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Publication numberUS2612451 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 30, 1952
Filing dateNov 29, 1946
Priority dateNov 29, 1946
Publication numberUS 2612451 A, US 2612451A, US-A-2612451, US2612451 A, US2612451A
InventorsLand Edwin H
Original AssigneePolaroid Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Photographic product, including a container and means for rupturing said container
US 2612451 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 30, 1952 D 2,612,451

PHOTOGRAPHIC PRODUCT, INCLUDING A CONTAINER AND MEANS FOR RUPTURING SAID CONTAINER Filed Nov. 29, 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. I

l6 x [4 5O 47 I I66 S3Ob 3 qfg 2 'l sz/Fl I so i FIG. 2 1 i I i E I l mv NTOR Sept. 30, 1952 E. H. LAND PHOTOGRAPHIC PRODUCT, INCLUDING A CONTAINER AND MEANS FOR RUPTURING SAID CONTAINER 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 29, 1946 FIG. 3

6 ogl/NVE TOR BY M a vv J 525555?!i565? Z:3 15255545:23

Sept. 30, 1952 E. H. LAND PHOTOGRAPHIC PRODUCT, INCLUDING A CONTAINER AND MEANS FOR RUPTURING SAID CONTAINER Filed Nov. 29, 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 A54 I56 [I54 I, I l f. IF I l I I v I/ II \II l v FIG. 5 i

use

62 ,164 I use L n I I l FIG. 6

I L I60 INVIE OR Patented Sept. 30,1952 I UNITED IS TATES PATENT- O F Fl CE "PHOTOGRAPHIC *PRODUCT, INCLUDING A CONTAINER AND MEANS FOR RUPTUR- mo SAID 'CONTAINER poration of Delaware :ApplicationiNovemher 29, 1946,;Serial No.712-,-887

.20 Claims. .1 Thi-sinventionrelatestophotoeraphyandzmore particularly 'to novel photographiofilmnnits and containers ioruse in saidfilm-units.

,It ,:is a principalxobiectpf this .:invention to provide an photographic "film innit having :associated itherewith a container: for a liquid wgcomposition,"whereinithe; container is :capable of :be- .ing opened torelease its acontained liquid :asztha ;resu1t-=.of::r.elatiye movement .loetween v:the con- ;tainerrand aportion of:a;magazine or camera :with whichzsaid filmiunit is; associated.

LAnot-h-er obiectx-ofathe invention is to providesa film unit :of theabove character wherein-relative movement of-one part -,of the vfilm .unit with .respecttmanother partzthereofo or with respect to thezcontainer, causes; the; container. to he :opened to :release the liquid. 1

.Anotherlobjectof theinvention is to provide a "novel ;l-iquid: container for use in -:photography, which-imayabe opened torelease the liquid therein hXtmQVi-IlgJa severingmember associatedzwithzthe container and forming :a part thereof. I

jQther objects roftheflinventionrwill in rpartrhe obvious ;and will in ;-part appearvhereinafiter.

.1510]: ga-iuller understanding of the; nature .zand .objectsof .zthednvention, .-referencevshouldgbe "had to; the accompanying drawings. wherein:

.Figurel ;is;-a diagrammatic-:exag erated, crosssectionalwiew of acpreferred:embodimentzof:the

invention;

1 Fig. 2 :is afiragmentary; exaggerateddia rammaticpIan view of onset thetfllm .unitsrshown'in :section'in Fig.1; I V

.:Fig, 3 isa. plan -view;iof; 'a:modified-iformmf;the invention.'shownin Figs.;1;-and;2.;

.;Fig.-4t.-is;;a diagrammaticcexaeseratedsectional. view :of: still; another modification-. OT-tthe.zinven- .tion;

:Fig. :5 ispanzexaggerated diagrammatic nlan .viewof. another modification of -;a severingmemibermfor --a, =.container of the type. shown :in --Figs. .1 .throu h3; l

Eig. ,6-is anexaggerated diagrammatic ,plan .view I of :still another. modification of the. invention; I

fEig. I7 is an exaggerated diagrammatic ,sectional 'view. ,of still :another modification :of the invention;

Fig. 8 is an exaggerated:diagrammaticsectional view, of still .another'modi-ficationof theinven- -.tion; .iand

g2 therewith, ofthe type wherein .the photographic product has associated therewith a-containertor I a liquid composition. The product prefer-ably comprises several layers forming ,a efilni limit which may he advantageously employed in processesof the typewhere-a desired processing ofvat least a photosensitivelayer included in:the unit is obtainedin a camera. This processing is pref erably accomplished by releasing the liquid-com position from the containerbetweenadjacenfssurfacesof aphotosensitive layer-and: another layer,

this liquid composition ,being spread between these two surfaces: in a uniform Fthin film.

In film units of the above type the liquid acornposition is included in a 001113311181.Whi6h-;iS-:QlBf erablgy :formed of a strip of oxygen -.and-1-water vapor imperviousmaterial folded upon itself ,to .providea-cavity therein which is sealed attboth ends along the-.-edge;.opposite:the .fold. iIli-iseinvention relates primarily to an ,improved.;-oon

tainer product and apparatus for-accomplishing the opening of the container :byvcausingone -portion of the container .to move-with respect-{to another portion of theeon-tainer-or hyrotherwise applying a severing stress to a-severable portion .of the container. l

