|Publication number||US2613603 A|
|Publication date||Oct 14, 1952|
|Filing date||Jun 11, 1947|
|Priority date||Jun 11, 1947|
|Publication number||US 2613603 A, US 2613603A, US-A-2613603, US2613603 A, US2613603A|
|Inventors||Ireton Carl A|
|Original Assignee||Specialty Papers Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (8), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 14, 1952 c [RETON 2,613,603
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SETTING MOISTURE-SETTING PRINTING INKS Filed June 11, 1947 IN VEN TOR.
ATTORNEYS 5o 45 BY Patented Oct. 14, 1952 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SETTING MOISTURE-SETTING PRINTING INKS.
Carl A. Ireton, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to The Specialty Papers Company, Dayton, Ohio, a
corporation of Ohio Application June 11, 1947, Serial No. 753,917
This invention relates to printing and is concerned particularly with the setting of moisture-. setting inks which have been printed on paper.
It is a principal object of the invention to provide economical and efficient methods of setting moisture-setting inks by supplying moisture thereto in the form of steam under predetermined controlled conditions such that an amount of moisture suflicient to set the ink is imparted thereto in a highly uniform manner and without undesirably affecting the character or properties of the paper itself.
It is a further object of the invention to provide such methods in which steam as available in a too wet state, unsuitable for uniform and desirable effects upon direct application to the printed paper web, is first conditioned to a drier state of substantial freedom from objectionable large droplets of water and then is released, as from a conduit or chamber, in effective spaced relationship with respect to the web and directed against the web with such velocity that the effects accompanying release of the steam and contact thereof with the cooler atmosphere and web material coupled with the energy lost in scrubbing against the web will cause the steam to be in a suitable state of wetness or effective moisture content correlated with the hygroscopic power of the ink solvent so as to favor rapid and uniform transfer of moisture from the steam to the ink in finely dispersed form.
It is also an object of the invention to provide improved apparatus for printing in accordance with the moisture-setting principle and particularly for effecting more satisfactory and more uniform setting of the moisture-setting inks on the paper without damaging the paper itself.
Another object of the invention is to provide simple, economical and dependable apparatus for setting moisture-setting inks which have been printed on paper by applying steam to the printed paper under controlled conditions uniformly across the web such as to cause the steam as it reaches the ink to be free of large droplets of water and yet be available for use in finely dispersed fog form upon reaching the vicinity of the paper and coming into contact with the ink printed on the web itself.
Another object of the invention is to provide simple and effective apparatus for releasing steam in the vicinity of material to be treated and for regulating the characteristics of the steam so that after release it will be in a controlled state of wetness or vapor content favorable to deliver a uniformly effective deposit of 2 moisture upon the material undergoing treatment and with substantial uniformity across the material even though it may have considerable width. I
Another object of the invention is to provide compact steam conditioning and dischargemeans adapted to be disposed adjacent material to be treated for conditioning steam to a desired state of saturation or vapor content and substantial freedom from entrained droplets of water and thereafter releasing the steam under conditions causing an increase in its vapor phase content or wetness of such extent as to be favorable to impart a uniformly effective deposit of moisture to the material being treated.
The manner in which these and other objects of the invention are attained will be evident from the following description taken in conjunction with .the accompanying drawings and the appended claims.
In the drawings- Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic side elevation showing one form of apparatus embodying an application of the invention for setting moisture-setting inks printed on a continuous web of paper material;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation showing in greater detail one of the steam conditioning and releasing units included in the apparatus of Fig. 1, some portions of the unit being shown broken away and some being shown insection for clarity of illustration;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary plan view of one end portion of the unit of Fig. 2; and I Fig. 4 is a vertical section taken on line 4-4 of Fig. 2.
