US 2612024 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
SePt- 30, 1952 w. A. HUNsucKER 2,612,024
SUBNARINE FOUNDATION AND METHOD oF ERDCTING Filed Dec. 18, 1948 v 2 SHEETS-SHEET 1 Sept. 30, 1952 w. A. HuNsucKER 2,612,024
SUBMARINE FOUNDATION AND METHOD oF ERECTING Filed Dec. 18, 1942sv 2 sums-SHEET 2 Patented Sept. 30, 1952 SUBMARINE FOUNDATION AND METHOD OF ERECTING i William A. Hunsucker, Los Angeles', Calif. Application December 1s,` 194s, seri-a1 No. 66,026
11 claims. 1
The present invention relates in general to supporting structures or foundations and, more particularly, the invention relates to a foundation adapted to be erected on and anchored in the earth beneath a body of Water and to a method of constructing or erecting a foundation on such ya site.
As a matter of convenience, the adjective submarine will be employed hereinafter as descriptive of a foundation erected on such a site, i. e., on the surface of the earth beneath a body of Water, with the understanding that the invention is not limited in application to a structure for erection in the sea, but may also be applied to structures for erection in fresh water. However, the invention has particular utility when applied to a foundation for erection in the sea in coastal regions to support a derrick and other equipment for off-shore drilling of oil wells, and will be considered in this connection hereinafter for purposes of illustration.
Various types of submarine' foundations for use in off-shore drilling operations have been employed heretofore, wooden and metallic foundations being typical examples. dations, usually comprising large numbers of piles driven into .the earth at the desired site, are subject to several disadvantages, one of these being that the piles are subject to attack by marine borers. Another disadvantage of such wooden foundations is that the load distribution to the piles is indeterminate so that a very rigid superstructure is required to insure that a number of piles suicient to support the load applied to the foundation are engaged. A further disadvantage of such Wooden foundations is that very heavy equipment for driving the piles is necessary, particularly where the water depth exceeds fifty feet, so that the erection of such foundations is quite expensive.
Metallic foundations, even if only partially prefabricated and assembled on the desired site, are quite expensive because of the heavy equipment, e. g., barges, hoists, and the like, required to transport and place the components thereof, particularly where the water depth exceeds fty feet or so. At water depths of one hundred feet, conventional wooden and metallic v foundations become almost impractical because of prohibitive erection costs. Another disadvantage ofnietallic foundations is, of course, that they are subject to corrosion, which is particuarly severe in sea Water, unless all of the components-thereof are corrosion resistant, or thoroughly waterproofed. Still another disadvantage of metallic founda- Wooden founv 2 l Y.
tions which are assembled on vthe site is that divers must be `used extensively in assembling the components. ,thereof, n. A
A primary object of my invention, therefore," is
to provide a submarine foundation and a method of erecting it which obviate the foregoing and various other disadvantages of submarine foun- T subject to V'attack by corrosionjmarine borers, or
the like and to provide a submarine foundation which may be erected With relatively light equipment .and relatively inexpensively even in very vdeepWater, i. e., even in water of` a depth of o ne hundred feet'or more.
Another object of the invention is to provide a submarine foundation which is extremely' rigid, particularlyinsofar as vertical loadsare. convcerned.
Still another object is to provide a submarine .foundation which includes relatively Afew loadsupporting members to insure determinability of load distributionf- A further object is to provide a lsubmarine foundation which may be erected on the desired site in a relatively short time.
Still another. object is to provide a submarine foundation which includes relatively few submerged members to minimize the lateral forces ,applied to the foundation by` wave action. Preferably, the effect of currents lor wave'action is further minimized by making all of the` submerged membersrof circular cross section, which is still another o-bject of the invention. v
Still anotherv object is to providev a method of erecting a submarine foundation by. assembling its components on vthe desired sitev .and which minimizes the usefof divers. y
An important object of vthe `present invention is to provide a method of erecting `a submarine ments on the template and on the tubular c olumns for transmitting the weight of the tubular columns to the template so that the latter sup-I ports the columns.
Still another object is to provide guides comprising openings through the templateso that the lower ends of the columns may be inserted therethrough into the earth predetermined distances to stabilize the initial structure.
A'n important object of the invention is to provide an initial structure wherein the main braces interconnecting the tubular columns are tensionable and are provided with means for tensioning them at points above the surface of the body of water to minimizethe necessity for Vemploying divers in assembling the initial structure.
An important object is to provide a method of converting the initial structure into a durable and substantial submarine foundation through the use of equipment supported by the initial structure.
