|Publication number||US2612732 A|
|Publication date||Oct 7, 1952|
|Filing date||Oct 1, 1951|
|Priority date||Oct 1, 1951|
|Publication number||US 2612732 A, US 2612732A, US-A-2612732, US2612732 A, US2612732A|
|Inventors||Eugene R Ziegler|
|Original Assignee||Ritter Co Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (21), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 7, 1952 E. R. ZIEGLER APPARATUS FOR SUPPLYING FLUID-HORNE FLOW OF ABRASIVE- MATERIAL 2 SHEETS-SHEET 1 Filed Oct. 1, 1951 l i E E 5 i 570 T 67 INVENTOR.
EUGENE R. Z/EGLER I-IIS ATTORNEY Oct. 7, 1952 E. R. ZIEGLER 2,612,732
APPARATUS FOR SUPPLYING FLUID-BORNE FLOW OF ABRASIVE MATERIAL Filed 001;. 1, 1951 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 i 2 'i I 8 Q I 2 i 5 y a I x '4 34- 4 i 33 35 5 4o 4 43 g A 3 37 64 E 3a 32 95 4 44 a9 97 98 V/ 9 9a 9.9
103 87 96 m ,9 9 7 A 77 m 94 10/; (WW l 7 102 109 a ,108 I04 y I07 A INVENTOR.
EUGENE R. Z/EGLER HIS ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 7 1952 APPARATUS FOR SUPPLYIN G FLUID- -BORNE FLOW F ABBASIVE MATERIAL Eugene R. Ziegler, Spencerport, N. Y., assignor to Ritter Company, Inc., Rochester, N. Y., a cor.-
poration of Delaware 7 Application October 1, 1951, Serial No. 249,063
This invention relates to an apparatus for supplying a fluid-borne flow or stream of abrasive material, such as a current or jet of carbon dioxide carrying finely divided aluminum oxide or the like, as employed, for example, in the dental field for cutting and shaping teeth, one object being to provide an improved apparatus 7 Claims. (Cl. 51-12) of such character having a more simple, prac-' tical and efficient type of construction.
Another object is the provision of such an apparatus adapted to afford a more readily controlled and precisely proportioned mixture of the fluid carrier and abrasives.
Another object is to afford suchan apparatus having improved means for stirring and supplying the finely divided abrasive materials to the fluid stream under all conditions of temperature, humidity and the like, as desired for uniformly controlling the proportion of abrasive supplied to the fluid carrier.
A further object is to provide an apparatus of the nature indicated having moving parts of minimum number and weight and capable of operating with, a minimum of Vibration and Fig. 1 is a side elevation of an apparatus em-' bodying the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a front elevation;
Fig. 3 is a top plan View;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged-sectional plan view on the line 44 in Fig. 5 showing parts of the abrasive supply means detached;
Fig. 5 is a further enlarged elevation as viewed from the line 3-5 in Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is a top plan'view of parts shown in Fig. 5 partly broken away;
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary enlargement of'parts shown in Fig. 5;
Fig. 8 is'a plan view of valve meansas seen from line 88 inFig. '7, and
Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic View showing the air and sand conducting lines and valves and controlling electrical connections of theapparatus.
:2 The present embodiment of the invention, herein disclosed by way of illustration, provides an apparatus particularly adapted for use by dentists for cutting and shaping teeth by the abrasive action of a jet of gaseous fluid, such as carbon dioxide, air or. the like, carrying finely divided abrasive' material such, for example, as aluminum oxide, for performing with less'pain and discomfort to the patient the operations heretofore accomplishedby rotating and vibrating tools such as burrs, drills and the like; as described in Maurer Patent No. 1,664,369.
Referring more particularly to the drawings,
the present apparatus comprises a portablecasing or cabinet 23 (Figs. 1-3) adapted to be conveniently supported oncasters, as 2|, for positioning and operation by the side of a dental chair. At the uppermost portion of the casing is a control head 22 with an instrument panel 23 mounting control devices hereafter described and inclined to present the same in conveniently accessible position. From this head extends a flexible conductor 24 having at its free end a hand piece 25 carrying a jet nozzle 2-6 of suitable construction. A holder 2! maybe provided on the cabinet head for releasably supporting the hand piece within reach of the dentist.- A suction pipe 28 extends upwardly through an opening in the top 23 of the cabinet in which it is supported for vertical adjustment by a telescopic joint and other known and suitable means, and connected with a filter and a source of reduced pressure as hereafter described. Pipe 28 has its upper'p'ortion turned horizontally as at 3i] with an open end 3! adapted to be positioned adjacent the mouth of the patientfor withdrawing theabrasive and other products of the operatiomas disclosed in said Maurer patent.
