US 2610038 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 9, 1952 N. E. PHILLIPS THERMAL RESPIRATOR 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 29, 1949 F IG.
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wv www@ NORMAN E. PH/LL/PS 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filled March 29, 1949 Sept. 9, 1952 N. E. PHILLIPS THERMAL RESPIRATOR Filed March 29, 1949 l Il me/wm NURMAN' E. PHILLIPS Patented Sept. 9, 1952 THERMAL RESPIRATOR Norman E. Phillips, College Park, Md., Vassignor .ofone-third to Loyal G. Goff, Bethesda,iMd.
Application March 29, 1949, Serial No. 84,093
` This device relatesbroadly to a-heat exchange apparatusand is particularly designed as aportable air conditioning unit foi-use laslabreathing laid in extremely cold surroundings jsuch as are an'tarctic regions i encountered in the Aarctic and and at high altitudes.` 4
`Cold 'air has" a low moisture content and the i inhaling thereof has many harmfulgeifects upon the individual.
Among some of the'moreserious effects encountered are frost-bite of the respiratory tract and excessive fatigue. This not only causes loss of efliciency of "the individual, but may possibly cause serious injury land prolonged illness to those operatingunder these unusually lcold conditions. The loss of eiii-ci-ency is to a great extent due to the loss of Ienergy experienced incident to warming of the air and the loss of moisture from the body which later is expired. Each breath of vthe cold `inhaled 'air Vgoes lthrough the same process of being heated and taking up moisture from the body which continually drains the body of its energy andsubjecting it to many other ill e'iects. b The present apparatus and method are Vparticularly designed forreconditioning this `cold air by raising `its temperature and moisture content from the heat and moisture contained in the expired air. b
In its broader sense the principal object of the invention is yto provide a simple and efliclent he-at exchange unit which is capable of transferring heat and moisture from one portion of a fluid to another portion as they are circulated in close proximity through the unit.
Another object of the invention is to provide a unit of compact construction which will be light in weight and occupy a minimum-amount of space.
Still another object of the invention is to provde means for moving the heated iiuid` portion and 'the' unheated portion through separate channels and transferring the heat carried by the heated portion of the uid through the chan-` nel wall to the unheated iiuid.
A further object `of `the invention 4is lto provide a structure which may be easily and economically manufactured and of several detachable parts which maybe detached for cleaning `r replacement.
While several `specific objects of the invention have been briey pointed out, other objects vvand advantages will be apparent as the nature ofthe invention kis more fully disclosed `consisting of the novel construction, combination and arrangement of parts shown in the accompanying drawings and described in the detail-ed description `6 Claims. (Cl. 257-245) forming a part of the specifi-cation Vand'in which:
Figure 1 is avertical side view` of theiunitto- -gether with an yati-,ached facemask.
Figure 2 is a verticalfsectional View taken along the line'Z-LZ of Figure 1. I A
Figure 3` isfan enlarged `tragittientarysectional View .of 'la smallsection of the -uni-t taken along the bottom of theunit similar `to the sectional view shown in Figure 2.
`'Figure 4 is an enlarged sectional view "taken along the line 4 4 of Figure 2.
Figure 5 is an enlarged perspective view of one I form of valve member.
Figure 6 is a View 'similar to Figure 5 -of the opposite side of the valve.
Figure 7 is anenlarged 'fragmentary sectional view of the unit similar to that shown in Figure 4.
` Figure 8 `is 4afragmentary view of a unit showing a modified form of uid outlet valve.
Figure 9 is `an enlarged sectional view taken along line 9--9 of Figure. l
Figure `10` is a view similar to Figure 8 'showing a modified jform of 'liuid intake valve.
Figure vl1 is an enlarged sectional View taken along the line VI I--I I of Figure 10.