More specifically, an object of the invention is to provide a method of converting the initial structure into a durable and substantial submarine foundation which involves forming columns of cementitious material, such as concrete, within the tubular columns and extending downwardly therebeneath substantial distances into the earth.
Another object of the invention is to provide a method which involves displacing earthen material from beneath the tubular columns upwardly therethrough, as by drilling, for example, to produce shafts which extend downwardly from and register with' the lower ends of the tubular columns, and which involves lling such shafts and at least the lower ends of the tubular columns with cementitious material which is adapted to set to produce cementitious columns extending upwardly from the lower ends of the shafts into the tubular columns.
Another object of the invention is to provide a submarine foundation of the foregoing character wherein the cementitious columns contain reinforcing elements of a material such as steel, for example, and wherein the reinforcing elements are substantially completely enclosed by cementitious material to prevent corrosion thereof by the surrounding water.
Another object of the invention is to provide a method of preventing caving in of the earthen material surrounding the shafts as the latter are formed. More specifically, an object of the in` vention is to provide a method which involves inserting tubular casings through the tubular columns and into the shafts asthe shafts are formed so as to prevent cave-ins. Such tubular casings need be employed only if the earthen material is of such a nature that it tends to cave in readily.
Another object is to withdraw the tubular casings, if used, from the shafts and from the tubuhereinfater.
lar columns as the latter are filled with cementitious material so that the tubular casings may be used in the erection of other subsequent submarine foundations, whereby to minimize expense.
The foregoing objects and advantages of the present invention, together with various other objects andadvantages thereof which will become evident, may be attained through the utilization of the exemplary embodiments of the invention which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings and which are described in detail Referring to the drawings:
Fig. l is an elevational view of a partially completed submarine foundation of the invention and illustrates one step of the method of the invention;
Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectional view taken along the broken line 2-2 of Fig. l;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary, perspective view on an enlarged scale illustrating a portion of an initial structure of the submarine foundation;
Fig. 4 is anenlarged, fragmentary, elevational view of another portion of the initial structure;
Fig. 5 is a sectional View taken along the broken line 5-5 of Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged, fragmentary, elevational view illustrating one embodiment of still another portion of the initial structure;
Fig. 7 is a sectional View taken along the broken line 1 1 of Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 is an enlarged, fragmentary, elevational view of a reinforcing structure for use in a cementitious column forming part of the submarine foundation;
Fig. 9 is a sectional view taken along the broken line 9-9 of Fig. 8; and',
Figs, l0 and 11 are enlarged sectional views taken along the broken lines Ill-l0 and ll--IL respectively, of Fig. 1 of the drawings. 1
Referring particularly to Fig. l of the drawings,
the numeral 20 designates a submarine foundation for supporting any desired structure, such as a derrick 2l and associated equipment (not shown) for drilling an oil well, or the like. The submarine foundation 2l! is erected on a surface 22 of the earth beneath a body of water 23 and is anchored in the earth, the surface of the body of water being designated bythe numeral 24.
As a matter of convenience, the structure of the submarine foundation 2D will be discussed in terms of the method of assembling the components thereof.
The first step in the erection of the submarine foundation 26 involves erecting an initial structure, indicated generally by the numeral 21, which rests on the earth surface 22 and which is adapted to support equipment for convertingA the initial structure into the completed submarine foundation, as will be discussed hereinafter. The initial structure 21 includes a column support or tcmplate 28 which is placed on the earth surface 22. For example, the template 28 may be placed on the earth surface 22 by lowering it through the body of water 23 from a barge (not shown), or
almanac posed fin the triangularspaces -3.-I andfsuitably secured .to the template frame i219 -to Aincrease `the bearing area. 'The panels `l32 =are provided fto Vsupport the initialstructure -A2l and the hereiniafterdiscnssed equipment for Yconverting the l area, .of the template frame 29,.
'The template -tfinclud'es Aguides 3'5 for receiving the lower ends of tubular columns A36, the latter .preferably being of circular cross section to minimize the lateral forces applied thereto by ."Wave actionJin thebody of water 2.3. The tubular bers to contain the cementitious material during .the transition from the initial .to the nalstructure. As a matter of convenience the words "tu- "bular column will 'be used hereinafter to denote a generally vertically tubular column A.and form member.
