 39, may also-be mouhtedon'the floor'of tbe-structure'and belted tothe crankconnected pulley. The pulleys and crank" wheei' may be drivingly connected" with their shafts H" by coupllng means The-coupling members 3T forming a portion of the frame may carry rod members I I in the openings thereof to form wheel axles on which support Wheels 53 may be mounted, as by coupling members of the sort shown in Figs. 3 01 4 and 9-} the wheels being mounted on the bearing portions I5 01 the coupling members, andheld'in place thereon by and between apair of washersof the sort shown in Fig. 21. A derrick boom" comprising a pair of rod members I! may be mounted onthe frame, as at a pair of constituent coupling-members 3!?- thereof, by eye members 2T, clevismembers 28, and coupling members of'the sort shownin Figs. Bor 4, 9'a-nd 15'. The outer ends-of the boom member may be fittedwith clevismerits 28' by means of coupling" members 20 or members-- of the sort shOWn in Figs. 3 or 4 and the clevis elements may be fastened to the openings of a triangular plate element'lil of the sort shown in Fig. by means of 'coupling elements of the sort shown in Figs. Q-and 15 extending through the'ears of the clevis and the-openings lief the-plate element. as shown more particularly in Fig. 60.

The derrick may thus be provided with a pair oiboom arms comprising a pair of spaced plates 81 between which may be-mounted a pulley 5|, as by means of coupling members of the sort shown in'Figa 4 and 9'.- A cabIedr-um-SE and a driving. pulleymay be journaled on a member ll of the frame between the boom arms and drivingly interconnected, as by means of coupling members 2e" therebetween, said winding drum carrying a derrickcable wound thereon and extending over the pulley at the remote end of the boom, said drum being selectively turnable under the control of the clutch assembly, which drum drivingpulley.

Ac ferris wheel structure adapted to be built from parts heretofore descnbedis shown in Figs. 61, .62'and 63'. Said'ferris wheel comprises a supporting: framework erected' on a suitable supportl'liase. Said framework comprises a pair of spaced'structuresr each built up of parts includbeing supported vertically above the square plate on a structure comprising connectcrs 32, 35, 43 and coupling devices of the sort shown in 3 or 4, the framework being connected to the square and triangular plates by clevis elements 28 and connectors of the sort shown in Figs. 9 and 15.

The spaced apart structures may be braced and spaced byrods interconnecting the corresponding elements 39' of said spaced structures. Plank elements 1| may be applied as flooring between the spaced members i I'of said spaced structures. At the front of the base structure, a platform may be built comprising members l5 and 20" erected on the frame elements 39, said platform utilizing elements 43 of the sort shown in Fig. 32, and elements carried by the elements 43 and supporting plank members ll therebetween to form a platform.

The wheel structure may comprise a hub element 54 carrying connectors 20" radiating therefrom, said hub element being turnable on a rod member H, journaled in the aligned openings oi the triangular plate members 61 of the supporttriangular plate ing frame. Said rod element I I may also carry a pulley 52 secured thereto, said pulley being drivingly connected, as by means of a belt with another pulley 52, on a connector 20" supported in the central openings of the square plates of the base. This pulley in turn may be drivingly 1' connected with an electric motor I83 through a clutch assembly of the sort shown in Fig. 58 in the manner described in connection with the motor and clutch assembly in the derrick structure shown in Fig. 59, the motor and clutch assembly being supported on the support base.

The wheel structure may comprise rod elements 1 l on the radially extending hub mounted coupling members 20", the outer ends of the radiating members II elements 28, by means of coupling members 20". The clevis members in turn may be connected to the apexial portions of triangular plate members 61 of the sort shown in Fig. 50, as by means of fastening members of the sort shown in Figs. 9 and 15. The remaining corners of such triangular plates may be interconnected, as by means of clevis members 28, secured to the plates and interconnected by means of connecting members of the sort shown in Figs. 4 and ends of which may carry spacing washers, if

necessary.