The fluid carrier for the abrasive materialv is preferably carbon dioxide supplied from a source of pressure such as the tank 32 (Fig. 9) from which the gas is supplied through a pressure reducer 33 of known and suitable construction at a pressure of say pounds per square inch. The gas passes from the reducer through a pipe 34 to control means by which it may be transmitted 'in'full pressure to the abrasive supplying means, or may be reducedto and transmitted at a lower pressure, as, say, 50 pounds. Such means comprises a pipe 35 leading from pipe 34 to a pipe 36 connected with a valve 3'licontrol'ling transmission to the abrasive mixing chamber hereafter described. Pipe 35 leads through a valve 38 controlled by a solenoid device 33, of known and suitable construction, .by means of which and its switchy93, on the instrument panel,
hereafter described, the valve may be moved to position for transmitting the higher pressure, or released for spring actuation to closed position. Connecting with pipe 34 also is a pipe 46 containing a pressure reducer'4l of known and suitable construction by means of which, when valve 38 is closed, the 'lower fluid pressure is supplied to pipe 36 and the valve 31. Valve 31 has one position for transmitting the carrier gas to the abrasive chamber through a pipe 42, the mixture then passing through pipes 43 and 44 to the hand piece jet, as hereafter more fully described. Valve 31, in its other position, bypasses the mixing chamber and delivers the clean gas to pipe 44 and the operating jet, as desired. Valve 31 is manually operated by a knob 45 on the instrument panel.
The means for supplying the abrasive material to the carrier gas comprises preferably a container in the form of a cylindrical tank 46, Fig. 5, of cast aluminum and suitably supported in fixed position in the cabinet. This container has a removable top closure 41 securedin place by suitable means such as lugs 48' on the container engaged by an interrupted fiange 49, as well understood in the art, a gasket such as a resilient sealing ring 50 being interposed to seal the joint. The cover is provided centrally with a hand knob on the upper end of a spindle 52 extending loosely through a relief opening 53 in the cover and carrying a valve disk 54 for engagement with a resilient gasket ring 55 to close the opening. The valve is normally closed under pressure of the contained fiuid aided by a compression spring 56 coiled about the spindle and bearing against the valve and against a disk 51 screwed into a flange 58 depending from the cover, The lower end of the spindle is guided in an opening in disk 51 and bears against a filter pad 56 held against the lower end of flange 58 by a cap 66 screwed thereon and provided with openings 6|. .By depressing knob 5|, this valve means may be operated to relieve the pressure in the container when the use of the apparatus is discontinued.
Container 46 has its bottom inclined downwardly towards its center at which it is'provided with a threaded orifice plug 62, similarly inclined toward an abrasive discharge orifice 63 leading into a mixing chamber 64 formed in a valve block 65 cast integrally with and depending from the I bottom of the container. Extending upwardly through orifice 63 is a gas supply tube 66 of smaller outside diameter than the orifice so as to leave an annular space around it for the discharge of the abrasive materialfrom the con- Tube 66 is fixed at its lower end ina tainer. short sleeve 61 secured in a bore in the bottom of block 65, as by means of a tapered threaded fitting 68. shown) for communication with a threaded socket 69 in the block to which the pipe 42 is connected for supplying gas under pressure to the tube 66.
The tube 66 is vibrated laterally, as indicated by the broken lines in Fig. 5, by means hereafter described to agitate and stir the abrasivematerial and it is preferably provided with a suitable number of lateral outlet openings for producing jets of gas for the same purpose of stirring the material and keeping it in a loose condition for flowing down through orifice 63. Theupper end of tube 66 is preferably turned laterally as at H to direct the remaining flow of gas into the outlet of a conduit 12 formed in an outwardly projecting rib 13 of the container wall and dis- Sleeve 61 has openings therein (not charging laterally as at 14 into the mixing chamber 64, to there mix with the abrasive falling through the orifice 63 and driving the mixture through a discharge passageway 15 having at its end a threaded socket 16 for connection with pipe 44 leading to the operating jet nozzle 26.