The printing industry for some time has been familiar with the composition and use of so called moisture-setting inks which are printed on paper in any usual or convenient way and are then set to a non-smudging and non-offsetting condition by supplying to the moisture-sensitive ink on the paper sufficient water to cause precipitation of the ink binder. Such inks generally contain any appropriate or desired pigments associated with a water-precipitable ink binder material .dissolved or dispersed in an organic solvent which is substantially non-volatile at ordinary press room temperatures so that the ink will not set merely by evaporation or drying of the solvent in the manner of more conventional types of inks. The organic solvent does, however, have hygroscopic characteristics such that it will take up moisture from surrounding moist atmosphere. The binder and solvent are selected and correlated with respect to their solvent and solubility properties so that the binder will remain in solution in the organic solvent alone but will be precipitated from a mixture of the solvent with the amount of water which it takes up from surrounding moist atmosphere when subjected to a setting treatment.
Moisture-setting inks having properties as above described may be obtained commercially from the General Printing Ink Corporation, Division of Sun Chemical Corporation, and the Hilton Davis Company and are designated Hydry inks. While various constituents may be used, it is understood that a typical formulation utilizes diethylene glycol as the principal hygroscopic solvent and contains a maleic acid type resin either alone or in admixture with zein as the water-precipitable binder, together with the usual appropriate and desired pigments. Such inks are printed on paper by means of any appropriate type of printing press equipment and the 'inks are then set to a non-smudging and non-offsetting condition by supplying moisture thereto in such quantity that the hygroscopic solvent of the ink will take up a sufficient amount of water-to render the binder insoluble in the mixture of solvent and water and cause it to be precipitated with resultant setting of the ink to a firm condition.
In accordance with the present invention, the requisite moisture for setting the ink on the paper is supplied in the form of pre-conditioned steam released in the immediate vicinity of the paper after the ink has been printed thereon. The state of the steam is carefully controlled and correlated with the hygroscopic powers of the ink solvent so that, when it is released and reaches the immediate vicinity of the printed material, the steam will be in a state of wetness comparable to dense fog which has been found to be most favorable to transfer of moisture in a desired effective and uniform manner to inks of the character described. At the same time the state of the steam also is controlled so as to be substantially free of large droplets of water such as would tend to produce water spotting of the paper as well as non-uniform setting of the ink. In addition to precipitating the ink binder and setting the ink, the steam treatment serves a further desirable function in the invention in that, through its heating effect, the steam serves to promote penetration of the ink into the paper and such penetration is effected with increased uniformity as a result of the practicing of the invention.
The present invention may with advantage utilize low pressure boiler steam which, as normally supplied in industry, is in a too wet condition with considerable entrained water and is therefore not initially suitable for use in applying moisture uniformly to the printed web, either from the standpoint of aifording a satisfactory agent for imparting the desired moisture to the hygroscopic solvent of the ink or from the standpoint of avoiding water spotting or other damage to or impairment of the printing or of the paper itself. In accordance with the invention, however, such initially unsuitable steam is freed of entrained water and conditioned to such state that, upon release into contact with the web it will be converted to that state of readily absorbable wetness correlated with the hygroscopicity characteristics of the solvent which has been found to be favorable to imparting the desired amount of moisture to the ink and the paper substantially without water spotting the paper.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, this is accomplished by supplying the too wet and initially unsuitable steam at superatmospheric pressure and then subjecting it to successive expansions with drying or dewatering accompanying at least one expansion after which the expanded steam is released to the atmosphere in the vicinity of the printed web and is directed against the printed face of the web.
The conditions under which the steam free of entrained water is expanded and released and the space relationships between the steam releasing and conditioning unit and the printed web are so regulated and controlled that the steam when released is substantially free from entrained water and in such state of saturation or vapor content as to mix readily with the hygroscopic solvent of the ink. The steam is preferably in the form of a finely dispersed fog produced partly by loss of heat energy in mechanical work performed in causing-it to scrub against the paper web, as well as by its admixture with the cooler atmosphere in the vicinity of the web and its contact with the printed web itself which ordinarily will be at a lower temperature than the dew point of the steam and usually at room temperature or thereabout.
