US 2610837 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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Louis M Pust'er.
. BY a 711.1400
Attorneys 2 SI-lEBTS-SHEET 2 L M PUSTER STEAM WATER HEATER Sept. 16, 1952 Filed Oct." 23, 1947 Patented Sept. 16, 1952 I 2,610,831} I H e j q .misfimif h 1 v le, uq p qnflqt. 31mm. Application10ctoben23, 1947, Serial No. 781,646
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82. fm. 2m im mnxing onaq' a mm I a a m. $10. 1 of an lwnat yqe bg lme nwm pnn h 'f lzman m it www we? tank or other suitable container, of any appropriate size and construction, closed at one end by a cover I I suitably secured thereto as by bolts or screws I2. Cover II has an opening I3 therethrough in which is secured the outlet of a steam inlet line or conduit I4 of any suitable size and construction and shown as having therein a check valve I 5. The opposite end of the container I is also provided with an opening I6 through which extends into the interior of the container, preferably coaxially therewith, and to a point near to the outlet of the steam line, the outlet end of a cold water inlet line or conduit I! which terminates in a nozzle I8 of any suitable construction for delivering fine jets or a spray of water into the steam admitted to the container ID from steam line I4. 7
In order that the pressure of the steam admitted to the container It] shall always be predeterminately lower than the pressure of the water admitted to said container, irrespective of variations in the water pressure, means are provided for maintaining a predetermined diiferential in pressure between the pressure of the water and the pressure of the steam. To this end, the cold water inlet line I! includes at any suitable portion thereof a T coupling I9 to which is secured by a suitable coupling a conduit 2|, which may be flexible or rigid, leading to a pressure responsive valve mechanism whose housing 22 is suitably connected into the steam line I4. As shown in detail in Fig. 2, conduit 2|, at its end opposite coupling 20, has its end secured in an opening in a cap 23 threadedly mounted on the valve housing 22. Mounted interiorly of said housing in communication with said conduit 2| is an expansible and collapsible chamber 24, here shown as provided by an expansible and collapsible corrugated tubular wall or bellows 25 hermetically sealed to a ring 26, that is clamped between the threaded cap 23 and the body of the valve housing 22, and to a movable end wall 21. Suitably attached to end wall 21 is a valve stem 23 which in turn is suitably secured to a valve member 29 adapted to cooperate with a port 30 provided in a partition 3| interiorly of the valve housing 22. With the valve in the position shown in Fig. 2, the steam inlet pipe I4 is connected to the left-hand side of the housing as indicated by the arrow. Valve member 29 and the movable end wall 21 of bellows 25 preferably have the same effective area so as to balance the forces exerted on the valve member 29 and end wall 21 by the supply steam and insure that movement of the valve member 29 is independent of the supply steam pressure. Housing 22 carries a second threaded cap 32 provided with a threaded opening 33 in which is adjustably mounted a screw 34 that terminates in a spring seat 35. Interposed between the spring seat 35 and the valve member 29-is a spring 36 acting in opposition to the pressure in chamber 24.
The-pressure in the inlet water line I1 is therefore transmitted through conduit 2| to chamber 24 to open the valve member 29 in opposition to the tension of the spring 36 and to the back pressure in pipe l4" acting upon valve member 29, and by appropriately adjusting the screw 34 the tension of said spring may be set to maintain a predetermined difierence in pressure between the pressure of the water in pipe I I acting on bellows 24 and the back pressure of the steam acting on valve 29. Hence, irrespective of variations of pressure in the water, the steam pressure admitted to the container It may be maintained at a constant differential so that the jets or spray of water from the nozzle I8 may readily penetrate the incoming steam and by intimate intermixture therewith efiect the desired heating of the water.
Formed on or suitably secured to the container I0 is a lateral tubular extension 38 in open communication with the interior of the container Ili. Secured in any suitable way in the open end of said extension 38, as by the nut 39, is a bulb 40 that is in communication through a suitable conduit 4|, which may be flexible or rigid, with an expansible and collapsible chamber at 42, said chamber having a movable wall connected by valve stem 43 to a valve member 44 disposed in a valve housing 45 suitably connected at any suitable point into the cold water inlet line I1. The construction of thermostatically operated valve here employed may be the same as, and has been illustrated as the same as, that employed in the hot water outlet line hereinafter described in greater detail except that valve member 44 is reverse acting and valve member BI is direct acting. The thermostat 40, 4|, 42, so provided is charged with any suitable thermostatic fluid, and an adjustable nut 46 cooperating with a spring opposing expansion of said chamber, as hereinafter explained in conjunction with the valve in the hot water outlet line, provides for the adjustment of the temperature at which the thermostat so provided responds to effect opening and closing of the valve member 44.