Referring to the drawings, the novelty of the invention resides principally in the canister which is provided with a thin outer wall or 'shell li `and Ia relatively thin 'insulating outer cover lIl. The interior of the canister lis provi-ded Vwith a centrally located tubeV I0. Surrounding 'the tu'be l0 and connected therewith are spiral channels `I2 and I4. These channels are `lormed b'y one or more spiral separators or wallsof relatively thin sheet material IS and vI8 and are preferably -constructed of lsheet metal or any suitable material having the required properties of high heat conductivity. These channels extend longitudinally of the canister :and are hermetically sealed adjacent the top `and bottom and are insulated from the top and bottom b y insulation 20 and 22. Each of the channels I2 and I-4 are provided with outer openings 24 and 26 respectively leading through the outer casing 6. One of the channels will contain the inlet valves 28 and `30 and be known as theinsp-iratorychannels,` and *the other channel will contain the .outlet valves 32 land 34 and `be known las the cxpiratory channels.
The wall 'mem-bers have 'adjacent their lower areas a plurality of small holes or open-ings 36 of such size as to allow a liquid to pass from one channel to the other, Aand covered with such a material, or designed in such `a fashion that the `free passage of gases is reduced toa minimum.
- with the valves.
over the ends of the V member as shown at 56 and 58' for holding the sheet member in contact with the openings. By this arrangement it can be seen that the uid will be only allowed to travel through the openings 52 in the direction of the flexible sheet.
A modified form of valve is shown in Figures S to l0, and are shown located on the outer surface of the sheet or cover?1A The `inlet .valves are arranged as shown at 66,l 62 'and VE54 in Figure 10,
awhile the outlet valves are shown at 66, 68 and channels I2 and I4 to the inside of the tube.-l
While these valves are shown carried within the openings of the tube I6 and adjacent the center of the canister, they maybe located adjacent' the outer wall as shown in VFigures 8 and 10Ql As a matter of fact, the valves may `be any place along the channels. However, it is preferable to locate the valves adjacent the center of the canister becauseit has been found that the'v'alves will have amore uniform and dependableaction than if located adjacent the `outside of the canister where the temperature Vmay run as low; as 60 to '70 degrees below zero, which in some instances tends toafiectj the operation of thevalve if constructed of fa pliable material suchasrubber, leather, plasticor the like.. :The airto be conditioned is injected and expelled into and out of the single central-passage or tube i6 andv is directed through the channels by the valves. While the central passage is shown in the form of a tube, it may take'any other convenient shape, size or design. Y For example,A the separator walls are shown as consisting of two separate elements i6 `and I8.. They may be made of a single sheet byslotting the tube I6 longitudinally andl allowingthe sheet to extend through the tube to formv a lsecond separator on the opposite side of the tube. In this case the central section is divided and the respective valves are in the half sections.- l
For vservicing and replacement purposes the tube I6 may be lremovable from the canister.
It lis shown as 'being receivable within appropriate openings within-the top and bottom of vthe canister and having a hollow shoulder memberjI5, attached to its upper end for contacting the upper end of the canister. Y The lower end of -the tube is provided `with an internal thread for receiving a threaded plug I'i. rIhe plug is providedwith a tapered inner end portion I'I. The headfof the plug is adapted tov bear against the bottom portion of the canister, fixablyfsecuring the tube within the.` canister.
Secured .to the upper, end -of the canister through-the hollow shoulder member I5 is one end-of 'a flexibleV breathing tube 46, the other end of `which is connected with a face mask 42. The maskmay be of any suitable design, but preferablyone'covering both the nose and mouth of the wearer. If under certain lcircumstances it isfmore' convenient to the wearenthe canister may-be attached directly to the mask, eliminatingthe ,tube 46 altogether.
.The valves may take any desired form. One type whichhas proven to be most practical is shown-in Figures 5. and 6. This particular valve may be used both as an intakev and outlet valve by ksimply reversing it. The valve is construced of an elongated .V-shaped rigid member 56; formed in the member Aell are openings or .windows 52. Lying -within the V member is a flexible sheet member 54, such as rubber, leather or similar material. 'Along the apex of the member-6@ is a small rod 56 having its ends clamped 10 in Figure 8. The device may be constructed Y with more than two channels with suitable valves,
or fluid directing means, provided. for each channel.
