|Publication number||US2609888 A|
|Publication date||Sep 9, 1952|
|Filing date||Apr 1, 1950|
|Priority date||Apr 1, 1950|
|Publication number||US 2609888 A, US 2609888A, US-A-2609888, US2609888 A, US2609888A|
|Inventors||William J Beringer|
|Original Assignee||Aqua Therm Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (11), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept 9 19s W J. BERINGER LIQUID-GAS CONTACT APPARATUS 2 SHEETS- SHEET 1 Filed April- 1. 195o Sept 9, 1952 w. J. BERlNGr-:R 2,609,888
LIQUID-GAS CONTACT APPARATUS Filed April l. 1950 A 2 SPEETS--SHEET 2 TJCIAL. 3]? (20/ a'y aff" (///fz/// 7% Arrow/ffy Patented Sept. 9, 1952 IlIQUID- GAS CONTACT APPARATUS William J. Beringen', Dayton, Ohio, assignor to Aqua-Therm, Inc., Da
of Ohio yton, Ohio, a corporation Application April 1, 195o, seiaiivc. 153,413 1 This invention relates to apparatus.
More particularly is the invention concerned withliquid-gas contact in a packing bed as heretofore known and used in Water cooling, air scrubbing and like installations. Prior art de vices of this kind have had distinct and recognized practical limitations as to the temperature differential which can be achieved in water cooling and as to the degree of suspended solid matter whichcan be removed from a gas. Contributing to such limitation has been the diniculty of obtaining maximum liquid-gas contact in the bed as well as ineflicientliquid distribution"over the bed. Further, prior art devices have suffered from undue `complication and excessive size, adding to their cost of manufacture and precluding the incorporation of such features as multiple utility and portability.
It is an object of this invention to present a liquid-gas contact device in which the essential elements thereof are closely and compactly arranged in such wise that they may if desired be built into a small, portable and relatively light weight unit. i
Another object of the invention is to introduce in liquid-gas contact devices a new high level of performance resulting from use of a saddle type packing bed in combination with a novel liquid distribution system `for realizing the greatest advantages from such` bed.
A further object of the invention is to achieve through a combination as noted above an effiliquid-gas contact zclaims; (criss-4145,71; i
Still another object of the invention is to pre- A' sent a basic construction, as set forth, applicable selectively to water cooling, air scrubbing, air.
conditioning Aand like Work.
A still further object of the inventionis to present av device of the kind described particularly characterized in that it hasno moving parts, imposes no temperature limitations. has a low pressure drop, requires but small floor space and low head room, is simple to operate and maintain and which may be supplied with a wide range of capacities, shapes and construction materials. Other `objects and structural details of the invention will appear from the following description when `read in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a view in perspective, partly broken away, of a liquid-gas contact device in` accordance withV the instant invention;
Fig. 2 is a View in cross section, taken substantially along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig; 3 is a detailview ci.` a packing element;
Fig. 4 is an installation diagram, illustrating the device of the invention as operating to cool and condition air; I I
Fig. 5 is a View similar to Fig. 4, illustrating the device as operating to cool water; and
Fig. 6 is a view similar to Figs. 4 and 5, showing the device as operating to scrub or clean gases of obnoxious fumes and foreign matter.
In its illustrated embodiment, the liquid-gas contact device of the invention, comprises, as shown in Figs. -l and 2, a casing Ii] the top of which is shown asbeingopen since ducting and conduits for the conduct of.` the` liquid and gas communicate therewith. vIn the bottom of the casing is an upstanding partition wall II dividing the lower end of the casing into a blower compartment I2 and a sump I3. A gas inlet I4 communicates with the `compartment I 2 and a liquid outlet I5 .communicates with the sump I3. A motor driven blower I6, of a known commercially available kind, is mounted in the compartment I2 to draw gas in through the inlet I4 and discharge it through an exit opening Il across `the sump I3` and upward in the casing. Disposed above the blower IB and defining a top wall of the compartment l2 is a plate or bailie I8 fastened as by welding to one vwall of the casing I0, and extending toward but terminating short of the opposite Wall. The plate I8 is inclined for a deflection of descending liquid out of the compartment I2 and into the sump I3.