This invention contemplates -.-.a number of means foraccomplishing this :openingof the con;- Ltainen; such as Joy:- creating -a relativezmovement hetwe on parts of .thecontainer, rhetweemapart thereof :and aportiongofthe camera orwthenap- :Da-ratus inwhich the container is positienedaor .:by causing relative movement between -,-a; part.or the container and the magazine, or between za part of the containeruand :one 10f the-glayers'of :severing member is preferably so positioned -.-Fig..9,is ant-exaggerated;diagrammatic sectional I view of. .still another: modification .of they invention. I

general this. invention-relates @to improved through-which the liquidiszadapted tov be released and which norma-llytisoperative to :confinet-said liquid. .A;member i is preferably -associated wi-th said containerwhich ,is: capable :of renderiI 1:g-;-'said portion -.-inoperative to confine said :liquid: when said :member gisqlmovedqrelative ,to qsaid ponti-on. flheportionnitric-container throu -hrivh I release is accomplished istp eferablvrt edge of 'thecontai-ner. {The-member fora derging thistportion inoperative to :confinethe liquid is preferably aq.-severing' -,;member extending through the sealed 1 end .of theucontainer- 11th .re pectto vthe 1-sea1ed :edge, .ithat-Whe'n: this. :memher is moved,1it;acts;to sever:completelysthi sseale :edgertoreleasethe liquid;composition; ;.The:;present 1inventionghascertain advanta es which result-from the novel constructi mitergphoto raphic; products,and .apparatusior :use rangementsoi parts. 'Onenof -these wadvantagee is the positive opening of the container along a predetermined portion thereof, thus assuring an even distribution of liquid throughout a predetermined area of a film unit embodying such a container. Another advantage lies in the fact that the seal may be made as strong as any other portion of the container so that the container may have great resistance to inadvertent hydraulic bursting during handling thereof. An additional advantage of the invention resides in the positive opening of the container to release the liquid, with the means causing the release being trapped within a disposable magazine, and the opening motion being incident to a motion required in the handling of the film unit.

A preferred form of severing member comprises a piece of light metal wire or string which is fixedly secured to the magazine in which the film unit embodying the container is positioned. In this modification of the invention, as the film unit is moved within or from the magazine, -a severing force is exerted on the sealed edge of the container due to the relative movement between the container and the severing member (i. e., the piece of wire). Thus, after a relatively small distance of travel, the container is opened to permit the release of the liquid composition and the liquid is free for spreading throughout the film unit.

Referring now to Fig. 1, there is shown an exaggerated diagrammatic sectional View of such a preferred form of the invention. In this embodiment of the invention there is provided a novel film unit comprising several layers with which there is associated one of the novel fluid containers of the present invention. In this embodiment of the invention the photosensitive layer of the film unit is mounted in a novel magazine so as to permit exposure thereof. After exposure, it is moved by the user of the camera into a predetermined face-to-face relationship with.

another layer of the unit and the novel container. The film unit so assembled is then moved from the camera or magazine by the user of the camera. As a result of this further movement of the composite film unit, a severing member provided in the container is caused to move relatively to the container, causing a severing force to' 'be exerted on a portion of the container, thus opening the container to release the liquid therefromr This severing member is preferably held stationary by a portion of the magazine so that movement of the film unit and container causes the opening of the container.

Referring now to the specific details of Fig. 1, there is provided a camera which is schematically shown at 48. This camera has a magazine holder generally indicated at-Eil and has a top door 52 through which the magazine, generally indicated at [0, is adapted to be inserted. The magazine ID comprises a front portion l2 and a rear portion'l l separated by a wall 16 having a curved top shown at 18. An exposure opening 2ilis provided in "the front portion of the magazine. At the rear bottom portion of the magazine there is provided a withdrawal opening, generally indicated at 22. Positioned in the magazine are a plurality of composite film units. These film units are also shown in Fig. 2, where like numbers correspond to like elements of Fig. 1, Fig. 2 being a fragmentary plan view of one of the film .imits shown in section in Fig. -1. As seen in Figs. 1 and 2, there are provided'a plurality of photosensitive'layers 24 mounted in parallel relationship in'the front portion 12 of the magazine; Inthe 'rear portion [4 of the magazine there are provided a plurality of other layers 28. These other layers are preferably adapted to receive and carry a positive image of a latent negative image produced in the photosensitive layer, and are hereinafter called image-carrying layers. Associated with each photosensitive layer 24 is a leader 26 which, as can be seen in Fig. 1, extends from the front portion of the magazine to the rear portion thereof, where it extends through a slit 32 formed in the image-carrying layer 28. The leader 26 then extends to the outside of the magazine through the opening 22. The image-carrying layer 28 is also provided with a leader, which is shown at'34, this leader also extending to the outsideof the magazine.

For the purpose of holding the photosensitive layers 24 fiat in the focal plane of the camera as these layers are brought into exposure position, there is provided a backing plate 45 under a spring pressure exerted by spring 41.

Associated with each image-carrying layer 28, and preferably adhesively secured thereto,- is a container 36 having therein a liquid composition. This container is preferably formed of an oxygen and water-vapor impervious material such as a paper-backed metal foil. This container is formed by folding a strip of this material upon itself and sealing the ends 30a, shown in Fig. 2, and the edge 3% opposite the fold. As shown in Figure 1, there is preferably provided a layerv 68 of an adhesive between the sealed lips of the container along the edge 3% and also the edge 30a. This adhesive 66 may be an alkali-inert inner coating on the interior of the container which is formed into a unitary bond at the adjoining surfaces of the container edge by heat and pressure. The seal may also comprise an additional coating of a thermoplastic orthermosetting adhesive. Positioned within the container is a severing member diagrammatically shown as'a piece of wire 60. As can be seen, the two ends of this wire 68 extend to the outside of the container where the ends of the seal 66 of the sealed edge 30b join the sealed ends 38a. These outwardly extending ends of the wire 60 are preferably formed with engaging means on their outer ends, shown as loops in the wire at 62. Each of these loops B2 is engaged by ameans in the magazine. In a preferred form, the loops 62 are positioned around a stationary engaging means provided in the magazine and shown as a rod 01'' pin 64 fixedly secured to the" walls of the magazine.-