By controlling factors influencing the properties and characteristics of the released steam so that it is free of objectionable droplets of entrained water and yet remains in such state of saturation, correlated with the hygroscopicity characteristics of the ink solvent, as .to readily be absorbed by the hygroscopic solvent upon cooling in the vicinity of the web or directly upon the printed material itself and thus to effectively impart moisture to the solvent, it is possible to achieve satisfactory and uniform setting of moisture-setting inks while minimizing difficulty with water spotting and similar damage to: or impairment of the paper and .the ink. .1
A typical application of the invention inconnection with the printing of moisture-setting inks on a continuous web of paper material to be used, fore'xample, for bread wrapping and packaging purposes is illustrated in Fig. 1. A web of paper [0, which may be an opaque bread wrapper stock, is supplied from a reel II to a printing press of the type employed for multi-color printing of bread wrappers. Thus, the web I 0 is passed about a series of guide rolls 'I2 arranged as shown, then passed vertically upward between plate cylinders 13 and backing cylinders [4 arranged in four successive pairs, as shown, for applying to the paper web the desired printed impressions with inks of the moisture-setting type as hereinabove described. The particular arrangement shown is designed for four-color work. The freshly printed web is then carried over a lead roll 45, downward and forwardly to an idler roll l6, downward and rearwardly to loop about a guide roll l1, after which the web is reeled up at l8. Rolls I5 and [6 may be ordinary smooth surfaced rolls since the unprinted side of the paper will be in contact with them, but the roll H, which comes in contact with the printed side of the web, desirably should be of the' prick-roll type to further reduce the possibility of smearing the freshly printed web.
For setting the freshly printed ink on the paper web, one or more steam conditioning and releasing units, designated generally by the letter A, are mounted on suitable supporting means underheath the reach of the web between the rolls l6 and I1, as shown, the units being disposed in such proximity to the web that steam emitted therefrom will impinge effectively against the web. Pans 19 are provided about each of the units A, the pans being mounted closely adjacent the path of the web, as shown, so as to substantially confine the steam after its release from the units.
One of the steam conditioning and releasing units A is shown in greater detail in Figs. 2, 3 and 4 of v the drawings which illustrate a specific embodiment of apparatus found satisfactory in commercial operations for setting inks of the moisture-setting type printed on a traveling. web to be used for bread wrapping purposes. Such specific embodiment ofthe unit A comprises an elongated heat exchanger or expansion element, means for controlling admission of steam thereto, and means for supporting said element in operative proximity to a traveling paper web .in a generally transverse direction with respect to. the path of the web. Said heat exchanger includes an outer shell 30 or tube conveniently formed of 2 /2" black iron pipe with an overall length of 80%;. One end of the pipe is closed by a plug 3| welded in plac while the other end is closed by a reducing joint 32 threaded to the end of the shell 33 and having a tubular extension or inlet 33 corresponding in size to a 1" pipe with an opening of 0.864 sq. in. cross-sectional area. The tubular inlet 33 is connected by suitable piping to a source of steam, as boiler, not shown. A globe valve 34 or the like is provided-in the steam supply line near the unit for regulating the quantity and pressure of steam admitted thereto. A pressure gage 35 is tapped into the reducing joint 32 for indicating the pressure condition within the outer or first expansion chamber formed by the shell 30. For removing or draining water from the chamber C-l, a discharge pipe 36 may be tapped into the shell 30- at a lowermost point near the end thereof removed from the steam inlet, the pipe 33 leading to a conventional trap 31.