The water level in the container is normally such that the bulb 40 is covered by the water as shown in Fig. 1. When water is withdrawn from the container the water level is lowered so that the bulb 40 becomes exposed to the temperature of the steam, whereupon the thermostat 40, M, 42, by expansion or volatilization of its charge, operates to open the then closed valve member 44 and admit cold water to the nozzle I8. The water sprayed into the steam is heated by the steam, and if the heated water is not withdrawn as rapidly as cold water is admitted through the nozzle I8 the heated water accumulates in the container I0 until it rises to approximately the level shown in Fig. 1 so as to cover the bulb 40, thereby shielding the bulb from the temperature of the steam. The lower temperature to which the bulb 40 is now subjected results in a contraction or condensation of the charge in the thermostat 40, 4|, 42 with resultant closure of the valve member 44. As soon as water is again withdrawn from the container I 0, however, the water level is again lowered so as to reexpose the bulb 40 to the temperature of the steam, whereupon the valve member 44 is again opened to effect injection of the cold water through the nozzle I8 into the steam. Thus the cycle is repeated each time withdrawal of water changes the level to expose the bulb 40 to the temperature of the steam. By appropriate adjustment of the nut 46 the temperatures at which the valve member 44 is opened and closed may be nicely predetermined.
Also in communication with the container I0 is any suitable hot water outlet line or conduit 48 by which hot water may be withdrawn from said container. In the embodiment of the invention illustrated it is contemplated that the water in the container II) will be at a temperature substantially above that at which it is desired that the heated water be discharged, and to reduce the temperature of the water at the discharge to the desired temperature for use,
outlet side of a check chamber 66', here shown" as cold water. is. mixed th the hot water leaving the. container ill. To this end, the cold water inlet line l1 includes atany suitable point, prererablyon: the;- inlet side of. a checkvalve 41,. 1? coupling. 4.9 with which communicates a cold water conduit 5.0;..that is incommunicatiom; as by means or a. T- coupling 5L. with the hot; water outlet. line 4.8,. conduit 50 preferably including a check valve. 52 to prevent reverse flow of the water. In order that the volume oi cold water admitted to the hot waterline 48; shall be properly proportioned to. the hot. water. notwithstanding variationsin. pressure in the hot water line 48, conduit. 50 preferably has. interposed therein. a pressure responsive: valve 55-, which may be of identical construction with the valve at 22, and including an. expansible and collapsible chamber to which the valvemember is attached with the chamber in communication: with-the hotwater line 48 through a suitable conduit 54, which may be flexible or rigid, leading to a T coupling 55 interposed at. a.- suitable point in the hot water line.. The expansible. and collapsible chamber at 53 and the.- valve. member to which it is attached operate in. opposition to. a spring and. to backpressure from T 51, as illustrated in Fig, 2, and the. tension of the spring may be adjusted by manipulation of a. screw 5ficomparable=to the screw 3.4.. Thereby variations of pressure in the hot waterline 4.8 will .operatethe. valve. at 53 to vary the flow of cold water so as. to. avoid fluctuations in the. temperature or the. mixture due to variations in pressure in the hot water line 48. When the pressure in hot water line 48 remains constant and valve member Iii is throttled down by. reason or, high. temperatures at bulb- II. the pressure in. coupling, 51 which is exerted on the discharge side. of the valve. member 01 valve 53 is decreased and valve 53 is opened to admit: cold water to the mixture to cool. the same to the desired. temperature.