"applying a sumcient pressure to the outersurfaces of the composite film unit, as it is withdrawn therethrough, to cause the liquid to be spread from the container 30 in a'uniform film between the photosensitive layer 24 and the image-carrying layer 28. v i

In a preferredform of the invention, the elements in the combination described above are made of the following materials: The camera and the magazine are-preferably formed of metal, plastic, or opaque heavy cardboard. The photosensitive layer24 preferably comprises a silver halide photosensitive emulsioncoated' upon. an

opaque lblaiikfifiapr baise. The "image-carrying layer 528 :preferablycomprises a sheet, or paper, for example,;the paper known in the: art as baryta paper; and is preferably opaque toactinic light. The leaders 26 and 34 arepreierably formed-integrallywith the layers 24 and 28, respectively. The container '3ll preferably comprises'a'pap'er backedmetal 'foilicoated .onits inner surface with a resinpsuch as polyvinyl butyral, which :is-inert to alkalies. The end Eseals Main thiscon'tainer arep'referably formed bypres'si'ng the'two layers together, underh'eat and'ipressure, thus causing the polyvinyl butyral lining to for'm a tight seal for-these ends. The seal 3% may be formed as aboveiormay'beformed by coating-one of the two longitudinaledges of .the container, to be joined into; the, seal 30b, with a 'plastic such as ethyl cellulose which c'analso beheat sealed; The heat sealcreated by sealing the edge 60b, by means of ethyl cellulose, does "not form quite as'strong a seal *as the seal 30a'for1ned by heat sealingthe adjacent ends by the means of the polyvinyl butyrallining. The severing member 60 pref.- erably comprises a piece of fine wire which-is inserted before or during the operation "of forming 28881301) of the container. This wire should have a sufiiciently high tensile strength with respect to the severing resistance of the seal 66, along theedge 30b of thecontainer, so as to permit -thismember B0 to sever the seal 66 of the container when relative movement-is created between the member 60 toward the seal 66 of the container '30. The container 30 is preferably secured to the image-carryinglayer 28 by a bond which is sufficiently strong topermitthe layer 28 tomove the container 30 against the severing stress exerted by the member 60.

The engagingportion 62 in the end of the severing member is preferably formed by making a, loop in the end of this wire. It may, however, comprise some other member secured to the end of the member 60. The engaging means 64 in the magazine preferably comprises a metal pin -se-; cured to opposite walls of themagazine.

The -liquid composition in the container 30 is .preferablyformed of "an alkaline aqueous viscoussolution of a developer andasilver halide solvent. I

In the use of the modification of the invention shown in Fig. 1, the, photosensitive layer 24 is exposed toactinic light suchas by actuating the shutter mechanism of the camera 48. The user of the camera then withdraws the leader 26 from the magazine, thus moving theiphotosensithis layer 24 from the front :portion 1-2 of the magazine to therear portion. [4, where this layer 24 is brought-into a predetermined f-ace to-face relationship with the image-carrying slayer v28 and the container 30. The user of the camera then engages leaders 26 and 34 and .pulls both of these leaders together, thus moving the whole fihn unit as a composite assembly. As the film unit starts to move, the container 30, secured to layer :28, starts to move with respect to the severing nember 60. As can be seen more clearly in 2, the motion of the container 30 in a downward direction in 2 causes the member 60 to commence severing the seal 66 along the edge 30b of the container. This severing commences at the two c'or-nersof the container and works uniformly toward the middle. After a predetermined amount of travel, dependin upon the amount of slack in the member 60 and theres il ience thereof, the seal along the sealed edge 3Qb is completely severed-and the container 30 i-sopened to'permit. the release of thelliquid there from for spreading between the layer 28 and the layer 24.' As the film unit moves down throu h the "withdrawal opening defined by the pairs of members 40, the resilient pressure applied by this pair of members, particularly in that por= tion adjacent the ridge 42 thereon-causes the liquid to be spread from the container-ma form thin layer between the photosensitivelayer 24 and the image-carrying layer 28.

When this uniform layer of liquid exists between the photosensitive layer and the imagecarrying layer, it subjects the photosensitive, layer to a desired processing. Whenthe preferred liquid composition is employed, the dc-- veloper in the liquid develops the latent negae tiveimage in the photosensitive layerand'the silver halide solvent forms soluble image-formiing complexes with undeveloped silver halide.-

severable portion of the containeris preferably that portion comprising theseal 66 along the edge -3flb. It is apparent that other portions of; the container may be severed. For instance, the severing member -60, instead of being placed between two layers of material constituting the sealed edge thereoflmay be threadedthrough one of these layers. In this case, the severable portion of the container might be one of'thelaye'rs ofthe container. With some methods of forming the container, this modification of the inven tion is preferred. It is decidedly advantageous to be sure that the point-of exit of the severing member from the container is securely sealed so as to prevent the entrance of oxygen or the, escape of water vapor. The various ;materlals from which the severing membermay be formed may be varied considerably, depending upon the tensile strength necessary therefor in relation to the severance strength of the -severable portion of the container. Thus, if the seal 66 along. the edge 30b of thecontainer isrelatively easily severed, a light piece of string may constitute the severingmember 60. If thisseal'isstrong and requires a highsevering force, the severing member -60 must, of-necessity, be considerably stronger, and in this latter case is preferably formed of ametal wire or other material having a high tensile strengthcapable of imparting. a high-severing force to the severable portiongof. the container. 7 t I The embodiment of the invention shown in Figs. 1 and 2 may be considerably altered. such as by rearranging the portions thereof so that movement of one layer with respect to another layerof the film unit may be employed to causea movement of a severing member with respect-to a severable portion of the container associated 'withone of the layers. An example of this concept of the invention,-as applied to themodification shown in Figs. -1 and "2, is shown .in Fig.- 3, where like numbers correspond to like, elementsofFigsal'and '2. In this Fig.3 the sever: ing member, indicated at 60a, is secured-to the leader 26 associated with the photosensitivelayer 24. With such rearrangement of parts,-it is .pre-

ferred' that'this connection be of such a nature that the severing member will not act to'sever the severable portion of the container until movement of the leader 26 has brought the photosensitive layer 24 almost into its final position. If this is not done, there is a possibility that when the container is opened, the movement of the leader 26 thereacross may act to draw some of the liquid from the container and Waste this liquid.