Above the plate I8 there are secured to the side walls of the casing IB angle pieces I9 providing a mountingfor a grill sheet 2| of expanded metal. The grill 2i" supports a packing bed 22 made up of a large number of saddle shaped elements 23, one of which is shown in detail in Fig. ,3.` The elements 23 are hard, smooth surfaced objects made of any suitable inert material, for example chemical stoneware. All of the surfaces of the saddle elements are curved, there being `no ledges or crevices to catch and collect foreign material. In forming the bed 22, the saddle elements are simplyl poured into the casing upon the grill 2I to the desired depth, filling the transverse dimensions of the casing. The saddle elements accordingly occupy random positions with respect to one another in the 4bed and define amaze of interconnecting, irregularly shaped chambers and passageways, there being no accountY of the shape of the saddle 'elements a high proportion of open space in the lbed as well as avery large contact area. Depending upon the size ofthe saddle elements, there may be from fty to one hundred and iifty or even more square feet of surface area in the bed per cubic foot of volume.
In overlying relation to the packing bed 22 is a series of distributor pans 24 which are generally U-shaped in cross section, being closed at their bottom and ends and having parallel upstanding side walls. The individual pans 24 extend from side to side of the casing Where they are supported on angle pieces 25 and the `series of pans extends from end to end of the casing. adjacent pans of the series being spaced apart for a flow of gas therebetween exteriorly of the pans. In the upper edges of each 'pan are V -cuts .2s spaced calibrated distances apart.
Seated on top of the pans 24 and extending transversely thereof from end to end of the casing is a relatively narrow trough 21 having in its bottom longitudinally spaced apart series of periorations 28, each arranged to overlie and com- Y municate with a respective distributor pan 24. The trough 21 is supplied with liquid, as by the diagrammatically indicated 'conduit 29. The liquid may escape from the trough 21 through the openings 28 into the pans 24 under a -hydrostatic pressure head which is a function of the rate of now through conduit `29 and the size and number of the openings 28. As the pans 24 fill with liquid there is an overflow therefrom through the V-cuts 26, the overflow forrm'ng small independent streams which run down the sides or the pans .24 and on to the top oi the packing bed 22. By reason of the arrangement oi the distributor pans and V-cuts therein, there is accordingly formed alarge number of liquid streams which descend upon and 'enter the packing bed at spaced points over the entire surface of the bed. There is a further distributive effect in the packing bed, wherein the saddle elements break up and intermingle the several streams with the result that there is a uniform and even wetting of the packing bed with no opportunity offered for the liquid to form and follow channels through the bed.
A pair of expanded metal grills 3@ and 3| are arranged alongside the trough 21 on angle pieces on the ends and sides of the casing IG. Saddie elements like the elements 23 are supported on the grills 3S and 3l and in eiect make up a single packing bed 33. The bed 33 is thus mounted out of contactwith the liquid but in the path of now of the gas out of the casing. It accordingly may function as a mist or drift inhibitor, collecting water particles carried by the gas stream and allowing them to drip down into the pans or directly upon the packing bed 22.