For example, the intake valve 62 is provided with a packing or washer 62', a stem 63, and
a head 65. This type Valve is one of the wellknown conventional types in which the valve is kept normally closedby a suitable spring 36.
The outlet valves are constructed insubstantially` the same manner and operated in substantially the same manner, the-difference being that in the outlet valve 68 the valve operates on the opposite side of the valve opening, and thestem 16 extends inwardly on which vis carrieda cap 18. Between the valve opening and the cap '-18 there is alspring 86 forkeeping the valvefnormally closed. lThe stem 'I6 also/extends lout wardly for a short distance and carries -a Cap 82 for manually testing its operation.V
It may be desirable to mold the canisterrom one of the well-known plastics. Also, the separators themselves may be made from an absorbent, or porous, material which would convey the liquid through the walls ,of the inspiratory channel as previously described for the absorbing material but which would effectively prevent the rapid diffusion of gases from one channel to the other. One of the most important features of the canister is thatthe channels I2 and I4, jmust provide for leasy breathing by not being too narrow to ,set up undue resistance, butl the width of the channel plus the length ofthe channel must -be such Athat there will be substantially a complete transfer through the separator walls I6 and I8 of the heat contained in the exhaledair to the air to be inhaled. Y v v In operation, the mask 42 or mouthpieceis placed securely over the nose and/or mouth. As air is breathed into the mask, it moves through thetube 4I), the tube I0 and through the valves 32 and 34 into the expiratorychannel I2 forcing the air of the previous expiration out of the canister through the outside opening 26. The heat `contained in the exhaled air will be transferred through the separators I6 and E8 into the air being conveyed kthrough the inspiration channel I4. f The heat .contained in the immediately expired air is conducted through the separator walls intol the inspiratory channel I4.V The air in the inspiratory .channelV I4 wasv partially warmed by the heat of the previous expiration and is now further warmed by the heat of the above immediate expiration. Upon inhalation this warned air is drawn from channel I4 through the valves 28 and 30 to the central tube I0 andthrough the tube 46 and into the mask.42. As air is being inspired from channel I4 an equal volume of coldf air is being drawn into channel I4 through thevopening 24, and being partially warmed by the residual heat from channel I2.
Each channel should have a total volume of such a magnitude that the transfer of Vheatfrom `considerable heat loss.
5 expired to inspiredair will rbe optimum .taking int'o consideration 'su'ch factors aschange `in tidal volume `due to exercise, altitude, and other physiological conditions,and also such physical factorsa's volum'echange's `due to changes 'in tem.`
' wall .intoitheinspiratory channel and `there is absorbed by the absorbent material attached to or incorporated in the walls of the channel, and
.by capillary action is conveyed over the walls of the channel to be taken by the incoming air as it becomes heated, thereby supplying to the incoming air moisture, which otherwise would be taken from the body when this air is again exhaled.
While the device is primarily constructed for use as a thermal respirator, it may have other new and novel uses as a heat transfer uniti. For example, a modification of the device may be used in installations where a breathing action takes place, such as exists in the base of an internal combustion engine. Such a device would act to heat the incoming air by the heat taken from the exhausted air and aid in keeping the oil in the crankcase from being cooled by the extreme cold air direct from 'the outside, another example being that in an air coni ditioning system, the fresh air can be heated by the exhausted Warm air and thereby prevent While several alternate uses for the device have been mentioned, there are probably many other uses and advantages to which the principles of the device could be put which are not readily apparent at this time.