As'can be seen from Fig. 3, the severing member 60a extends from the sealed edge 30b up and over the top of this sealed edge and the top of the container 30. A considerable amount of slack is provided in the outer portion of the member 60a so as to allow a considerable motion between the leader 26 and the container 30 before tension is exerted on the member 60a, thus causing it to sever the sealed edge 38b of the container 30.

In the use of the modification of the invention of Fig. 3, the user of the camera pulls the leader 26, after the photosensitive layer 24 has been exposed. As this leader moves downwardly in the rear portion of the magazine, it reaches a point where all of the slack in the ends of the member 60a is taken up. Thereafter, movement of the leader 26 causes the member 60a to be placed under a tension and to sever the sealed edge 30b. This severing operation should occur as the photosensitive layer 24 moves into its predetermined position with respect to the imagecarrying layer 28. During this severing of the seal in the container, the image-carrying layer 28 is held by frictional or other resistance. This resistance to movement of the image-carrying layer must be greater than the tension necessary to shear the seal. This resistance may be increased by supplying a pin for temporarily holding the image-carrying layer in the magazine. Thus as the film unit is assembled for with drawal from the magazine, the seal of the container is broken and the liquid may be readily spread therefrom.

In another modification of the invention, the

severing member associated with the container may be so arranged that a portion thereof extends outside of the magazine so that this portion may be pulled by the user of the camera to cause an opening of the container and a release of the liquid composition. Such a modification of the invention is less preferred, however, since it requires an extra operation on the part of the user of thecamera. It is preferred that the release of the liquid from the container be accomplished as a result of some operation which is essential to the use of the film unit. In those cases where the severing member extends to the outside of the camera, suitable means must be provided for furnishing a light seal at the point of exit of the severing member from the magazine.

While the preferred modification of the invention contemplates the use of a severing member which, during its use, completely severs a seal for the liquid in the container, this function is not absolutely essential. For instance, referring to Figs. 1, 2, and 3, it is seen that the severing member 60 extends behind the seal 66 so that, when the member 60 is moved with respect to this seal 66, the seal is completely destroyed. In' some cases it may be desirable to imbed the severing member within the material constituting the seal 86. This is a convenient way of securing the severing member to the container blankv before the container is filled with the liquid composition, and in some methods of forming a container, it is a preferred way of introducing the shear member into the container. With such a modification of the invention, the severing member severs only that portionof the seal between itself and the outside. This, however, reduces the eifectiveness of the remainder of the seal so that the container may be ruptured by the application thereto of a relatively low pressure. With such a modification of the invention applied to the invention of Figs. 1, 2 and 3, most of the seal 66" is destroyed as a result of the-operation of the severing member and the remainder of the seal is destroyed due to the increased hydraulic pressure of the liquid in the container as the result of the film unit passing. through the narrow portion of the withdrawal opening defined particularly by the ridge portion 42 associated with the member 40.

The preferred modification of the engaging means associated with the magazine for securing, at least temporarily, the outer ends of severing member 60 may be considerably modified. This means may take the form of a slot wide enough for the member 60 to pass therethrough but not suificiently wide to permit the portion 62 on the enu of the member oil to pass tnerethrough. The ends of all the members so may also be fastened together such as by theuse of a drop of solder, this drop of solder being secured to the magazine by a solder bond or by a mechanical connection such as a slot. It is also possible for the engaging means in the magazine to comprise a clamp or other suitable means adapted to secure the outer ends of the members 60 by means of a frictional force. Other modifications of this concept of the invention should be apparent to those skilled in the art, in view of the above description.

In the preferred'embodiments of the invention discussed in connection with Figs. 1 and 2, the severing member associated with the container comprises a fiexible member such as a piece of wire, both ends of which extend to the outside of the container and both ends of which are secured to some means causing relative movement between the severing member and a severable portion of the container. It is equally possible to have only one end of the severing-member extend to the outside of the container and to have the other end thereof secured internally with respect to the container or secured to the layer associated with the container. In this case, only one end of the severing member is pulled to cause a relative motion between the severing'member and the severable portion of the container.

As mentioned previously in the specification, it is feasible to provide means in a camera. adapted to move relatively to a film unit, while the filmunit is held stationary. These means may be engaging means such as the rods 64 which are movable and adapted to'engage a portion of the severing members associated with the individual containers. The movement of these means causes the severing members to move with respect to the containers, thus severing a severable portion of the container to accomplish the release of the liquid composition from the container. When such means are employed, the various severing members should be of different lengths so that movement of the engaging means in the camera only severs one container at a time. The modification of Figs. 1 and 2 is preferred, however, since it does not require an extra operationongthe part of the user of the camera.