In the operation of the device, therefore, the iquid and gas are brought into intimate physical contact in the packing bed 22, with the gas iiowing generally upward therein and the liquid flowing generally downward. The gas distributes itself evenly over the area of the packing bed, in entering the bottom thereof, but in its passage through the bed is broken up into a multitude of small ribbon-like currents, and, as such, comes into contact successively with small countercurrent streams of liquid which travel in thin lms over each saddle element 23. Thus a large surface area of gas comes into intimate contact with a large surface area of liquid under conditions of low surface tension. Under these favorable contact conditions, the desired function of the device is carried out with a high eliciency. Thus in water cooling, the obtaining of maximum contact area between the heated or warm water and the relatively cooler airprovides for maximum the dry bed 33.
absorption of water vapors by the air and a corresponding high rate of cooling of the water. Similarly, in air conditioning the moist warm air yields its vapor content readily to the counter flowing relatively cool water with a corresponding rapid drying and reduction intemperature of the air. In air scrubbing or cleaning the counterflowing liquid irrigates thepacking bed which can be described asa labyrinth of smoothly streams of liquid with a countercurrent ow of turbulent air or gas streams. As the direction of each small ribbon of gas is changed by approximately forty-five degrees, which occurs from Veight to thirty-two times per foot of travel and in random directions, air borne solids in the gas stream tend to continue in the prior direction whereupon they impinge on and cling to the liquid Afilm iiowing over the packing pieces. A similar .mode of action will take place in the use of the device as an absorber for by-product recovery. Y
In the system diagrams of Figs. 4,75V and 6, Fig. 4 illustrates the liquid-gas contact device in a typical air -conditioning system. Indicated at 3ft therein, the gas inlet I4 of the device communicates with a conduit 35 leading from a space 36 to be cooled. Another conduit 31 leads back to the space 35 and communicates with the top oi the device to receive the air emerging from A liquid inlet conduit 38 communicates with the trough 21 while a liquid outlet conduit 39 is connected to the sump outlet i5. Moist warm air is drawn from the space `35 through conduit 35 While cool water or other f liquid enters the device by Way of conduit 33.
Within the packing bed 22 the air and liquid achieve a pervading contact with one another with the result that the air gives up its moisture and heat to the liquid and flows to conduit 31 for delivery back to the space 35 in a cool -dry state. The now warm liquid drops into the sump i3 and is drawn off through conduit t9, it being understood that suitable pumping means will besupplied for this purpose. The liquid may circulate in a closed system, in which 'case-con'- duit 39 will be connected to conduit 38 by appropriate liquid cooling means. Alternatively, the conduit 3Q may discharge directly to drain, while conduit 3S communicates with afsource of fresh water, as the city supply line.
In Fig. 5, the device is illustrated as used for water cooling purposes. There will be, in this instance, an applied heat load across a pair of conduits 4I and 42 and a water jacket 43 through which cool water is circulated at a rate to obtain a predetermined reduction in the heat load. The Waterv coolant circulates in a closed system, the
water entering the jacket 43 byjway of a conduit llt and leaving by a conduit 45. vThe conduit 44, which will have a pump 45 interposed therein, is connected to the sump outlet l5 of the liquid-gas contact device, here indicated at 34a. The conduit 45 is connected to the top of the device to discharge into the trough 21. The air inlet lli of the device is connected to atmosphere, as by a` conduit 41. The air discharge, from packing bed 33, occurs through a conduit 48. In the operation of this system, water warmed by its passage through the jacket 43 is conducted by conduit 45 to the trough 21 from which it is distributed over the packing bed 22. Counteriiowing, relatively cool, air is encountered in the bed with the result that the air absorbs moisture from the water, eecting cooling thereof. The cooled water descends to the sump I3 and is returned by way of conduit 44 to the jacket 43. The warmed, moist air discharges to atmosphere through conduit 48.
In Fig. 6, the liquid-gas contact device, here indicated at 34h, is illustrated in an air or gas scrubbing system. A ventilator 49 is arranged to exhaust a given area under the influence oi the blower I6, the ventilator being connected by a conduit I to the gas inlet I4 of the device 34h. Above the packing bed 33 the device is connected by a conduit 52 venting to the atmosphere or returning for reuse in the exhaust area if desirable. Irrigating liquid is supplied the trough 21 by way of a conduit 53 while a conduit 54 carries oi the liquid from the sump I3. Contaminated exhaust gases are conducted by conduit 5I to the packing bed 22 where they iiow upward in contact with the irrigating liquid. Vaporous and solid matter in the gas is transferred in the bed to the liquid so that clean air emerges for discharge through the conduit `52. The contaminated liquid is drawn from the sump by way of conduit 54 which may if desired lead to an artificial setting pond whereby the irrigating liquid may be conned in a substantially closed circuit and reused.