In the particular construction illustrated, the guides 35 are .four in number and comprise openings lhrough the template 2'8 .at the four .corners thereof, the openings being defined by rings 3l. However, the number of vguides 35, as well as A'the conguration of the template 28, maybe varied as desired. The tubularv columns '36, which are of sufficient length .to extend above the water 'surface 24, maybe 'inserted into4 the `guides 35 from a barge (not shown), or the like, with or without the assistance of a diver, depending upon the depth and clarity of the water and upon the skill of the operator of the hoist (not shown) or other lequipment used. Connected to each tubular column 36 adjacent the 'lower end thereof are two main braces '33 which are .of sufficient length `to extend above the water surface2'4 when inclined at acute angles with respect to the ftu- `bular column to which they are connected, .as shown in` Fig. l of the drawings. vThe main braces 3.8 are connected to Ythe tubular column 36 vadjacent the lower ends thereof before inserting the lower ends of the tubular column into the guides 35 so that 'the main braces may be emp'loyed to control the tubular column `from above 'the water surface l24 as the .lower ends `of 'the columns are inserted into the guides, which is a feature of the invention.
In order to stabilize the initial structure 2'! against lateral forces which may result .from wave action, currents or contact by boats, the
Ytubular .columns 36 are inserted into the earth .predetermined vdistances below the surface 22 thereof, as illustrated in Fig. l of the drawings. Insertion of the tubular columns 36 into the earth is limited by elements 36 on .the tubular columns adjacent the lower ends thereof, the `elements 39 being adapted to engage the rings .31
defining the guides 35 and thus serving `as .stops for limiting insertion of the columns intothe earth. In the particular construction illustrated, .theelements 39 comprise laterally extending 'lugs Preferably,
welded jor l otherwise :secured fto 'the tubular columns 36.
` "The ltubular `columns 736 'are lpreferably 'formed of relatively thin metal, itypically about #sf-JA". so that if the earth fatthesite is relatively 'hard lthe "tubular columns 36 ymay be driven the lpredetermined distances into the earth with relatively light equipment. It will be understood that 'the thickness range indicated -is merely illustra- 'tive and may be exten'de'dji'f desired. On 'the other hand, if the #earth -at the rsite iis relatively nsoft, ythe weight of the 'tubular columns 'may `be 'suicient to produce the desired penetration.
In Fig. 1 ofthe drawings, vI have shown the tubular columns 36 as vertical, 4the guides `l35 being directed vertically to Vpermit vertical p'o's'i- 'cloning-of the columns; However, it -will 'be understood that theinvention is no'tlimited toposivitionin'g the columns 36 vertically since the `c e'l- *the template 28 and to each other in Aa kmanner rabouty to be described. As best shown in Fig. l3 rof the drawings, the template frame 29 has pivotally connected thereto adjacent Ieach guide 35 a ypair of braces l2 lspaced 90" apart. Complementary braces '43 vvare pivotally connected to each tubular column 36 adjacent `the lower end thereof. The braces 42 and 43 are respectively provided with differentially-spaced holes therethrough to receive bolts M, Ior the like, theholes in the braces -42 and 43' being "so located that small adjustments in brace length can be obtained'by placing the 'bolt Allt in different ysets of holes. Preferably, the braces 42 yor the braces 43, carry slidable collars 45, each of the latter being slidable Ainto a position such that it enciroles 'the 'corresponding "braces Aft2 Yand Alito secure them together. The collars 45, when so positioned, maintain the braces "42 "and 43 -in their proper relative `positions to `facilitate insertion of the bolts 44 through the holes in the braces and to prevent jackkning of 'the braces about the bolt axes after the bolts have been :inserted .in the holes. e
"The braces '42 and '43 `are preferably respec- 4tively attached to the template frame 29 'and the `columns 4are lowered into placeso that .the braces 42 and 43 may 'be connected by a diver inthe foregoing `manner with 4a 'minimum expenditure of time'and effort. Inorderto prevent the Vbraces 42 and '63 from obstructing the guides 35 during insertion of the tubular columns 36 Ythereinto, the braces 42 may be swung vaway'from. the guides 35 and 'the braces 43swung lupwardly vbefore lowering the template 28 and `the columns 36. the pivotal connections between the braces 42 and 43 yand the template 26 land columns 36 provide sufficient friction to retain the braces in such positions. Alternatively, the braces 42 vand 43 may `be lightly secured 'in such positions, as by means of readily bre'akable 'tape Y(not shown), for example.
"38,e ac'h of the main braces being connected'to "a 'suitable `bracket 48 adjacentthe lower end of the corresponding tubular column `36 by means of a clevis 43 in the particular construction'illustrated. After the tubular columns 36 vhave been positioned with respect to the template 28 in the foregoing manner, or after at least two of the columns have been positioned, the main braces 38 are connected to adjacent columns at points 50 above the water surface 24 so that such-connections may be made by workmen above the water surface,l which is a feature of the invention. Since each tubular column 36, has two main diagonal braces 38 connected thereto adjacent its lower end, and spaced 90 apart after all of the connections have been made at the points 50, each column will be connected to two adjacent columns spaced 90 apart. The main diagonal braces may be connected to the column 36 at the points 50 in any suitable manner. For example, each main brace may be connected at its upper end to one of the columns 36 by means of a bracket and clevis corresponding to those discussed previously.