In still another modification of the invention, there is provided a film unit of the type wherein one layer thereof. is ordinarily moved relatively to. another; layer thereof in order to permit exposure of a photosensitive layer in the film unit. This: modification of the invention is shown in Fig; i, wherein the film unit comprises several layers, one'of which: is a photosensitive layer and the other of which may be an opaque image-carrying layer. In order that the. inner surface of the photosensitive layermay be exposed to actinic light, it is preferable to move one of the layers with respect to the other layer so as to'permit this. exposure. In this modification of the invention, one lip of the sealed edge of the container ispreferablysecured to cheer the layers ofthe film'unit and the other lip of the sealed edge of the container is secured in the other layer of the film unit. Thus, when relative movement of these two layers is accomplished, for the purpose of severing Iforces-upon -the container. atv one: time. In some cases; where it, is desired that the member sever the container with the shortest possible relative movement between the member and the permitting exposure of the inner surface of the Referrin 'now to Fig. 4, which is a sectional view of a preferred modification of this form of the invention, there is provided a film unit comprising a photosensitive layer I3!) and an imageca rryinglayer I32. Suitably joining these two layers there may be provided a hinge I34,

Mountedne'ar the hinged connection between these two layers, there is provided a container ladhaving-therein a liquid composition I38. As can be seen, this container is preferably formed of a single fold of material, the edge opposite the fold being sealed by an adhesive, for example, as shown at I40. Extending from each lip of the container adjacent the seal I40 are several tabs I42 serving as means for severing the seal I40. Tabs extending from the left-hand lip of the container I36 are suitably secured, by means such as an adhesiveor staple, to the photosensitive layer I30, while the tabs I42, extending from the right.-

hand lip of the container, are secured to the im'age carrying layer I 32.

"layer, the image-carrying layer I32 is preferably rotated to'the right, as shown in Fig. 4.. This r0- t'ation can be accomplished by means such as a swingin'g ar'm I44 adapted to travel in groove I46 in the camera; or this rotation can be accomplished by means such as a spring in the film unit.

this image-carrying layer I32 is moved with respect to the photosensitive layer, it, pulls. the

tab I42 secured thereto, thus severing the seal I IIT along the sealed edge of the container. This allowstheliquid composition to be subsequently spread throughout the film unit bymean's such as a pair of pressure rollers I48.

In the modification; of the invention shown in Figs. 1 throughfif, there is provided a severing member built into the container and adapted tobe moved with respect toa severable portion of the -container. Apreferredformof this severing 'mem-ber'f comprises a single strand of wire or t readwhich, as described, exerts only one or two container, a modification of the invention, such as shown in Fig. 5, is preferred. In this modification of the invention a single strand of wire may be utilizedas the severing member. This strand of wire, however, entersthe container at aplurality of points, thus giving a plurality of severing. points as the member moves with respect to the container... Referring specifically to Fig. 5, there is shown a diagrammatic, exagger- 'ated plan view of a container embodying; suclr a severing member. This-container is represented at I 50 and is provided with asealed edge. I52; cone stituting a severable portion. thereof. For seven ing the sealed edgev I52 ofthe container, there is provided a severing member I5 3, preferablyoomprising awire. which'is threaded inandoutofthe sealed edge I52 a number of times." Thisamem ber I54 is. preferably secured to an"engaging means I158 at a plurality of points. A preferred form ofthis engagingmeans comprises a wooden or metal rod around which the member I54" may bewrapped each time it leaves the sealed edge of the container; In one preferred formof-th'e-invention, the engaging means I 56 is formed somewhat longer thanthe transverse dimension oi'the container I59 so that it may engage a portion of a magazine orc'arnera', with which a container of this type is used, so as to cause a relative motion between this engaging means and the container I 51], thus creating a relative motion betweenthe severing member I54 and the severable portion I52 of the container.- This engaging' means'mw beactuated as the result of the mov'ement 'of the container due to'the withdrawal of the mmmnt from the magazine, as contemplated by themodi ficationof Fig. 1. i

In the use of the-modification of the invention shown inFig. 5, the1movement of the engaging means I56 with respect! to the container I50 causes an increased tension on the member I54 whichstarts to severtheseal, or severable portion I52 of the container at a. number of, points. After a relatively short travel. of the engaging means I with respectv tothe container I50, all of, thesealed edge I52 ofthe container is severed and the. liquid releasedforspreading. within the film-unit. H 1

.In another modificationof the inventionit-i's contemplatedito use, as amembe-r forseveringa severable, portion oi theilcontainer, a relatively rigidknifezlike. member-placed within the-container. This. knife-like. member preferably-has a portionthereof extending to theoutsidaof the container, this portion being adapted to beengaged by some means for causing a relative motion between the container and the rigid member- One. preferred modification of this former the. invention is-shownin Eig; 6 wherein thereis providedacontainer I60 having. a sealed edge I62. Positioned, behind. thisgsealed edge is. a,- severing .member I64. which can be formed ofa metal stamping having a number-of cutting teeth. I66 formed therein- Extending outsideof-the-container there is an engaging" portion I68 on the member I64. adapted to engagea' means asso ciatedwith the camera ormagazine'f-or'causing a relative motion between the containerand the severing member. Teeth I66,,on the member I64,

permit this-member to apply a severing forceito the-sealat the-edge I-62-in= a'number ofiseparate ,points.

"In the use of the modification of the invention shown in Fig. 6, relative motion is created between the severing member I64 and the container I60 such as by moving the container relative to a fixed stop in a magazine adapted to prevent movement of member I64. This relative motion of the container, with respect to the severing member I84, causes the member to destroy completely the seal along the severable portion I82.