A longitudinallyextending section of the outer shell30 about wide is cut out from a point 1 from the threaded end of the shell substantially to the other end to provide a longitudinally extending opening through the shell wall. This opening is. closed, however, by a second tubular member 38 forming an inner or second expansion chamber which is considerably smaller than the outer shell or chamber 30 and is set within said outer shell and welded to the margins of the aforesaid opening at 39 as shown more clearly in Fig. 4. The second, or inner, tubular member 38 is formed of seamless steel tubing of 1%" inside diameter and 1%" outside diameter, and is 74" long overall. Both ends of the tubular member 38- are closed by its steel disks or plugs 40 welded in place. As may be seen from Fig. 2, the inner tubular member extends from a point adjacent the inlet 33 to the other end of the shell 30 andthrough the end disk 3| so as to project about 2" beyond the end of the outer shell 39 to permit convenient connection of a discharge pipe 4| leading to a trap 42. for removing or draining water from the chamber C-Z within the inner tubular member 38. a
-For admitting'steam from the outer chamber C-i to the inner chamber 0-2, a series or row of circular apertures 43 is provided in the wall of the tubular member 38. In the particular apparatus being described, the apertures 43 correspond in size to a No. 52 drill or 0.063 diameter and are 3'7 in number arranged in equally spaced relation, 2 apart, along a substantially medial line extending longitudinally of the member 38.
These apertures 53 provide in the aggregate a cross-sectional area equal to 0.114 sq. in. for permitting steam flow from the outer chamber to the inner chamber.
For discharging steam from the inner chamber 0-2 to the atmosphere contiguous to the material being treated, a series of outlet or jet orifices 44 are provided through the exposed portion 45 of the wall of the inner tubular member 38. The orifices 44 are disposed along a longitudinal line extending medially between the margins of the exposed portion 45 of the inner tube 38, or, in other words, medially between the margins of the longitudinal opening in the outer tube 30. In the specific structure shown and described the orifices 44 should be 592 in number and should correspond in size to a #52 drill, or 0.063 diameter, spaced apart, providing an aggregate outlet area equal to 1.835 sq. in.
As may be seen more clearly from Fig. 4, the structure described provides an outer or first condensing or expansion chamber C-l of crescentiform cross-sectional contour and an inner or second condensing or expansion chamber 0-2 of circular cross-sectional contour disposed with a major portion of its wall area exposed to steam in the chamber C-l, the cusps of the crescentiform outer chamber extending about and embracing a major portion of the periphery of the inner chamber wall. As may be readily calculated, the cross-sectional area of the outer or initial expansion chamber C-l is equal to 3.108 sq, in. and its volume approximately 240 cu. in. neglecting the slight volume in the shell of the reducing joint 32 and deducting the volume of the plug 3|. The inner or second chamber G4 has a cross-sectional area of 1.48 sq. in. and an overall length of and, accordingly has a volume of approximately 118 cu. in. after correction for the volume of the thick end plugs. The volumes of the two chambers C-1 and 0-2 are therefore seen to be related in the approximate ratio of 240 to 118 or approximately 2 to 1.
Steam supplied at the inlet 33 at superatmospheric pressure is maintained under superatmospheric, even though lower, pressure in the unit and emerges from the outlets with velocity sufficient to bring the steam into efiective moisture imparting contact with the printed web.
The two steam-releasing units A as employed in the illustrated apparatus are preferably disposedside-by-side transversely of the path of the traveling web and in predetermined spaced parallel relationship thereto so that the released steam will impinge against the printed face or" the web as a jet or steam of vapor with sufficient velocity to produce an adequate volume of absorbable vapor but not great enough to entrain water droplets in the released jets. A spacing of about 1 /2 inches between the outlet orifices 44 and the web has been found satisfactory in the described installation although some variation in this spacing is permissible. The important factor is to dispose the steam outlets close enough to the web to insure the steam jets striking the printed material while the steam is still traveling and in moisture imparting condition. The outlets 44 or some of them may be disposed at an angle with respect to the web so as to cause the emitted steam flowing in the direction of the advancing web to strike the web at an angle and thereby to produce a substantial scrubbing efr fect. An angle of the order of 10-15 degrees between the direction of the steam jet and a perpendicular to the path of the web or, in other words, an angle of about 75-80 degrees between the jet direction and the path of the web itself, as shown in the drawings, has been found satisfactory.