Each main diagonal brace 38 carries an adjusting means, illustrated as a tensioning device, such as a turnbuckle I, which is also located above .the water surface 24. Thus, the main diagonal vbraces each of which is connected at its ends to two of the tubular columns 36 at the points 50 in any suitable manner. For example, the braces 52 may be connected to the columns 36 in the manner illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5 of the drawings and described in more detail hereinafter. The braces 52 are relatively rigid to maintain the desired spacing between the columns 36 and may be formed of a tubular material such as steel, for example.
The tubular columns 36 are further interconnected above the water surface 24 by means of flexible diagonal braces or cables 55 which extend diagonally between the points 50 and points 56 adjacent the upper ends of the columns. The -diagonal braces 55 are provided with adjusting sirableto interconnect the tubular columns 36 intermediate the template 28 and the points 56 so as to eliminate any tendency of the columns to buckle by decreasing the eifective column lengths thereof. The tubular columns 36 are shown as interconnected between the template 28 and the points 50 by horizontal braces 60 which may be similar to the horizontal braces 52 described previously. Four braces 60 are employed in the .particular construction illustrated, each of these braces being connected at its ends to two of the columns 36 at points 6i. As best shown in Figs. 4 and 5 of the drawings, each tubular column 36 is provided with two pairs of ears 62 located at the points 6I and spaced 90 apart. The braces `60 are flat at their ends, as indicated at 63, the fiattened ends ofthe braces being inserted'besuitably secured thereto, as by bolts 64. As previously indicated, the horizontal braces 52 may be secured to the tubular columns 36 at the points 50 in a similar manner. If the horizontal brace 60 is used, auxiliary flexible braces or cables 61 extending diagonally between the points 50 and 6I are also used and may be connected to the tubular columns 36. As is the case with the diagonal braces 55, there are two auxiliary braces 61 spaced 90 apart for each column 36. The auxiliary braces 61 may be connected to the column 36 in substantially the same manner as the main` braces 38. The auxiliary braces 61 also carry adjusting means, illustrated as tensioning devices, such as turnbuckles 68, located above the water line 24.
In order to facilitate connecting the horizontal braces 60 to the tubular columns 36, the ends of each brace are initially connected respectively to the auxiliary braces 61 to be lowered into position thereby, the connections of the braces 60 to the columns being easily completed by a diver. y
It will be noted that it is necessary to employ a diver for only a relatively small number of operations in erecting the initial structure 21, particularly if the depth of the water is such that the horizontal braces 60 may be eliminated. Thus, the initial structure may be erected substantially entirely from above the water surface 24, which is an important feature of the invention. Also, as will be discussed in more detail hereinafter, the initial structure 21 may be converted into the completed submarine foundation 20 with all operations necessary being performed from above the water line 24, which is another feature of the invention.
The initial structure 21 also includes a superstructure 1D which may be connected to the tubular columns 36 in any suitable manner at any time after the columns have been placed., The superstructure 10 provides a platformfor equipment to be used subsequently in converting the initial structure 21 into the completed submarine foundation 2 8, and also provides a base for the derrick 2i or other structure to be erected on the submarine foundation after it has been completed. Further, the superstructure 10 provides additional rigidity for the initial structure 21 by interconnecting the tubular columns 36 at their upper ends.
It will be noted that the various hereinbefore discussed interconnections between the tubular columns 3,6 provide for the initial structure 21 a framed structure or framework which makes a pattern of triangles in each face of the structure. This triangular pattern of bracing of the tubular columns 36 results in an initial structure 21 which is relatively rigid and which is capable of supporting relatively large loads. As previously pointed out, the initial structure 21 is supported only by the template 28, which rests on the earth surface 22.
, Referring to Figs. 6 and 7 vof the drawings, if the components below the water line 24 are not coated by a waterproofing agent and if the horizontal braces 60 are employed, the auxiliary flexible braces 61 may be omitted and an alternate method used of bracing the columns 36 by means of clamping the main diagonal braces 38 to the horizontal brace 60 as shown in Figs. 3, 6 and 1. the braces 60 preferably being` so located that each brace A60 and the corresponding pair of main braces 38 intersect at a common point to atlante permit such clamping. owever, if the components below the water line are waterproofed, and
particularly if a brittle waterproof coating` is employed, it isdesirable to eliminate the clamps 1l to prevent cracking the waterproofing.