In another modification of the invention the severing member for causing the severing of a severable portion of a container may be a continuation of one of the walls of the container. This portion of the container may be so designed with respect to the container that movement of this portion of the container with respect to the remainder of the container operates to sever the severable portion, thereby opening the container to allow the liquid to be spread therefrom. Such a modification of the invention is shown in Figs. 7, 8 and 9. In a preferred form of this modification of the invention, one of the walls defining the container may be folded up over the top of the other wall and then folded back upon itself to provide a tab extending therefrom. The seal. which is the severable portion of the container, is provided, in this case, between the top of the top wall of the container and the inner surface of the bottom wall; thus, as the tab is pulled, the folded-over bottom wall of the container is pulled away from the seal, thus allowing the liquid composition to be spread from the container.

This particular feature of the invention is shown in Fig. 7 wherein there is provided a novel container I10 for a liouid. As can be seen in Fig. '7, the bottom wall I12 of the container is folded up and over the top wall of the container and then folded back upon itself to form an extension or tab I 18. Between the top wall of the container and the first fold of the bottom wall I12, there is provided a seal I 16 which may be formed of numerous plastic adhesives, such as ethyl cellulose or polyvinyl butyral. The container I10 is preferably secured to a layer I82, which may be either the image-carrying layer or the photosensitive layer, by the use of a staple I13 or a suitable adhesive. Between the tab I18 and the turned-over portion I12 of the bottom layer there is provided a weakened portion indicated generally at I80. This weakened portion is preferably stronger than the seal I16, but weaker than the bond between the container I 10 and the layer I82. Thus, if there is a tension created on the leader I18 as a result of relative movement between this leader and the rest of the container, a sufiicient force is transmittedto the portion I12 to cause a severing of the seal I16. Further increase in the tension on the leader I18 causes the weakened portion I80 to tear.

In the use of the modification of the invention shown in Fig. '1, the leader portion I18 of the container may be secured to the magazine so as to provide a relative motion between the leader I 18 and the container I10 during the use of a film unit embodying this type of construction. This leader I18 may be secured to a stationary pin of the type shown in Figs. 1 and 2. In this case, motion of the container incident to removal of the film unit and the container from the magazine causes the leader I18 to transmit a tension to portion I12 of the container to exert a severing force on the seal I16, thus severing this seal to loosened from the layer I82 as the result of the continued pull by the leader I 18 on the container I10, the weakened portion I is adapted to separate prior to the time when the bond between the container I10 and the layer I82 is adapted to give way.

Another form of this modification of the invention contemplates the use of a severing member of a rigid type which has a severing action similar to that described in connection with the discussion of the modification of the invention shown in Fig. 7. In this case the bottom wall of the container is folded over the top wall thereof and is sealed to the outer surface of this top wall. Within the fold thus created there is provided a relatively rigid member adapted to be moved relatively to the container to cause a severing of the seal between the two walls of the container by exerting a force on the upturned bottom wall of the container. Such a modification of the invention is shown in Fig. 8, where like numbers correspond to like elements in Fig. 7. In this modification of the invention there is provided a container I83 having a bottom wall I84 which is folded over the top wall, as at I86, and secured thereto by means of a seal I88, which may be similar to the seal discussed in connection with the seal I 16 of Fig. '1. Included within the foldedover bottom portion I86 of the bottom wall, there is provided a rigid severing member I80 which may be a strip of metal extending beyond the ends of the container I83. When this member I moves to the right, as shown in Fig. 8, it can be seen that a force is exerted upon the portion I86 of the lower wall, tending to move this portion to the right. This motion of the portion I88 exerts'a severing force on the seal I88 and causes this seal to rupture. The member I90 can be left in the magazine as the container leaves the magazine. Container I83 is secured to a layer I82 which may be an image-carrying layer or a photosensitive layer, depending upon the conditions of the use of the film unit in which such a container is embodied.

In still another form oi this modification of the invention, there is provided a severing member associated with a container and positioned near the edge adapted to be sealed and which, by motion away from that edge and across the main body portion of the container, is adapted to sever the sealed edge. This modification of the invention is of particular utility where the motion, which it is desired to employ for severing the sever'able portion of the container, is a motion in a direction similar to the direction of motion of the container during its use. This modification of the invention is particularly applicable for use with a motion of the type described in connection with the discussion of Fig. 3, where the severing member is secured to a leader which moves in a direction extending from the sealed edge of the container to the folded edge of the container. This modification of the invention is shown in Fig. 9, wherein the top wall of the container is sealed to the bottom wall thereof and then is curled back upon itself and secured to a severing member which may be positioned within this backwardly extending curl. In this modification of the invention there is provided a container I82 suitably secured to an imagecarrying or photosensitive layer I82. The top wall I84 of the container is sealed to the bottom wall thereof by means of a seal 200. The top wall is then preferably curled back upon itself as shown at I98, and within this curl there is positioned a severing member which may comprise a wooden or metal rod shown at I98. This metal rod preferably extends beyond the ends of the containerr-sozasc tdbe engageablegby: some means which; is; moved. relatively: to. the container: durin the: use.:of.,the; film unit: This: relative motion may be a straighttranslatory motion; in: aplane parallel to theseaLZllfl. orritmay bea translators. movement plus a. rotarymovement: adapted; to wind the. portion. 96 or; the top layer I94: around the severing member 1 as: as thismember rotates.

While. the ,modificatlonqof; the: invention. shown in: Fig. 9* is preferred: for this concept o.f;.the; in;- vcntion, it is equally possibletoutilizethe curled up portion I96 of. the.- container as; the; severing member by providing atab; therefor of thegfi eral type'shown at I73 in Fig.7. With this alternative.-constructiomthe tab portion. of. layer. 196 may be; secured to aleader ofithe-type shownzin 31,; orit. may be positioned. so as toqbeenr- I excellent. oxygen and, Water vapor impervious characteristics and has the additional advantage that the polyvinyl, butyralcoating on the inner surf-ace may be utilized for forming strong seals bysrthew appliction. otheat-and pressure. tov the outer.- surface; of the. container.. strongpseal. is desired; thev polyvinyl. butyral may bezcoveredwitha layercf a' plastic, such as ethyl cellulose... WhlChLiSialso: capable ofibeing formed intoia sea-l by means'of. the application of. heat andzpressurei.