In operation, the web I0 may be, for example, a 25 pound opaque bread wrapper stock printed in multicolors with moisture-setting inks such as the commercial inks hereinabove mentioned. The printed web may be caused to travel through the guide roll arrangement shown in Fig. 1, at a speed of about 300 to 400 feet per minute.
To set the ink on the paper steam is supplied from a boiler, not shown, to the expansion units A. Under usual conditions, steam obtained from such source will arrive at the inlet 33 as a mixture of hot steam and unvaporized or free water which when released would be entrained in the jet in the form of droplets. Steam in this condition is therefore too wet and unsuitable initially for application directly to the printed paper web. Inasmuch as the pressure required for the effective ultimate use of the steam is relatively low, thatis of the order of a fraction of a pound up to usually not more than about ten pounds 1). s. i., the initial or feed in pressure need not be extreme. In a typical case, boiler steam at about pounds pressure reached the inlet 33 of each unit at about 11 pounds pressure, the loss being due presumably to transmission factors. According to the present invention, this too wet steam, initially at about 11 pounds pressure, is now expanded from the supply or inlet 33 into an expansion and heat exchanger zone, as chamber 0-! where excess water, whether carried in with the initial steam or produced by condensation, is collected and drained off through the drainpipe 36 and trap 31 with resultant substantial drying of the steam.
The steam is again expanded as it passes through the apertures 43 into the next zone, as the inner chamber 04 wherein, and as a result of such expansion, the steam is under lower pressure than in the chamber C-l. The dewatered steam in the chamber C-Z tends to receive heat from portions of the walls forming said chamber 0-2 which are in a large measure surrounded by the warmer steam in the chamber C-l It is contemplated that residual unevaporated water .if any in the steam in the chamber C-2 tends to vaporize thereby further drying of the steam to the extent that vaporizing of residual water takes place. Although little if any condensate collects in the chamber 0-2 after the unit has operated for a time, some condensate may form when the steam is first admitted and while the unit is reaching its normal operating temperature condition. To remove any such condensate, a drain pipe M is provided leading from the chamber 0-2 at a lowermost point in the protruding section of the inner tubular member 38 for conducting the condensate to a conventional trap 42.
' Thus, steam initially supplied in a too wet state and at a substantial superatmospheric pressure is conditioned by successive expansions with accompanying removal of excess water to produce drier steam at a' lower pressure but still above atmospheric pressure. The steam in this conditioned state is then released to the atmosphere and to the moisture applying zone through the outlet orifices 44 and expands to atmospheric pressure with accompanying cooling and admixture with the cooler atmosphere. After traveling through a short distance, of the order of 1% inches and at suflicient velocity to substantially saturate the air in the moisture applying zone with vapor, the released steam comes into contact with the cooler printed web, which usually will be at room temperature or thereabout. The steam undergoes still further cooling as a result of loss of heat energy in scrubbing against the web.
All of the foregoing contributing factors are controlled in practicing the invention so as to bring the steam into contact with the moving printed Web while it is in a condition of substantial freedom from droplets of water such as would tend to spot the paper but still in such condition of saturation that upon scrubbing against the cooler web, or upon being admixed with the cooler air immediately prior thereto, the steam will condense suiiiciently to form fog or finely dispersed water vapor. In such condition, the de-watered steam has been found to impart moisture to the hygroscopic solvent of the moisture-setting ink of the character described in a uniform and generally satisfactory manner. By controlling and regulating the several factors governing the state of the steam and correlatin these factors with the hygroscopic powers of the ink solvent in the manner indicated, it is possible to effect uniform and effective setting of the ink without impairing or damaging either the paper or the printing thereon.