The foregoing completes the description of the y initial structure 21 and the method of its erec` tion and the method of converting the initial structure into the completed submarine foundation will now be considered.
Referring particularly to Fig. 1 of thedrawings,
after erection of the initial structure 21 has been tending downwardly from "and registering with.
the lower end of the tubular column 36 over which the portabledrillingV apparatusis placed, a. partially completed shaft being designated by the numeral 83 in Fig. l of the drawings. rThe earthen material removed by the drill in forming the shaft 83 isdisplaced upwardly through the shaft and the. tubular column -thereabove The final depth of the shaft83 with respect to the earth surface 22 depends on theV nature of the earth structure beneath the site and also de-A pends on the weight of the derrick 2| and associated equipment (or other structure) for which the submarine foundation 20 is designed. In other words, if a relatively hard formation capable of withstanding large loads per unit area obtains under the submarine foundation 28 and/ or if the load to be supported is relatively small, the shaft 83 may be relatively shallow. On the other hand, if a relatively soft formation capable of supporting only light loadsper unit area obtains and/or if large loads are tobe applied to the completed submarine foundation 20, a deeper shaft willv be necessary. In view of the wide range of earth structures which may be encountered, it
is difficult to offer any specificA values for the i'lnal' depth of the shaft 83. However, I contemplate making the nal shaft 83 approximately one hundred to two hundred feet deep for average formations and for a shaft and tubular` columnr diameter of the order of magnitude of from two feet to fourfeet. However, it will be-understood that these values are illustrative only.
After the shaft a3 has' been ermee 'to the required depth, the drill 16 is removed therefrom and from the corresponding tubular column 36- and similar shafts are'drilled' through the remai'ning tubular columns, a completed shaft being indicated in Fig. 1 of the drawings by the numeral 84. After completed shafts B4' have been provided beneath therespective tubular columns- 36, the portable drilling apparatus 15V may be removed from the superstructure' 10. 'It will be understood that the showing ofthe rotary drill 16 is intended as illustrativejonly since other equipment may be employed for'forming the shafts84.
For example, a drill of the reciprocating type (not. shown) may be employed in conjunction with means for bailing loosened'earthen material from the shafts through the tubular columns 36. Con.-
sequently., it will be understood that I do not de 10?', sire tor be limited to anyspecic equipment for forming. the shafts 84'.
In the event that the earth. structure at the site issuch that cave-ins are likely to occur', I pre.- fer to insert a tubular casing 8.1 through each tubular column- 36- into the partially completed shaft :83. therebeneath as the shaft is formed, the casing closelyV following the drill 16 to provide a retainingl wallfor preventing cave-ins. The drill A16 is cfa size. to pass through the. tubular casing 81 so that the drill may. be removed from the shaft and lthe corresponding tubular column without. removing theftubular casing.l However,v as will bediscussed in more detail hereinafter,v the tubular casing `81, if employed-is preferably removed prior to completion of the submarine foundation 2 6. to reduce costs and permit the concrete to be cast directly in contact with the walls of the shaft toconform to surface irregu` larities thereof and form an effective anchorl and foundation support.
es each of the shafts 34 is completed, orafter any desired number of shafts have been completed,\I insert a reinforcing element 88 downwardly thereinto through the corresponding tubular column 36, an example of a suitable reinforcing element being illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9 of the drawing. As illustrated therein, the reinforcing element 88 comprises vertical reinforcing .rods 89 havingv a helical reinforcing rod. 96 secured thereto in any suitable manner.. Spacers 9i are secured to they reinforcing structurev 88 and serveV to prevent contact of .the reinforcing element witnthe walls of the'tubular columns 36 and the shafts 84.
The length of the reinforcing element. 8B inserted into each tubular column 36 and shaft 84 is preferably such that thel reinforcing element extends from a point adjacent the lower end of a shaft to a point above the lower end of the tubular column. The reinforcing element preferably extends above the water surface 24 and may extend substantially to the top of the tubular column. Preferably, Ythe reinforcing element is` so supported that its lower end is spaced upwardly from the lower end of the Shaft 84 slightly for a reason which willbe pointed out hereinafter.