Inxallofi the above modifications of the in.- vention' a... preferred form. ofzliqui'd composition comprises one containing a, developer, such as hydroquinone, a. preservative,.. such as sodiumsulfiteg. an; alkali, such as-sodium hydroxide, a

film-forming: material, such as sodium. carboxymethylcellulose, and a. silver. halide solvent; such as:"sodiunrthiosulphate. It is. possible, however, that the liquid composition'in the container may comprise only-water or an: aqueous solution of a film-forming material. The other elements of the. liquidimay. be positioned: in solid form upon one of the; layers of the film unit with which the container is'to beused. In some. other cases itis desirable to; include portions of the active ingredients withinrthe liquid. composition and to placeotherportions thereof in solid form upon one or more of the layers of the film unit.

The liquid composition may alsoinclude only materials useful in developing, or developing and fixing" a. latent negative image with no emphasis on the production of a. positive image,

In. the modification of the invention shown in Figs. 5 through 8; the relative motion between the; severing member andthe severable portion is preferably accomplished by providing a connection between thesevering member and a maga zine-,t'he severing member being left in the. dis- .posable magazine. However, this motion may be accomplished: by a means int'hecamera adapted to move relative to the film unit while thefilm unit :is hleld stationary. This: motion mayal'so he providedbyextending a connection from the severingmember to the oiitside or the ma gazine where it may 'b'e engaged by the userof the -.camera.'

Where a. less tionhave. been describedjn. their preferrediorma 1.. e;, as; novel magazines andfllm assemblage forinsertion in a. camera having-a. lens, itj iscon templated that: the invention may; be employed in other devices havingnolensor shutter;

Since certain. changes may be made. in the above; product: without departing. from the scop of the invention. herein involved, itis intended that all matter containedin the abovedescription or shown in: the; accompanying; drawings shall be interpreted as. illustrative. and not in a limiting sense. W

What is claimed is; a 1. A. photographic:v product. comprising-.arupturable. container holding a liquid, saidliquiddn; eluding a developer for silver halide and. havin dispersed therein a thickening agent, a sheet-sup:- portv upon which said. container-isv mounted, said sheet. support providing a spreading surfacehavinga liquid-receiving area adjacent saidzcontainer onto which. said liquid is. spreadable directly from said.c,ontainer, said. liquid-receiving area. being greater. than the area coveredbysaid container and'comprlsing a silver halide photo.- sensitive material, said container comprising means, includin walls, defining acavity: for confining said liquid, saidmeans having arupturable portion thereof through which said. liquid. is adapted. to be released and whichnis. normally operative. toconfine: said liquid, and. a member secured to said container and so associated with said rupturable portion as to be capable of rupturing-said rupturable portion whensaid member is moved relative to said rupturable portion of said container; said container being secured to said sheet support. bya bond having a strength sufiicient toprevent movement: between said container and said sheetsupportj when said member is moved with respectsto said rupturable portion to rupture said portion.

2. A photographic. productcomprising a ruptu rablecontainer holding a liquid, said. liquid havingdispersed. therein athickening agent and at least. one substance. from the class consisting of silver halide solvents. and silver halidedevelopers, a sheet support upon which said' con.- tainer is mounted, said. sheet support providing a spreading surface having 'aliquid-receiving area adjacent said container onto which said liquid is spreadable directly from said container,:

securedto said sheet support by. a bond having a'strength suiiicientto: prevent movement between said container and saids'sheet' support when. said member is move'dwith respect to said rupturab'le portion: to. sever said portion, applica:

tion of compression-tosaid wallspf said conitainer'being operative to: force said liquid? from said container through said-6severed' portionz onto said; liquid 'receiving area.

-15 3. The product of claim 2 wherein the rupturable portion of said container comprises a longitudinal sealed edge thereof, said edge being sealed by a plastic and said member comprising a flexible element at least a portion or which is embedded in said plastic.

4. The product of claim 2 wherein said container has a sealed edge, the seal or the edge constituting said rupturable portion and an extension of one of the container walls beyond said sealed edge constituting said member.

5. The product of claim 2 wherein said liquidreceiving area comprises a silver halide photosensitive portion.

6. The product of claim 2 wherein said liquid comprises a viscous aqueous alkaline solution of a silver halide developer and a silver halide solvent.

7. A composite photographic film unit comprising a first layer, a second layer, a container having therein a liquid composition, one of said layers including a photosensitive silver halide portion, said container comprising means, including walls, defining a cavity for confining said liquid, said means having a rupturable portion thereof through which said liquid is adapted to be released and which is normally operative to confine said liquid, and a severing number secured to said container and so associated with said rupturable portion as to be capable of severing said rupturable portion of said container, said layers and container being connected together so that said layers may be superposed with said container positioned therebetween, said container bein secured to said first layer by a bond having ,a strength sufiicient to prevent movement between said container and said first layer when said member is moved with respect to said rupturable portion to cause said severing.

8. The product of claim 7 wherein said member is secured to said second layer.

9. The product of claim '7 wherein said member is connected to a leader for said second layer, said severing member comprising a flexible element extending from within said container to the outside thereof, said element having a predetermined length so as to permit a predetermined movement between said leader and said container before a severing stress is applied to said rupturable portion of said container.

- 10. The product of claim '7 wherein said member comprises an extension of one of the walls of the container, said extension being securedto said second layer.