Like the base structure, the wheel comprises a pair of identical wheel structures spaced apart on the wheel axel rod II, and ferris wheel cars, as shown more particularly in Fig. 63 of the drawings, may be assembled and mounted between corresponding triangular plates of the spaced wheel structures. These cars may each comprise a rod member ll connected at its opposite ends in coupling members 35, the outwardly facing ends of the said coupling members 35 being in abutting relationship with the spaced triangular plates and being pivotally secured in the openings H medially of the longer sides of the triangular plates, the pivotal connection being made by fastening members of the sort shown in Fig. 'l. The carriage members may also include members of the sort shown in Fig. 4 secured in the medial socketed embossements of the members 35 and carrying connecting members 43, the same in turn carrying elements of the sort shown in Fig. 11. Plank members H may be applied between the spaced members to complete the carriage structure.

being fitted with clevis 12, the opposite While two sample structures have been illustrated in Figs. 59 through 64, it will be obvious that innumerable other combinations and permutations may be produced from the parts herein described, the number of different structures being limited only by the imagination of the user.

It will be apparent, also, that the parts described are adapted to be manufactured inexpensively, most of the parts being capable of production on automatic screw making machinery. The sheet metal parts are adapted for production by inexpensive stamping methods, while the rods ll may be produced cheaply in various selected lengths by merely cutting up standard tube stock in the lengths desired. The various parts, of course, may be made of any suitable or preferred material, including plastic material. It is preferable, however, to make the parts of metal; and, in the interests of lightweight parts for construction purposes, it is preferable to make the elements II, at least, of aluminum. The other parts also may be advantageously fabricated in aluminum for toy purposes.

It is thought that the invention and its numerous attendant advantages will be fully understood from the foregoing description, and it is obvious that numerous changes may be made in the form, construction and arrangement of the several parts without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention, or sacrificing any of its attendant advantages, the forms herein disclosed being preferred embodiments for the purpose of illustrating the invention.

The invention is hereby claimed as follows:

1. A construction toy set having structural elements adapted for selective connection in multifarious combination, including rod-like structural elements formed with internally threaded cylin drical end sockets of like diameter, and compound connecting means for joining said elements, said connecting means comprising a pair of parts, formed for screw threaded interconnection and including a main connector part having a cylindrical body portion of external diameter equal to that of the said rod-like elements, said body portion having a coaxial socket opening at one end thereof, and an integral coaxial stem, on and extending outwardly of the other end of said body portion, said coaxial socket being formed with internal screw threads identical in pitch, diameter, and sectional profile to the threads of said end sockets, said compound connector including also a cooperating connector part having a medial cylindrical portion of external diameter equal to that of said body portion, and integral axially alined stem portions on and extending outwardly of the o posite ends of said medial portion, at least one of said stem portions comprising a threaded stud formed for snug threaded engagement within said end sockets or within said coaxial socket, the other of said stem portions and said integral coaxial stem forming mounting stems sized to snugly fit into the mounting sockets of said structural elements, at least one of said mounting stems being longitudinally split, at and inwardly of its end, for snug, frictional, and radially resilient interfitment in a said mounting socket of a structural element.

2. A construction toy set having structural elements adapted for selective connection in multifarious combination, including rod-like structural elements formed with internally threaded cy1indrical end sockets of like diameter, and compound connecting means for joining said elements, said connecting means comprising a pair or. parts, formed for screw threaded interconnectimr and; including. a main connector. part hmringrai cylindrical body: portion of external diameter equal to that of the said rod-likeelements, saidbndy portion having a. coaxial socket'opening atone en'dthereof, and an integral coaxial stem, on and extending outwardly ofthe other'end of we body portion, said coaxial socket being formed with internal screw threads identical in pitch; diameter and sectional profile to the threads of said end sockets, said compound connelao'r including also a cooperating connector'part having a medial. cylindrical portion of external diameter equal to that of said body portion; and integral axially alined stem portions on and extending outwardly of the opposite ends of said medial portion, at least one or said stem portions comprising a: threaded stud formed for snug threaded engagement within said end sockets or withinsaid coaxial socket, the other of said'stem and said integral coaxial stem forming mountingstems sized to snugly fit" into the mounting sockets of said structural elements, the mounting sockets of the structural elements and the said coaxial socket of said main' connector part being of like internal diameter and the mounting sockets being formed internally with screw threads identical, in pitch, diameter and sectional profile, with the internal threads of said coaxial socket, one of said mounting stems comprising a screw-threaded-stud' of size and configuration identical to the first above-mentioned stud and being adapted for snug threaded engagement removably in a said mounting socket, and the other of said mounting stems being 1ongitudinally split at and inwardly of its end, for snug; frictional, radially resilient interfitment in asaid mounting socket.