After the reinforcing element 88 has been inserted into one of the tubular columns 36 and.
the corresponding shaft 84, the shaft and tubular column are filled with a cementitious material, such as concreta At this point the tubular column performs the second part of its dual func.-
tion, i. e.,v of acting as a form into which the wet, plastic cementitious material is placed. y The tubular column 36, andthe corresponding shaft 84 may be lled with-cementitious materials by means .of a tremie pipe, a bottom dump bucket, or other suitable means.
of the reinforcing element slightly above the lower end of the shaft permits the lower end of. the reinforcing element to be completely encased in cementitious material, and spacing the reine,
yshaft and the tubular column by means of the spacersl permits the entire reinforcing element to be'encasedby an annular jacket lof cementl, tious material. This prevents water from vcom-n ing in contact withthe reinforcingfelement after thelcementitiousimaterialhas set so as to prevent corro-sion of the reinforcing element, which is a feature Vofthe invention. The tubular column is filled, with. cementitious materialto a pointv above the. upper end of the reinforcing element.v which Positioning the lower end' forcing element inwardly from the walls of the point may be anywhere above the lower end of the tubular column and preferably at the upper end thereof. After the cementitious material has set, there results a continuous reinforced, cementitious column 92 extending from the lower end of the shaft 84 upwardly into the corresponding tubular column 3S, and preferably substantially to the upper end thereof so that the superstructure 'i0 may be connected directly thereto in any suitable manner. The foregoing procedure is repeated for all of the tubular columns 36 and shafts 84, thereby providing four cementitious columns 92 in the particular construction illustrated.
In the event that employment of the tubular casing 8l is necessary to prevent cave-ins in a particular shaft 84, I insert the reinforcing element 88 into the tubular casing. Subsequently, as the cementitious material is poured, I withdraw the tubular casing from the shaft 84 as successive portions of the shaft become filled with cementitious material, the cementitious material serving to prevent cave-ins after the tubular casing has been withdrawn. Thus, the tubular casing 8l, or casings if more than one is employed, may be used many times, which is a feature of the invention.
After the reinforced cementitious columns 92 have set, an extremely durable and substantial submarine foundation results and the desired apparatus to be supported thereby may then be mounted on the superstructure 10.
My invention thus provides a durable and substantial submarine foundation 2D which may be erected with relatively light equipment and with relatively little expense, which is the primary object of the invention.
Although I have disclosed various embodiments of the submarine foundation and the method of the invention for purposes of illustration, it will be understood that various changes, modifications and substitutions may be incorporated in such embodiment without necessarily departing from the spirit of the invention and I hereby reserve a right to all such changes, modifications and substitutions.
I claim as my invention: I
1. A method of erecting a column extending completely through a body of water and of anchoring said column in the earth beneath said body of water, said method involving the use oi a tubular column of sufficient length to extend completely through said body of water, and involving the use of a column support which is adapted to be sustained substantially on the surface of the earth below said body of water by the earth therebelow and which is engageable by said tubular column in an upright position to sustain said tubular column, said method including the steps of: lowering said column support through said body of water onto thc surface of the earth therebelow; lowering said tubular column through lsaid body of water into engagement with said column support while in said upright position so that said column support sustains said tubular column, the upper end of the tubular column then being above the surface of said body of water; removing earthen material from beneath said tubular column and while the water is in contact with the exterior thereof, thus providing a shaft which extends downwardly from and registers with the lower end of said tubular column; and filling said shaft and at least a portion of said tubular column above said lower end thereof with a cementitious material adapted to set to produce a cementitious column shaped by the shaft and extending from the shaft into said tubular column.
2. .A method as defined in claim l, involvingr the additional use of a guide on' said column support of a size to receive said tubular column, which method includes the step of guiding the lower end of said tubular column into said guide on said column support while lowering said tubular column through said body of water.
3. A. method as defined in claim 2 employing a guide member and including the additional steps of attaching said guide member to1 said tubular column before lowering said tubular column through said body of water, and pulling on said guide member from a position above the surface of said body of water to guide said lower end of said tubular column into said guide von said column support.
4. A method of erecting a submarine structure to be supported by the earth beneath a body of water, said method employing a plurality of tubular columns each of a length to extend completely through the body of water and a plurality of bracing members, said method including the steps of z lowering said tubular columns through said body of water and spacing the lower ends of said tubular columns in a predetermined configuration; then connecting said bracing members between the tubular columns to form a pattern of triangles in each face of the structure; drilling downwardly into the earth beneath each tubular column to provide a shaft which extends downwardly from and registers with each of said tubular columns; and filling each shaft and at least a portion of its associated tubular column with a cementitious material adapted to set to produce a cementitious column extending from said shaft into the corresponding tubular column.