To maintain a predetermin d the mixture. of hot. and cold water delivered to the outlet 58, a. thermostatically operated. valve controlled by the temperature of the. mixture is also provided" to. vary the proportions of hot and cold water flowing: to the outlet. 58. Said thermostatically' operatectvalve may be used to vcontrol the. admission of either the hot water or the cold watenbut. as shown it is disposed in the hot" water line 48. p in the cold water line va1ve53 must be placed in the hot water line. As illustrated, a. suitable valve housing .59 is interposed at" any suitable point in the hot water line 48, preferably on the a valve member 6.1 for cooperation with a valve port 62' suitably provided. in a partition 63 interiorly of said valvehousing 55. Valve member 6| is oonnected'byfia valve stem 64 with the movable end wall 65 of. an expansible and collapsible having an inner flexible wall provided by an. expansible and. collapsible corrugated tubular memberor bellows 6'1 hermetically" sealed at its opposite ends to said movable end wall 65 andto" a stationary ring 68- secured to or formed as apart-of the' frame 69. Chamber is completed by an; exterior cupshaped wall 1-0 hermetically secured to the ring 68 and surrounding the bellows 61'. Sealed into said cup-shaped wall is a suitable conduit II. which may be rigid or flexible, leading to a bulb 1.2 mounted. in any suitable way, as by a nut 13,. in an aperture in: a. housing 1:4 through which the mixture oi hot and cold watertfiows. Threadedly mounted; inthe. ring temperature of .When thi'svalve is, placed valve Bland has therein can a. nut I5 which .ture of such. water 6. provides. msprinz seat to: a. coil spring- 1& miterposed between said. nut and the movable end wall .85.. .By adjustment. of saidnut 1.5 the tension. of the spring 1.6. may be; varied to predetermine the. temperature. at which the thermostatic charge, whichmaybe; of any suitable character, in he b l .v '2; co duit Hand. chamber 6.6 will respond to. the temperature of the mixture. flow- .ina the housing It.
All illustrateda manually operable valve 18 is shown on; the outlet side of. for opening and. closing: the conduit leading to the-outlet 58.. v W
In operation, steam at any suitable: pressure is connected. through the steam'line 1.4 to. the in.- teriorof. the container HI, while cold water is connected through the cold water line I! to the temperature. responsive valve at 45. Upon with.- drawal of water from. the. container I10. the bulb 4% is. exposed, and steam entering the container contacts the bulb 40. and. due. to the. expansion or-volatilization of the. thermostatic charge. in the thermostat 40,. it, 4.2, valve. member is opened to admit the cold water. to the nozzle: 1.8.. The pressure of'the. cold water in the conduit L1. is also communicated tothe pressure. responsive valve at '27.: insteamline t4, and under appropriate; adjustment or. the tension of. spring. 3d the valve member 29. is. opened by the pressure, oi. the cold water. tosuch an. amount. as. to. maintain a predetermined differential the. pressure. between that. or. the. cold water and. that, of. the steam in chamber Ill. .Hence a spray of; cold water is,- deliveredby the nozzle. l8 that readily penetrates. the incoming steam. andyabstracts heat therefromtalling into the container I'll. II the levelof. the water. in the container ill rises to cover the thermostat bulb 40 the lower t p causes a contraction or condensation of thecharge. in the thermostat. 40, 4|, 4.2, effecting the. closure of the cold water valve, but. any withdrawal of" hot water which exposes the bulb 40 results in the reopening of the. cold water. valve at 45 and injection of the cold. water the supply of hot transmitted through the conduit 54 to the. pressure responsive valve at 53 so as to. appropriately proportion the pressure of cold water-to the pres,- sure of hot water. The mixture of hot and cold water so effected then flows over the bulb 12 whereby the charge in the. thermostat 12., I l, 6.6, responds. to the temperature of said mixture to operate. the valve member 6.! andincrease or decrease the. flow of hot.- water as required. to main.- tain. a predetermined. temperature. oi. water dis..- charged through the outlet. 58, thetemperature so. maintained at the. outlet. being adjustable by manipulation. of the threaded. nut 15 to. vary the response of. thermostat- 1-3, 1. I.', 6.5- ta the'temperar ture. of the mixture.
- A. second. embodiment. of is. illustrated. Fig. 3.
the'present invention 'As here.- shown, a con- .tai-ncr of. any suitable..- si-ze. and, construction is: closed atone end by a cover, attached, thereto in any suitable. way as, byyboltsor screws 82.