Means are provided for controlling the discharge of the abrasive through the orifice 63 comprising preferably a cylindrical body 11, of steel or other magnetic material, which is centrally bored to receive tube 66 on which it is fixed just below orifice 63. The upper end of body 11 is roughened, preferably by a series of concentric corrugations, or V-grooves 18 (Figs. 7 and 8), to form ridges inclined outwardly as shown. Such corrugations of the upper surface of the body, in closely spaced parallel relation with the bottom of the container opposite the lower end of the orifice, serves, when the tube is stationary, to obstruct the discharge of the abrasive from the orifice. When the tube is vibrated, however, by means hereafter described, the abrasive is worked outwardly by the corrugations and discharged at the sides of the body 11, so as to maintain a steady flow of the abrasive at a rate substantially proportioned to the amplitude of vibration of tube 66.
The means for vibrating tube 66 comprises preferably an electromagnet indicated generally at 19, Figs. 4 and 5, having a laminated core 60, of generally E-shape, with its energizing coil 8| surrounding the central branch of the core 82, as shown. The outer polar branches 63 and 84 of the core have their ends terminated adjacent the outer walls of the bottom block of the container, as shown, so as to produce a magnetic field extending through the valve body ll. Means are provided for exciting the magnet coil with pulsating direct current and it will be evident that, by varying the impressed voltage, the amplitude of vibration of valve body 11 and tube 66 may be varied, tovary the rate of the flow of abrasive into mixing chamber 64.
A supply of abrasive mixture through pipe 44 to the operating hand piece and its jet 26 is further controlled by a valve 85, Fig. 9, of known and suitable construction, which is operated by a spring actuated solenoid means 86, of known and suitable construction, to either of two positions in one of which the abrasive stream is supplied through conductor 24 to hand piece 25 and its operating jet 26. In the other position of valve 65, the abrasive stream is diverted through a pipe 81 to a filter means or screen 88, of any known and suitable construction, located in the bottom of the cabinet, for removing the abrasive material from the fluid carrier and allowing the latter to escape to atmosphere. When solenoid B6 is energized by means hereafter described, the valve is operated to supply the abrasive stream to the operating jet and when the solenoid is deenergized, to stop the operation,.it is actuated by its spring to operate the valve to position to divert the abrasive mixture to the filter as described.
Means are provided for reducing the pressure in pipe 44 whenever valve 38 is closed to reduce the pressure of the gas supplied to the mixing chamber 64, such means preferably comprising a pipe 69 connecting pipe 44 withthe filter and including a valve operated by a spring actuated solenoid 91, both of any known and suitable construction. When the solenoid is energized, by means hereafter described, the valve is actuated to vent to atmosphere the excess pressure in zeta-cs2 pipe 5 the valve being loaded to effect such release at pressures only'in excess of the desired lower operating pressure, as well understood in the art. A spring actuated relief valve 92 is provided in pipe 89 between valve 90 and the filter; set to open communication with the filter at pressures above the loweroperating pressure for the purpose of relieving excess pressure in the pipe 88 when valve 90 is operated-'forpressure reduction as described.
The means for effecting such change in the operating pressure comprises: preferablythe two pole switch 93 having its blade connected; as
shown, to one side 94 of the power line. The
switch has one-poleconnected; asshown, to solenoid 39 the other terminal of which is connected by'a wire 95 to the other side 96' ofthepower line. The other pole 91: of the switch isiconnectedi by a. wire 98 to one terminal of solenoid 91" which has its other terminal connected. by. a wire-99 with wire 95 and the power line .as: shown. It will be seen that, by throwing the switch blade to its pole 91, the system will be operated at: the lower pressure, while the shifting of-the switch to its other position efiects operation atthe higher pressure. switch 93 is. adjusted to one position or the other by turning a knob I00 on the control panel.
The means for varying the rate of supply-ofabrasive comprises preferably a half-wave rectiher It! (Fig. 9), of any known and suitable con struction, connected with oneside of the power line and with a potentiometer I02 of any-known and suitable construction connected with the terminals of. the coil of the electromagnet..19. By this means a pulsating directcurrentis-supplied to the electromagnet ata voltage controlled by theadjustment of? the potentiometer, as: well understood in the art, such voltage being conveniently indicated by a volt meter l03" which may be graduated-in any suitable arbitraryunits.