5. A method of erecting a submarine structure to be supported by the earth beneath a body of water, said method employing a plurality of tubular columns each of a length to extend completely through the body of water, said method employing also a plurality of bracing members, said method including the steps of: attaching at least one bracing member to each of said tubular columns; lowering said tubular columns in said body of water to submerge the point of connection with the bracing member and while retaining the upper end of the bracing member above the surface of the body of water; pulling on said bracing member to move the lower end of each tubular column to a predetermined position and lowering each tubular column to be supported in this position by the earth, thus forming a plurality of spaced tubular columns; and diagonally bracing said tubular columns by extending the bracingmember of each tubular coliunn diagonally to an adjacent tubular column and securing same thereto to form a rigid initial structure.
6.- A method as defined in claim 5, including the step of drilling downwardly into the earth beneath each tubular column to provide therebeneath a shaft which extends downwardly from and registers with the lower end of such tubular column; and filling each of said shafts and at least a portion of each of the associated tubular columns with a cementitious material adapted to set to produce a cementitious column which extends from each shaft upwardly into its corresponding tubular column.
7. A method of erecting a submarine structure water, said method employing a plurality of tubu- 13; lar columns each of a length to extend completely through the body of water, said method employing also a plurality of bracing members, said method including the steps of; connecting toa provide a rigid initial structure.
8;v A method of erecting a column on the surface `of the earth and of anchoring said column in the earth, said method involving the use of a tubular column, involving the use of a column support which is adapted to be sustained by the earth substantially on the surface thereof and which is engageable by said tubular column Ain a .generally vertical position toA sustain said tubular column, and involving the use of a tubular casing of -a'size to be received by said tubular column, said method includinglthe steps of: positioning said column support on the surface of the earth; positioning said tubular column u generally vertically in engagement with -said column support to be sustained thereby; displacing earthen material from beneath said tubular column upwardly/therethrough to produce a shaft extending downwardly from and registering with the lower end of said tubular column; inserting said tubular casing downwardly through said tubular column and into said shaft as earthen material is displaced upwardly so as to prevent caving in ofthe earthen material surrounding said shaft; and filling said shaft and at least a portion of said tubular column above said lower end thereof with cementitious material adapted to set to produce a cementitious column which extends from the lower end of said shaft upwardly into said tubular column.
9. The method set forth in claim 8, including the additional step of withdrawing said tubular casing from said shaft and saidA tubular column as said shaft and said portion vof said tubular column are filled with cementitious material so that the resulting cementitious column contacts the walls of said shaft and said tubular column.
l0. A submarine structure extending from the surface'of the earth beneath a body of water to a position above the surface of the body of water. said structure forming an open, multisided, skeletonic framework exposed to currents and wave motion in said body of water, said structure comprising: a template engaging said surface of the earth beneath said body of water and having a substantially vertical guide; a substantially vertical column having a lower end slidably received by said guide and extending downwardly therethrough; stop means for limiting the downward movement of said column through said guide and including means for transmitting to said template the weight of said column and Vertical loads imposed thereon; a brace; means for connecting one end of said brace to said column at a position above said guide; and means for operatively connecting the other end of said brace to said template at a position spaced laterally from said guide. said 1,41 brace holding saidv column in a substantiallyvertical position.
' 11. -A submarine structure extending from the y earth beneath al body of water to a position. above the-surface of the body of water, said, submarine structure comprising: a base member restingon the surface of therearth beneath said body of water. Saidbase member providing a plurality o fguides; -a plurality of tubular column members lowerable` through'said bodyA of water, each tubular column member extending through said body of water to said surface. thereof and each tubular columnmember pro-v vidinga lower end receivable bya corresponding guide'of said base member, saidbase member positioning said -lower ends of said tubular column members in fixed spaced relationshipwto form an openr skeletonic framework; meansfor guiding; the lower endofeach tubular column member to be received by its corresponding guide of said base member. said; guiding means including a bracing member connectedto a lower portion of each tubular column member; .and means for'diagonally bracing spaced tubular column members of said skeletonic fr ameworlg said bracing means including means for ad justably connecting the upper end of each bracing memberto an upper portion of another tubular column member to extend diagonally across, the space between such other` tubular column member andthe tubular column .member to the lower portion of which such bracing member is connected.
l2. A submarine structure as defined in claim 11 including an additional relativelyshort bracing vmeans and means for connecting same between one of said tubular column members and said base member at submerged positions to hold such tubular column member in upright position after its lower end is received by the corresponding guide of said base member..