With further regard to the construction and arrangement of the liquid-gas contact device, it will be noted that the internal structure thereof lends itself to a variety of installations. Thus it may, as in the illustrated instance, be contained in a metal casing in unitary package form. As such it is portable, easily shipped and handled and may be installed in any convenient location. For a permanent installation, there may be substituted for the casing I 0, a brick or concrete block housing with the internal structure of the device being built into the housing. Either type of installation is in keeping with the high performance characteristics of the device, particularly as regards the cooling of high temperature liquids.
In connection with these performance characteristics, the instant invention makes easily feasible the handling of water cooling problems which heretofore were impracticable of solution on account of the size of the installation required and its corresponding cost. It may, for example, be desired to cool water flowing at one thousand gallons per minute from 130 F. to 90 F., using ambient air having a wet bulb temperature of 80 F. Utilizing a tower construction in accordance with the instant invention, the desired heat reduction can be achieved in a packing bed 22 eighteen inches in depth and a mist or drift elimination bed 33 three inches in depth, with an air volume iiow somewhat greater than one hundred thousand cubic feet per minute. With an air velocity of three hundred feet per minute, the transverse dimensions of the packing beds would be approximately eighteen by twenty feet and the overall height of the tower about twelve feet. The exit air temperature under these conditions would be about 110 F. 'I'he relatively smal1 size of the tower, considering the magnitude of the 6 problem involved, is made possible by the relatively small size of the contact bed 22 and this in turn is a function of the saddle packing in conjunction with the even and uniform distribution of water over the bed.
What is claimed is:
1. A liquid-gas contact device, including a casing open at the top thereof, a liquid inlet trough extending across the top of said casing, and having longitudinally spaced apart perforations in itsbottom, a series of spaced apart liquid distributor pans in transverse underlying relation to said trough and positioned to receive liquid from respective perforations in said trough, a series of longitudinally spaced apart V-cuts in each said pans through which the liquid in the pans may overflow and drip downward in the casing, a bed of packing material beneath said distributor pans upon which the liquid drips in a plurality of streams at predetermined points over the area of the bed, said packing material comprising random positioned saddle shaped elements to accomplish a variable intermingllng and numerous changes of direction of said liquid streams as they descend through the packing bed, a sump in the bottom of said casing to collect the liquid and an outlet from said sump, and means for directing a eountercurrent of gas upwardly through said packing bed and thence between said pans for discharge out of the top of the casing, said gas current being constrained by said saddle elements to follow substantially the same flow path as said liquid streams but in a reverse direction.
2. A liquid-gas contact device, according to claim 1, characterized by a supplemental bed of packing material arranged in embracing relation to said trough, above said distributor pans through which said air current is discharged from the casing in non-contacting relation to the liquid.
WILLIAM J. BERINGER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the iile of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 226,908 Edwards Apr. 27, 1880 1,334,515 Braun Mar. 23, 1920 1,476,292 Galusha Dec. 4, 1923 1,673,732 Brooks June 12, 1928 1,690,092 Stocker Oct. 30, 1928 1,796,501 Berl Mar. 17, 1931 2,127,450 Schneider et al Aug. 16, 1938 2,253,261 Bacon Aug. 19, 1941 2,385,483 Mode Dec. 19, 1944 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 298,075 Great Britain Nov. 15, 1928 339,754 Germany Aug. 5, 1921 332,828 Italy Dec. 9, 1935
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|U.S. Classification||96/262, 261/DIG.720, 55/472, 55/512, 55/494, 261/36.1, 261/97, 96/300|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S261/72, B01D47/02|