In utilizing various types of moisture-setting inks wherein the coefiicient of hygoscopicity of the solvents may vary, the amount of moisture supplied to set the ink may be varied accordingly while still retaining effective correlationship between the condition of the steam and the hygroscopic factor of the solvent. For example, the amount of moisture in the steam may be varied by suitable regulation of the valve 34 to admit greater or lesser amounts of steam to the conditioning and releasing unit. In practical operation with various inks, using the particular installation described, especially satisfactory results have been obtained with steam pressures at the gage 35 as low as 3 pounds per square inch and as high as 15 pounds per square inch.
While the process and apparatus herein described constitute a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to this precise form of process and apparatus, and that changes may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention which is defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In the printing of a web of paper or other material with ink of the moisture setting type wherein precipitation of the binder and setting of the ink is caused by taking up moisture from the surrounding moist atmosphere, the process of setting said ink which comprises the steps of supplying steam at a predetermined superatmospheric pressure, expanding said steam under confined conditions and removing water therefrom to effect drying thereof, again expanding said dewatered steam to a lower superatmospheric pressure under confined conditions, maintaining said steam during said expansion in heat receiving association with a substantially surrounding and higher temperature atmosphere for imparting heat to said steam during said second expansion to inhibit condensation of water therefrom and to maintain said steam in substantially dry state, releasing the expanded steam in the last said condition directly to the cooler atmosphere of a moisture applying zone with accompanying further expansion under conditions imparting a substantial velocity thereto, and causing said expanded steam to impinge upon said web to form adjacentsaid web a zone of substantially uniformly distributed and finely dispersed moisture condensation free of undesirab-ly large droplets of water.
2. In the printing of a Web of paper or other material with ink of the moisture setting type wherein precipitation of the binder and setting of the ink is caused by taking up moisture from the surrounding moist atmosphere, the process of setting said ink which comprises the steps of supplying steam at a predetermined superatmospheric pressure, expanding said steam under confined conditions and removing water therefrom to efiect drying thereof, again expanding said dewatered steam to a lower superatmospheric pressure under confined conditions, maintaining said steam during said second expansion in heat receiving association with a substantially surrounding and higher temperature atmosphere of said steam from said first expansion for imparting heat to said steam during said second expansion to inhibit condensation of water therefrom and maintain moisture in said steam in a vaporized state, releasing the expanded steam in the last said condition directly to the cooler atmosphere of a moisture applying zone with accompanying further expansion under conditions imparting a substantial velocity thereto, and. causing said expanded steam to impinge upon said web to form in said zone substantially uniformly distributed and finely dispersed moisture condensation free of undesirably large droplets of water.
3. In the printing of a web of paper or other material with ink of the moisture setting type wherein precipitation of the binder and setting of the ink is caused by taking up moisture fro-m the surrounding moist atmosphere, the process of setting said ink which comprises the steps of supplying steam at a predetermined superatmospheric pressure, expanding said steam, under confined conditions to a lower superatmospheric pressure, surrounding said steam during said expansion with a higher temperature atmosphere of steam from said first expansion for imparting heat to said steam during said expansion to inhibit condensation of water therefrom and maintain moisture in said steam in a vaporized state, releasing the expanded steam in substantially dry condition directly to the cooler atmosphere of a moisture applying zone with accompanying further expansion under conditions imparting a substantial velocity thereto, causing said web to travel in a path traversing said zone, causing the released steam to impinge upon said Web at an angle with the approaching web so as to eifect substantial scrubbing of the steam against said web for imparting moisture thereto in uniformly distributed fine suspension substantially free of undesirably large droplets of water.
4. In the printing of a web of paper or other material with ink of the moisture setting type wherein precipitation of the binder and setting of the ink is caused by taking up moisture from the surrounding moist atmosphere, the process of rendering too wet and relatively high pressure steam into a substantially dry moisture conditioned and lower pressure state for application to said web for setting said ink which comprise the steps of expanding said too wet steam under confined conditions to lower the pressure thereof andmaintaining saidexpanded steam in heat receiving associaton with a substantially surrounding and higher temperature atmospherefor imparting heat to said expanded steam during said expansion to inhibit condensation of water therefrom and cause the moisture in said expanded steam to assume a vaporized state prior to releasing said moisture conditioned steam against said web.