Cover-ht has; an aperture 8.3. inwhich is suitably secured the-outlet end of a cold water line 8%, said outlet endbeing shown as extending coaxially the housing. 14
into the container 80 for a major portion of its length and being closed at its inner end by a plug 85. A suitable portion of the extremity of said inwardly projecting cold water line 84 has suitable apertures 86 of appropriate size to deliver fine jets of water. Also communicating with the end of the container'80 adjacent the cover BI is a steam inlet line 81 which preferably includes a check valve 88; Interposed in the steam line 81 is a pressure responsive valve 89 in communication through a suitable conduit 90, which may be rigid or flexible, with a T coupling 9! interposed in the cold water line 84, preferably on the outlet side of a check valve 92. Pressure responsive valve 89 with its connections 00, SI may be of the same construction as the pressure responsive valve 22 shown in'Fig. '2, the steam inlet 87 being connected to the left-hand side of the valve housing as shown in this figure and the valve performing the same function of maintain- 1 ing a predetermined difierential in pressure between that of the cold Water and that ol the steam admitted to the container 80.
As further shown in Fig. 3, the opposite end of the container 80 has suitably attached thereto, as by bolts or screws 03, a housing 94 from which leads an outlet conduit 95 that may include a hand operated valve 96, such as shown at 18 in Fig. 1, Projecting into said housing 94 is a bulb 01 mounted in any suitable way, as by the nut 58, and with which communicates a conduit 99, which may be rigid or flexible, leading to an expansible and collapsible chamber at I00. The thermostat 91, 99, I may have any suitable charge and may be of the same construction as the thermostat 12, H, 66 in Fig. 1. The movable wall of the expansible and collapsible chamber at I00 is connected by a valve stem I 0| to a valve member I02 cooperating with a port 103 in any suitable partition I04 provided in the housing I05, and an adjustable nut I06 cooperates with a spring for adjusting the response of the thermostat 91, 99, I60 as in the embodiment of Fig. 1.
In the operation of the embodiment of Fig, 3, steam is admitted to the container 80 through the steam line 81, and cold water is admitted to the container 80 through the cold water line 84, water being injected into the steam in line jets or in the form of a spray through the apertures 86. As in the embodiment of Fig. 1, pressure responsive valve 89 with its connections 00 and SI operates to maintain a predetermined differential in pressure between that of the cold water and that of the steam. Cold water may flow as jets from the cold water line throughout the area provided by the apertures 86, but the number of jets exposed to the steam depends on the level of the water in the container 80. The cold water inlet line has a maximum capacity in excess of the capacity for withdrawal of water through the outlet 95 so that heated Water may accumulate in the container. As water heated by the jets accumulates in the container 80 it progressively covers the apertures 06, decreasing the amount of cold water that is injected into heat interchanging relationship with the steam and increasing the proportion of cold water that is injected directly into the hot water to lower its temperature until a predetermined temperature is reached as determined by the rate of admission of cold water through the valve at I under the control of the thermostat 01, 99, I00 responding to the temperature of the water flowing to the outlet 95 over bulb 01. When water is withdrawn from the container 80 the level therein used, it will be apparent is lowered to increase the proportion of the jets "delivering into the steam. This water of progressively increasing temperature then reaches the bulb 91 which thereafter responds to the temperature of the water flowing thereover to efiect an-increase or decrease of the cold water admitted to the container as required by the temperature of the water leaving the container. If the temperature at the bulb 91 increases above that to be maintained at the outlet as determined by the adjustment I06 the charge in the thermostat 91, 99, I00 expands or volatilizes to open the valve member I02 and thereby increase the flow oi cold water. If the temperature at the bulb 91 decreases below that to be maintained said thermostat correspondingly closes the valve member I02. Thereby the level of the water in the container is varied by varying the admission of cold water so that the number of apertures through which cold water may be sprayed into the steam and the number of apertures through which cold water is injected directly into the hot water to lower its temperature is automatically adjusted to obtain water at the bulb 91 of predetermined temperature, Thereby a predetermined temperature is maintained at the outlet through varying the inflow of cold water to the container so as to vary the level therein until a balance is reached such that the proportion of cold water delivered directly into the hot water to the proportion of cold water injected into the steam is proper for maintaining the desired temperature.
It will therefore be perceived that by the present invention a hot water heater has been provided wherein the heating of the water is effected by admixture with steam, but as the water is injected into the steam rather than vice versa the noise which characterizes the injection of steam into water has been avoided. By maintaining the pressure of the steam predeterminatm ly lower than that of the water, the water may be injected in fine jets or a spray which penetrates the steam into intimate heat interchangin relationship therewith so that the water is heated with substantial uniformity without the need of any additional provision for effecting mixture.