11. A composite photographic product comprising at least one film unit, said film unit ineluding a first layer, a second layer and a con I tainer, said second layer being adapted to be superposed on said first layer, said container being positioned between said first and second layers when said first and second layers are superposed, said first layer comprisin a photosensitive material, said container defining a cavity having therein a liquid composition for processing said photosensitive material, said container having a predetermined portion which, when ruptured, is adapted to permit release of said liquid composition from said cavity for spreading between said first layer and said second layer, first means attached to said container for rupturing said predetermined portion upon relative movement between said first means and saidpredetermined portion, said container being secured to one of said layers by a bond having a strength sufiicientto prevent movement between said container and said one layer when relative movement between said first means and said predetermined portion occurs, a magazine for housing said film unit, and second means secured to said magazine, said film unit being movable with respect to said magazine, said second means being adapted to engage said first means upon movement of said film unit with 1 respect to said magazine, whereby relative movement between said first means and said predetermined portion is caused and rupturing of said predetermined portion occurs.

12. A photographic product comprising a magazine, at least one film unit positioned in said magazine, said film unit including a first layer, a second layer and a'container, said second layer being adapted to be superposed on said first layer, said container being positioned between said first and second layers when said first and second layers are superposed, said first layer comprising a photosensitive material, said container defining a cavity having therein a liquid composition for processing said photosensitive material, said container having a predetermined portion which, when ruptured, is adapted to permit release of said liquid composition from said cavity, a pair of pressure-applying members associated with said magazine, said film unit being movable with respect to said magazine and between said pressure-applying members, first means attached to said container for rupturing said predetermined portion upon relative movement between said first means and said predetermined portion, said container being secured to one of said layers by a bond having a strength sufficient to prevent movement of said container with respect to said one layer when relative movement between said first means and said predetermined portion occurs, and second means secured to said magazine, said second means engaging said first means upon movement of said film unit with respect to said magazine, whereby relative movement between said first means and said predetermined portion is caused and rupturing of said predetermined portion occurs, movement of said film unit between said pressure-applying members thence causing release of said liquid composition from said cavity and spreading of said liquid composition between said first and second layers.

13. A photographic product comprising at least one film unit, said film unit including a first layer, a second layer and a container, said second layer being adapted to be superposed on said first layer, said container being positioned between said first and second layers when said first and second layers are superposed, said first layer comprising a photosensitive silver halide material, said container defining a cavity having therein a liquid composition including a, developer for silver halide, said container having 'a predetermined portion which, when ruptured, is adapted to permit release of said liquid composition from said cavity for spreading between said first layerand said second layer, first means attached to said container for rupturing said predetermined portion upon relative movement between said first means and said predetermined portion, said container being secured to one of said layers by abond having a strength sufiicient to prevent movement between said container and said film unit when relative movementbetween said first means and said predetermined portion occurs, a magazine for housing said film unit, second means secured to said magazine,

said film unit being movable with respect to said magazine, said second means being adapted to engage said first means upon movement of said film unit with respect to said magazine, whereby relative movement between said first means and said predetermined portion is caused and rupturing of said predetermined portion occurs.

14. The product of claim 13 wherein said first means comprises a length of wire, at least one end of said wire extending outside of said container and engaging said second means.

15. The product of claim 13 wherein the predetermined portion of said container provides a mouth and comprises a seal closing said mouth, and wherein said first means comprises a flexible element, at least a portion of which is embedded in said seal.

16. The product of claim 13 wherein said first means comprises a flexible element extending from Within said cavity through a portion of said container, at least a portion of said first means being positioned outside of said container and being adapted to engage said second means.

17. The product of claim 13 wherein said predetermined portion includes a pair of sealed lips and wherein said first means comprises an extension of one of said sealed lips.

18. The product of claim 13 wherein said container comprises a first wall and a second wall, the inner surfaces of said walls defining said cavity and wherein said predetermined portion includes a continuation of said second wall, the inner surface of which is secured by means of a seal to the outer surface of said first wall, there being a weakened region in said continuation, said weakened region being stronger than said seal and weaker than said bond.

19. The product of claim 13 wherein said container comprises a first wall and a second wall, the inner surfaces of said walls defining said cavity and wherein said predetermined portion includes a section of said second wall, the outer surface of which is secured to the outer surface of said first wall, and said first means includes a member connected to said section.

20. The product of claim 13 wherein said container comprises a first Wall and a second wall, the inner surfaces of said walls defining said cavity and wherein said predetermined portion includes a section of said second wall, the inner surface of which is secured to the inner surface of said first wall and the extremity of which is secured to said first means.

EDWIN H. LAND.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 683,410 Mussinan Sept. 24, 1901 820,492 Gray May 15, 1906 1,180,415 Nasif et al. Apr. 25, 1916 1,212,137 Gindele Jan. 9, 1917 1,329,785 McCurdy Feb. 3, 1920 1,878,401 John Sept. 20, 1932 2,022,369 Curtis .Nov. 26, 1935 2,079,328 McBean May 4, 1937 2,085,392 Reichel June 29, 1937 2,189,347 Martin Feb. 6, 1940 2,322,005 Fierke et al. June 15, 1943 2,322,006 Fierke et al. June 15, 1943 2,322,027 Jelley et al June 15, 1943 2,335,159 Salfisberg Nov. 23, 1943 2,352,014 Rott June 20, 1944 2,410,644 Fierke Nov. 5, 1946 2,495,111 Land Jan. 17, 1950 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 879,995 France Mar. 5, 1942

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Classifications
U.S. Classification430/207, 206/316.2, 222/102, 396/31, 206/578, 222/95, 206/229, 222/82, 396/583
International ClassificationG03B17/52, G03B17/48
Cooperative ClassificationG03B17/52
European ClassificationG03B17/52