Adjustment of the potentiometer and the impressed voltage on the electromagnet: 19 serves to vary the amplitude of vibration oi" the tube 65 and valve body 11' and the proportion of abrasive in the carrier stream; described above; as. operating conditions may require.
Means are provided" for manually controlling the supply of abrasive material and'fiuid carrier simultaneously, comprising preferably a treadle- [04 (Fig. 9) for operating-a foot switch 105 having one terminal connectedto the side- 94 of the power line. The other switch terminal is connected by'a wire HIE-with the-rectifier Nil to start and stop the operation oftheabrasive valve means. This terminal of the switch is also connected by a'wire I01 with one terminal'of the solenoid 86 the other terminal'of whichisconnected by a wire "18 with the other side 9 6 of the power line. One side of" the power line includesa main switch I09 operated by switch lever H0 on Y the control-panel 23. Depression of treadle Hi4 against the: resistance of its spring serves to close the above circuits and start the supply of carrier and abrasive. to the operating hand piece jet 26.
filter and discharged through openings (not v andi. vibrating: the" valve: body 11: to supplythe material. at: the desired rate: To .applyrthe abra sive. jet to a. tooth; the operator depressesatreadle 1.04, thereby supplying the abrasive stream through the; nozzle of the hand piece. To" interrupt the operation, treadle- 104:. is released. thereby quickly diverting: the abrasive" stream from the; hand piece nozzle to; the filter pending resumption of: theoperation; such release of'the treadle immediately discontinuing the; supply: of
thev abrasive; material. I The operating: pressure may beincreased or diminished. at. anytime. by. corresponding movement of switch-1913; whiohimmediately lowers the pressure: both: in the? mixing chamber andin the: supply: line: to the handpiece nozzle when a lowerpressure is; selected;
It is evident that the invention. provides: an apparatus' by means: of which the relative pro,- portions of abrasive and fluid carrier may be. readily and accurately controlled, with; means:
for continuously and efiectively stirring, and agitatingthe abrasive material-to maintain; it in a. semi-fiuidstate for discharge through theorifice to the mixing chamber,,. with1 minimum interference by conditions of, temperature; humidity and the like, to-insure uniform mixturexin anyselected proportion. The; proportion of abrasive-in the fluid carrier; as well as the pressure of the latter, are subject: to. accurate and convenient control and theabrasivestream'may be quickly startedand St PDQd: as theoperator may desire, These advantages are-obtained by principles of construction involving minimum movement, of parts and minimum vibration and noise, as well as a construction of relatively few partsof simple design capable of being readily and economically manufactured. and assembled andlof. being operated with a minimum of inter.- ruption of service and. of operating expense.
It will thus be seen that. the inventionaccomplishes'its objectsand while it has beenherein disclosed by reference to. the details of a preferred embodiment it is to be understood. that such disclosure is intended in-yan illustrative, rather than a limiting sense; as it is contemplated thatvarious modifications in the construction a'ndarrangement ofthejpartswill read ily'occur to those-skilledin theart; within the spirit of the-invention and the-scope of the appended claims. 3 I
1. An apparatus for. supplying-- a fluid-borne flow ofabrasive-material comprising-a containerfor said materialhaving an orifice adjacent its bottom, a mixing chamberbelow and communieating with-said orifice and having an outlet; at source of fluid -under pressure; a-mova'ble fluid conduit communicating: with said source ahdextending through said chamber and said orifice adjacent the upper portion of said container,
7 means providing a fiuid duct from the upper portion offsaidcontainer to said chamber, valve means connected l'with said conduit for movement thereby to controlthefiow ofsaid material through said orifice and means for moving said conduit to stir saidmaterial in'said orifice and container and to actuate said valve 7' means to supply said material-to said; chamber ,for ,mixture with fluid from said ductand discharge through said chamber outlet.
2. An apparatus. i! supplying a fluid-borne flow of abrasive materialcomprising a container for said material having an orifice amacent'its bottom, .a mixing chamber below and communicating with said orifice/and having an outlet, a source of fiuid' under. pressure; afiexible-vibratoryfiuid conduit communicating with said fluid source and extending through said chamber and said orifice adjacent the upper portion of said container, means providing a fluid duct from the upper portion of said container to said chamber, valve means connected with said conduit for vibration thereby to control the flow of said material through said orifice andmeans forvibrating said conduit to stir said material in said container and to vibrate said 'valve'means to supply said material to said chamber for mixture with fluid from said duct anddischarge through said chamber outlet.