5. Apparatus for setting moisture-setting ink imprinted upon a traveling web of paper with, steam from a source of steam at superatmospheric pressure while the web istraveling in a predetermined path comprising a first conditioning chamber communicating with said source of steam, a second moisture conditioning chamber communicating with said first chamber for expansion of steam therefrom into said second chamber, said second chamber being so disposed with respect to said first chamber that substantially all the Wall surface of said second chamber is in heat receiving contact with steam in said first chamber for heating said second chamber and the expanded steam therein for moisture conditioning and drying thereof, and outlet means from said second chamber for discharging moisture-conditioned and substantially dry steam therefrom as a jet of substantial velocity directed toward and impinging upon said web in controlled condition favoring transfer of moisture to said web in uniformly distributed and finely dispersed form.
6. Apparatus for setting moisture-setting ink imprinted upon a traveling web of paper with steam from a source of steam at superatmospheric pressure while the web is traveling in a predetermined path comprising an outer steam conditioning chamber communicating with said source of steam, an inner steam conditioning chamber communicating with said outer chamber for expansion of steam therefrom into said inner chamber, the wall of said outer chamber being interrupted to expose a limited portion of the wall of said inner chamber and said inner chamber being so disposed within said outer chamber that substantially all the wall surface of said inner chamber is in heat receiving contact with steam in said outer chamber for heating said inner chamber and the expanded steam therein for moisture conditioning and drying thereof, and outlet means from said inner chamber at said exposed portion of the wall thereof for discharging moisture-conditioned and substantially dry steam therefrom as a jet of substantial velocity directed toward and impinged upon said web in controlled condition favoring transfer of moisture to said ink on said web in uniformly distributed and finely dispersed form.
'7. Apparatus for setting moisture-setting ink imprinted upon a traveling web of paper with steam from a source of steam at superatmospheric pressure while the web is traveling in a predetermined path comprising a first conditioning chamber and an inlet therein communicating with said source of steam, a second moisture conditioning chamber and an inlet therein communicating with said first chamber for expansion of steam therefrom into said second chamber, said second chamber being so disposed with respect to said first chamber that substantially all the wall surface of said second chamber is in heat receiving contact with steam in said first chamber for heating said second chamber and the expanded steam therein for moisture conditioning and drying thereof, and outlet means from said second chamber for discharging moisture-conditioned and substantially dry steam therefrom as a jet of substantial velocity directed toward and impinging upon said web in controlled condition favoring transfer of moisture to said ink on said web in uniformly distributed and finely dispersed form, the cross-sectional areas of said inlets to said first and second chambers and said outlet means from said second chamber being of increasing size and so correlated as to provide for successive expansions of said steam as it passes into and through said chambers and is discharged into the atmosphere.
8. Apparatus for setting moisture-setting ink imprinted upon a traveling web of paper with steam from a source of steam at superatmospheric pressure while the web is traveling in a predetermined path comprising a first steam conditioning chamber communicating with said source of steam for expansion thereof into said chamber to a reduced superatmospheric pressure, a second steam conditioning chamber communicating with said first chamber for further expansion of said steam therefrom into said second chamber, substantially the entire wall surface of said second chamber being in heat receiving contact with a higher temperature atmosphere outside said chamber for imparting heat into said chamber and to the steam expanding therein to inhibit condensation within said chamber and maintain the moisture in said 12 chamber in vaporized state, and outlet means from said second chamber for discharging moisture-conditioned and substantially dry steam therefrom as a jet of substantial velocity directed toward and impinging upon said web in controlled condition favoring transfer of moisture to said ink on said web in uniformly distributed and finely dispersed form, said chambers being disposed in predetermined spaced relationship with said path.
CARL A. IRETON.
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