i3. A submarine structure as dened in claim 11 in which said base member underlies the lower end of said open skeletonic framework to form a support therefor. and in which said guides are positioned at the corners of said base member whereby the corresponding tubular column members form corners of said open skeletonic framework,
,14. A submarine .structure yextending from thev earth beneath a body of waterto a position above the surface of the body of water, said submarine structure. comprising: a base member resting on the surface of the earth beneath said body of water, sai-d base member :providing a plurality of guides each having open upper and lower ends; a plurality of tubular column members lowerable through said body of water, each tubular column member extending through sai-d body of water to said surface thereof and each tubular column member providing a lower end slidably received by said guide so that such lower end extends through said guide and into the earth a substantial distance below said guide, said base member positioning said lower ends of said tubular column members in fixed spaced relationship; interengaging means between each tubular column member and its corresponding guide for limiting the movement of such tubular column member through such guide and thus limiting the depth to which the lower end of such tubular column member penetrates the earth beneath said base member, said interengaging means transmitting to said guide and to said base member the weight of such tubular column member:
15 and a plurality of bracing members' extending diagonally between said spaced tubular column members in a pattern of trianglesv to form an open, multi-sided and skeletonic framework presenting a minimumY impedance to currents and wave' motion in said body of water.
-15.l A submarine structure supported bythe earthbeneath a body of water, said structure comprising in combination: a plurality of tubular column members each ofv a length to extendcompletely through said body of water with. their lower ends penetrating into they earth beneath the body of water; means adjacent the surface of the earth beneath said lbody of water for spacing said tubular column members a fixed distance from each other and in a predetermined pattern to -form an open skeletonic framework; a plurality of bracing members between said tubular column members to form substantially a pattern of triangles in each vface of saidskeletonic framework; shafts excavated in the earth downwardly from and registering with each of said tubular column members; and cementitious material filling each shaft and at least a portion of its associated tubular column member to form cementitious columns in said shafts and extending into the corresponding tubular column members, said cementitious material being in direct contact with the walls of said shafts to conform to surface irregularities thereof so as to transmit to the earth adjacent the perimeters of the shafts the weight of said skeletonic framework and loads :imposed thereon.v
16. A submarine structure supported by the earth beneath a body of water, said structure comprising in combination: a massive template supported by the earth beneath said body of water, said template providing a plurality of spaced guides; a plurality of tubular column members each of a length to extend completely' through said body of water, said tubular column members beingreoeived by said guides and being spaced by said guides to form an open skeletonic framework; a plurality of bracing members between the spaced tubular column members to form substantially a pattern of triangles in each face of said skeletonic framework; shafts ex` cavated in the earth downwardly from and registering with each of said tubular column members; and cementitious material filling each shaft and at least a portion of its associated tubular cohunn member to form cementitious columns in said shafts and extending into the corresponding tubular column members, said cementitious material being in direct contact with the walls of the shafts to conform to surface irregularities thereof so as to transmitto the earth adjacent .Y 16v the peiffites f the shafts the weightof said skeletonic framework and loads imposed thereon.
17. A submarine structure extending from the earth beneath a body of water to a Iposition above the surface of the body of water, said submarine structure comprising: a base member resting on the surface of the earth beneath said Ibody of Water, said base member providing a plurality of guides; a plurality of tubular column members lowerable through said body of water, each tubular column member extending through said body of water to said surface thereof and each tubular column member providing a lower end received by a corresponding guide of said base member, each guide and its corresponding tubular column member providing an interengaging means limiting the lowering movement of such` tubular column member relative to such guide and transferring vertical loads from such tubular column member to such guide and to said base member, said base member .positioning said lower ends of said tubular column members in fixed spaced relationship to form an open skeletonic framework with said base member underlying same and forming a support therefor; means for guiding the lower end of each tubular column member to be receivedlby its corresponding guide of said base member, Ysaid guiding means includ:-l ing a bracing member connected to each tubular column member at a position above said interengaging means; and means for diagonally bracing adjacent tubular column members of said skeletonic framework. said last-named means including means for adjustably connecting the upper end of each bracing memberv to an upper portion of another tubularv column member to extend diagonally across the space between such other tubular column member and the tubular column member to the lower portion of which such bracing member is connected.
wiLLrAM A. 'HUNsUCKEn REFERENCES CITED s l The following references are of record in th le of this patent: l
UNITED lS'lATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,665,796 Sipe Apr. 10, 1928 1,681,883 Sipe Aug. 21, 1928 1,858,918 De Vou May 17, 1932 2,236,682 Gross Apr. 1, 1941 2,317,017 Allen Apr. 20,1943 2,410,778 Goodrich .Nov'. 5,1946 2,429,952 Willey Oct. 28, 1947