If, as in the embodiment of Fig. 1, it is desired to maintain the hot water in the container at a temperature above that at which it is to be used, the present invention provides for the. reduction of the temperature of the water before discharge by admixture of cold water therewith, the volume of cold water admitted to the mixture being responsive to variations in pressure of the hot water, while the temperature of the mixture is nicely predetermined by varying the portions of hot and cold water intermixed so as to assure the desired temperature at the outlet.
On the other hand, as in the embodiment of Fig. 3, the temperature of the water delivered from the container may be accurately predetermined by varying the volume of cold Water admitted to the container, utilizing the level of the water in the container to automatically proportion the amount of cold water injected directly into the hot water to the amount of spray injected into the steam so as to establish a balance which maintains the desired temperature at the outlet. However, while the embodiment of Fig. 3 particularly lends itself to a heater wherein the temperature maintained at the outlet of the container is that at which the hot water is to be to those skilled in the art that the embodiment of Fig. 3 may be used for automatically maintaining the temperature in the container higher than that at which the water is to be used, in which event the delivery from the container may, as in the embodiment of Fig. 1, be connected to a cold water pipe for adding cold water to the hot water for lowering the temperature of the water as used, as by use of a cold water conduit comparable to conduit 50 in Fig. 1, and pressure and temperature responsive valves, such as used at 53 and 59 in Fig. 1, may then be employed for controlling the volumes of hot and cold water intermixed.
While the embodiments of the invention illustrated on the drawings have been described with considerable particularity, it is to be expressly understood that the invention is not limited thereto. As will now be apparent to those skilled in the art, the invention is capable of receiving a variety of mechanical expressions, while changes may be made in the details of construction, arrangement, proportion, sizes, etc., certain features may be used without other features, parts may be replaced by equivalent parts, etc., without departing from the spirit of this invention. Reference is therefore to be had to the appended claims for a definition of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In a water heater, in combination with a container for the heated water, a conduit for conveying steam to the interior of the upper portion of said container to form an atmosphere of steam therein, a conduit for conveying coldwater to the interior of said container and including an elongated tube apertured to form jets over a substantial portion of the height of said consive to the pressure of the water in said water line for operating said reducing valve tomaintain the pressure of said steam atmosphere predeterminately lower than the pressure of said water, an outlet conduit in communication with said container, and means for maintaining a substantially uniform predetermined temperature of the water flowing through said outlet including a valve in said water conduit and a thermostat operatively connected to said valve and subjected to 1 the water flowing to said outlet for predetermintainer, said tube being arranged to be immersible at least in part in the water in said container, a pressure reducing valve in said steam line, means responsive to the pressure of the water in said water line for operating said reducing valve to maintain the pressure of said steam atmosphere predeterminately lower than the pressure of said water, a valve in said water conduit, and a thermostat operatively connected to said last named valve and subjected to the temperature of the heated water in said container for controlling the inflow of water and varying the level of the water in said container to proportion the jets delivering into said atmosphere of steam to the jets delivering into the water below the level thereof to maintain a substantially uniform temperature of said heated water.
2. In a water heater, in combination with a container for the heated water, a conduit for conveying steam to the interior of the upper portion of said container to form an atmosphere of steam therein, a conduit for conveying cold water to the interior of said container and including an elongated tube apertured to form jets over a substantial portion of the height of said container, said tube being arranged to be immersible at least in part in the water in said container, a pressure reducing valve in said steam line, means responing the volume of water flowing into said container and immersin below the water level in said container so many of said jets that the jets delivering into the atmosphere of steam will in conjunction with the immersed jets establish and maintain a predetermined temperature.
3. In a water heater, in combination with a container for the heated water, a conduit for conveying steam to the interior of the upper portion of said container to form an atmosphere of steam therein, aconduit for conveying cold water to the interior of said container and including an elongated tube apertured to form jets over a substantial portion of the height of said container, said tube being arranged to be immersible at least in part in the water in said container, a pressure reducing valve in said steam line, means responsive to the pressure of the water in said water line for operating said reducing valve to maintain the pressure of said steam atmosphere predeterminatelylower than the pressure of said water, and means for varying the level of the water in said container to vary the number of jets delivering to said atmosphere of steam including a valve in said water conduit and a thermostat subjected to the temperature of the water in said container and operatively connected to said last named valve for respectively increasing and decreasing the inflow of cold water upon increase and decrease of the temperature of the heated water in said container.
LOUIS M. PUSTER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PA'I'ENTS