3. An apparatus for supplying a fluid-borne flow of abrasive material comprising a container for said material'having an orifice adjacent its bottom, a mixingchamber below and communicating with said orifice'and having an outlet, at source of 'fluid under pressura'a flexible vibratory fluid conduit communicating with said source and extending through said-chamber and said orifice adjacent the upper portion of said container, means providing a fluid'jduct from the upper portion of said container to said chamber, valve meansin said chamber connected 'withisaid conduit for vibration thereby; andhaving a frictionally resistant surface in closely'spaced relation to the bottom of's'aidcontainer below said orifice for stationarily obstructing the flow of said material through said orifice, and means for vibrating said conduit to stir said material in said container and to vibrate said valve means to supply said material to said chamberfo'r mixture with fluid from 'saidduct andfdischarge through said chamber outlet.
4. An apparatus for supplying a fluid-borne flow of abrasive material comprising a. container for said material having an orifice adjacent its bottom, a mixing. chamber below and communicating with said orifice andhaving an outlet, a source of fluid under pressure, a flexible vibratory fluid conduit communicating with said source and extending through said chamber and said orifice adjacent the upper portion of said container, means providing a fluid duct from the upper portion of said container to. said chamber, valve meansin said chamber connected witlrsaid conduit for vibration thereby and having a disk-like, circumferentially corrugated surface in closely spaced relation to the bottom of said container below said orifice for stationarily'obstructing the flow of .saidmaterial through said orifice, and means for vibrating said conduit to stir said material in said container and to vibrate said valve means to supplysaid material to said chamber for mixture with fluid from said duct and discharge through said chamber outlet.
5. An apparatus for supplying a fluid-borne flow of. abrasive material comprising a container for said material having an orifice adjacent its bottom, a mixing chamber below and communieating withsaid orifice and having an outlet, a source; of fluid under pressure, a movable fluid conduit extending through said chamber and said orifice adjacent the upper portion of said container, said conduit being formed with lateral outlets for producing fluid jets for stirring said material, means providing a fluid duct from the upper, portionof said container to said chamber,
valve means connected with said conduit for movement therebyto control the flow of said material through saidorifice and means for moving said conduit tostir said material in said orifice'and container and ,to actuate said valve means to supply said material to said chamber forimixture: with fluid from said duct and discharge through said chamber outlet.
6.,An apparatus for supplying a fluid-borne flow of abrasive material comprising a container for said material having an orifice adjacent its bottom, a mixing chamber below and communicating'with'said orifice and having an outlet, a source of fluid under pressure, a movable fluid conduit communicating with said source and extending through said chamber and said orifice adjacent the .upper portion of said container, means providing a fluid duct from the upper portion of said container to said chamber, valve means connected with said conduit for movement thereby to control the flow of said material through said" orifice, a magnetically responsive body connected with said conduit and electric circuitimeans comprising an electromagnet for moving said body and conduit to stir said material in, said container and to move said valve means to supply said material to said chamber for mixture with fluid from said duct and discharge through said; chamber outlet, and means for varying the amplitude of movement of said conduit and valve means and varying the supply of said materiaL' '7.-An, apparatus for-supplying a fluid-borne flow of abrasive material comprising a container for said material having an orifice adjacent its bottom, a mixing'chamber below and communicating with said orifice and having an outlet, a source of fluid under pressure, a flexible vibratory fluid conduit communicating with said source and extending through said chamber and said orifice adjacent thetupper portion of said container, means providing a fluid duct from the upper portionof saidcontainer to said chamber, valve means in said chamber connected with said conduit-for vibration thereby and having a frictionally, resistant surface in closely spaced relation to the bottom of said container below said orifice for; stationarily obstructing the flow of said material through said orifice, a magnetically responsivebody connected with said conduit, and electric circuit means comprising an electromagnet forvibrating. said conduit to stir said material in saidcontainer and to vibrate said valve means to supply said material to said chamber for mixture with fluid from said duct and discharge through said chamber outlet, and means for varying, the amplitude of vibration of said conduit and valve meansand varying the supply of said EUGENE R. ZIEGLER.
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|U.S. Classification||451/99, 433/125|
|Cooperative Classification||B24C7/0061, B24C7/0092|
|European Classification||B24C7/00H, B24C7/00C1E|