3; Compound connector means. for the interconnection, in multifarious combination, of structural elements of a construction toy set, in which such structural elements are provided with cylindri'cal mounting sockets, said connector means comprising a pair of interconnecting parts, including'a part having a medial circular disk portion and integral axially alined, oppositely extending stem portions on and disposed concentrically of said disk, one of said stem portions comprising a threaded stud, and a, cooperating part: having a cylindrical body portion of external diameter equal to that of said disk and formed witlran. internally threaded coaxial socket, openingrat one end of said body portion and sized to snugly receive said threadedstud, and an integral ooaxialattachment stem on and extending outwardly 01 the opposite end of said body portion, said attachment'stem and the other stem of said connector part forming mounting stems sized to snugl'yflt into the sockets of said structural elements to connect the same with said connector means; at least one of said mounting stems being longitudinally split at and inwardly of it end for snug, frictional, radially resilient interfitment in a, said mounting socket of a structural element.

4. Compound connector means for the interconnection, in multifarious combination, of structural elements of a construction toy set, in which such structural elements are provided with cylindrical internally threaded mounting sockets, comprising a pair of connector elements and a connector-part having a medial circular disk portion and'integral axially alined, oppositely extending threaded stem portions, on and disposed concentrically with respect to said disk portion and sized for threading engagement in said mounting sockets oi the. structural elementasaid connector elements eachhaving acylindrical body poctlonot external diameter equal to that of saiddiskportion and formed with anintemally threaded socket opening at one end of said body portionand. sized to threadingly receive a said stem portion and an integral attachmentstem on andextende ing outwardly of theopposlte end of said body portion in coaxial alinement with the. threaded socket therein, said integral attachmentstemofi each of said connector element being sized, to snugly fit into the socketsoi saidstructuralelements, the. attachment stem of at least one of said connector elements .beinglongitudinally split, at and inwardly of. its. end, for snug. frictional and radially resilient interfitment inv the mounting sockets-of the structural elements.

5. Compound. connector means for the interconnection, in multifarious combination, of str-uctural elements. of a construction. toy set',.ln which such structural elements are providedwithcylm drical internally threadedmountingsockets, com.- prising a pair of. connector elements and a con nector part having amedial circular. disk portion and integral axially alined, oppositely extending threaded stem portions, on and disposed conoene trically with respect to saiddisk portion andsized for threading engagement in said mounting sockets of the structural elements, said connector elements each having a cylindrical body portion of external diameter equal to. thatof seiddisk-portion and formed with aninternally threaded socket opening atone end. of said body portion and sized to threadingly receive-asaidcstemportion and an integral attachment stain on and extending outwardly of the opposite ondof. said body portion in coaxial allnement. with the threaded socket; therein, said. integrah attachment stemoi each of said connector elementslbe ing sized to snugly fit into thesockets. of. said structural elements, the attachment stem. 01-. one of said connector: elementscomprising athreaded stud sized for threading engagement inthe mounting sockets of the structural elemonts the attachment stem of the other of. said elements being longitudinally split, at and inwardly ofv its end, for snug frictional and radially resilient in. terfitment in the mounting sockets of the structural elements.

RAY Si LINDENMEYER.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are ofreeord in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 288,459 Leet Nov. 13, 1883 731,309 Kilbourn J1me 16,1903 968,853 Jeavons Aug. 30,1910

1,265,897 Fawcett May 14,1918 1,355,975 Hornby Oct. 19, 1920 1,446,868 Baker Feb. 21,1923 1,741,720 Jolley Dec. 31, 1929 1,909,500 Ornitz May I6; 1933 1,918,987 Seabold July- 181,193 2,133,789 Pool Oct. 18,193)! 2,415,722 Bauer Feb. 11, 1947 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date" 124,926 Great Britain Apr. 10, 1919 469,580 France May 25; I914 605,774 France Fee; 22, 1926

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Classifications
U.S. Classification446/126, D21/484, 403/174, 446/85, 403/176, 472/6, 403/343, 403/289, 446/124, 285/125.1, 403/296
International ClassificationA63H33/04, G09B25/00, G09B25/02, A63H33/10
Cooperative ClassificationG09B25/02, A63H33/107
European ClassificationG09B25/02, A63H33/10S