While the device has been illustrated and described in its simplest form, it is not intended to be limited thereto as its shape, size and design may be altered or changed to suit specic problems and conditions. For example, under certain circumstances the channel separator or separators may not be provided with the apertures 36, or the capillary walls as described for the inspiratory channels. The channel separators would then be constructed of a high heat transfer material and separate means would be provided for exhausting the condensation of the moisture collected in the expiratory channels, or allowing it to be blown `from the channels in the normal course of breathing in the form of small snow-like flakes. On the other hand it may be advantageous and/or desirable to provide means for supplying fresh moisture to the incoming air. Another modification may reside in moving the iiuids in the adjacent chambers in the same direction which may be accomplished by allowing the separate portions of the fluid or fluid bodies, to enter either the outer or inner ends of the adjacent channels in the same direction and leaving the opposite ends in the same manner. The various modifications depend largely upon whether the device is to be channels are connected, relativelyfsmall openings 'formed in the lower portions ofthe separators for admitting a small portion ofi'a --fluid to? pass through the separators tolthechannelsfmeansior 'conveying the said iiuid over the sidewalls offithe channell provided fwith" the inlet valves pnefind of fthe canister having an opening leading tothe central passage for i connecting :the central `ipa's'- sage withabreathingmask. A f 2. In a thermal respirator A"comprising `:aj-canister having a plurality of separators forming side Walls for adjacent narrow channels having their outer ends open to the atmosphere, each alternate channel being provided With intake and outlet valves, the canister being provided with an opening at its center into which the inner openings of the channels are connected, the separators having small openings formed in the lower portions thereof, means associated with the channel Walls provided with said intake valves for conveying the fluid over the channel Walls by capillary attraction, and means for connecting the central `opening in the canister with a breathing mask. i
3. In a thermal respirator comprising a canister having a plurality of spaced separators for forming a'plurality of adjacent spiraled narrow channels, the channels being provided With separate openings in the outer surface of the canister for admitting and exhausting air therethrough, each alternate channel having air intake and outlet valves adjacent their outer openings, a relatively large passage formed at the center of the canister with which the inner ends of the several channels are connected, small openings formed in the channel separators along the bottom of the channel separators adjacent the i central passage for admitting condensed moisture to pass through the channel walls of the canister, the surface of the channels provided with the inlet valves being of such a character as to have capillary attraction for the moisture for distributing the same over the side wall thereof. and
'means for connecting a breathing mask with the central passage.
4. In a breathing mask having a canister associated therewith, said canister having spaced separator walls of relatively thin high heat transfer material for forming a plurality of adjacent narrow inspiratory and expiratory channels, the channels having separate openings in the outer surface of the canisterV for admitting and exhausting air therethrough, each alternate channel having air intake and outlet valves, the canister having a relatively large opening with which the inner openings of the several channels are connected, means for transferring moisture through the channel walls to the several channels, the surfaces of the channels provided with the inlet valves being of such a character as to provide capillary attraction for the moisture for distributing the same over the side Walls of the 7 said channels and means for connecting the central opening of the canister-with a breathing mask.
5. In a thermal breathing apparatus comprising a canister having a plurality of lspaced spiraled separators providing side walls for ad- Ajacent spiraled air channels, the Vouter ends of whichare open to the atmosphere, each alternate channel having intake and outlet valves respectively, the canister being provided with1a single passage at its center with which the spiraled channels/are connected. one end of the canister having Va single opening leading to the central passage for connecting the central passage with a, breathing mask. n
Y16.Y In a1breathing apparatusrfor raising the temperature of cold air comprising a container having `a top and bottom and means extending between the top and bottom for forming adjacent spiral channels within the container, each channel having an opening to the atmosphere adjacent their outer ends; and an opening at their inner ends leading into a centrally located single 8 passage'within the container, air valves associated with the channels for allowing the air to pass in only opposite directions in adjacent channels, the top cover having a'single opening leading to ther central single'passage and means associated with the opening in the top cover for connecting the cover` opening with a breathing mask. NORMAN E. PHILLIPS.
REFERENCES CITED v The following references are of record in ythe file of this patent: l
UNITED STATES PATENTS Strom Oct.V 1'7, 1944