US 2613836 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct 14, 1952 w. L. NEWHALL ET AL SHIPPING CGNTAINER Ihwentors" Joseph Mavens W (Tttornegs m a w w W 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 17772 as? m'llz'son Filed Sept. 3, 1948 Oct. 14, 1952 w. L. NEWHALL ET AL 2,513,836v
SBIPPING'CONTAINER Filed Sept. 3, 1948 6 Sheets-Sheet ,5
Zhmentors WeZraseLJVew/mll E772 651 W z'Z Z 1' son Joseph Steven 5 W/ M 'Mnegs Oct. 14, '1952 wyL. NEWHALL El /A1;
SHIPPING CONTAINER Filed Sept. s, 1948 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 I c Ihmcmors WelroseLjVewkall B 17/72 es! Vl/z Z Zz'son,
// Jose /1 Jte vens wdN H l mw Oct. 14, 1952 W. L. NEWHALL ET AL SHIPPING CONTAINER 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Sept. 3. 1948 Bnnentors a m N L x w W Patented Oct. 14, 1952 -*uN1TEo STATE.
This :invention is for shippingcontainers and relates to shipping containers for use in making ;rail,-w-ater,;or other transportation of, merchandise which is particularly likely to be pilfered when shipped without adequate protection.
In theshipping of many products,-as for example-toys, cigarettescostume jewelry, cosmetics, :and innumerable other products, especially in what are termed L. C. L., or, less than oarload lots, considerable loss is suffered by pilfering or by breakage of cartons'or containers. This is especi'allystrue in marine shipments where-the merchandise may be stored on-a wharf. Also, damage is likely to be suffered by reason ofexposure.
It has heretofore been proposed to provide :shipping containers forless than .carload lot-shipments, but such oontainersas have been provided have been expensive and unsatisfactory in various'respects. Wooden boxes have also been used, but this-is expensive.
According to the present invention, there is provided a metallicshipping container of a size which can be accommodated to useontrucks, rail cars, and steamships, and even river barges. It is so constructed that it may be handled by means of fork lifting trucks or by means of an overhead crane, as wellas .by platform trucks or by other methods. The boxes are-so constructed as to resistrough handlingand heavyimpact. They are .also constructed so that they maybe placed close to. one another, and one may be placed'upon another with a minimum loss of headroom. This is important, especially insofar as storing in the holds of ships is concerned, or temporary storage .on 'wharves or in warehouses. ,The container,.
while being strong, is relatively light. In addition to providing these features, it is weathertight,;in-:that rain, even though it be blown by wind, or snow, will be effectively excluded. vAt the same time adequate ventilation is provided to prevent excessive condensation inside the box, particularly'when a change of temperature occurs. Additionally the containers. are so constructed thatpartitions may be temporarily arranged within them whereby fractional box-sized shiprnents, intended for the same general destination, canbe accommodated.
These and other objects and advantages are obtained by our invention, which is more fully described in, connection with the accompanying,
drawings, in which:
,tainer constructed inaccordance with our invenit'om.v ;ni 2 15a sideeleva n ther n:
s PATENT I} Welrose -L. .-N.ewhall, Coraopolis,.ErnesbWillimn, Greentree, and Joseph Stevens, ,Sevvickley; 2a., assignors to Dravo Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pa. acorporation of Pennsylvania Application September a; 1948, Serial No. 47,665
9 Claims. (o1.'220 '1.5)
.Fig. 3 is a front ielevation oi. the shippinf .tainer;
.Fig. 4 is .a transverse .longitudinalysection.with parts thereof broken away in thaplane [time IV-.IV.ofFig..3;.
5 is .a partial transverse sectio the container in '.the planeofline V-V .12; Fig. fiisa horizontal fragmentary section in the plane or lineVI-eVLofFigJt g.
Fig. '7 .is a partial plan viewloffione edg'eo he container; I Fig. .8 is .a horizontal section, ini'the lilan of lineVIII-VIII,0 Fig.2;
Fig.9 is a bottom viewv of onerlongitudinaledge of .thecontainer; I
.Fig. 1.0 is a .transversesecjtion showingate porary partition erected within the-container .Fig. .11 atransverse.sectionZinthe l neof Y .front of the box willbe-theportion provide with doors, the back orrear wall will be thefwall opposite the iront, and the side walls will be the ventical yvalls between the front and backl,
The box is formed witha bottom panel constructed of a. corrugatedsheet 6 formed square corrugations providing ridges },6 and channels 61). Theseoorru'gationsrun cross, ise of the box, that is, transverse ,to .the'axisrunning from .thefront to the batik.- .Spot wen-ea s the bottom plate 6.is..a cover sheet .1 whichjissmooth.
' providing the floor for thebox. Atits, sidetedgs the bottomsheet -l isrturned down, aslshown' atja in Fig, 4, to :overlap the ends, of the corrugation in the plate 6. The purpose of this .inafterImoreiully,pointedout. p
.At the front edge of :the plate I an .ardly .turned channel section 8 (see Fig. 3) forrniiigthe c en sabutment forthe door, and it has its flangesfspot welded tothe plate land tothe-edge offthe plate 6. At the rear edge'of the bottompanelisea fiimi- .l'ar channel-section's. that has its; -fianges;=welded to the rear edge of plate I and to-the .rea'r. edge-o the-corrugated plate 6. v
The bottom as thusiormed is smooth map and corrugated on the bottom. The-corrugated plate and :the cover or, smooth plateareintegrated by .spot welding, so as to provide .a verystrong bottom, the. corrugations forming in effect-ateliecession of box girders to give strength andrigidity to the structure. v
The bottom is reinforced are direction, by the structure hereinafter described,
and in the construction shown, is further reinforced by skids III which run in a fore and aft direction adjacent each side edge of the bottom, and which are welded or otherwise firmly secured to the bottom. ,The skids have a vertical ,web IDa and a runner or flange I01) and a top'flange I00. These runners provide skids for sliding the box, and supports for elevating its bottom above the floor so that the prongs of a lifting fork or truck may be projected. under it. To facilitate. this latter operation, the webs of the skid immediately below the top flange I are provided with elongated openings I I (see Fig.2) at each side of the mid plane of the box so that the two prongs of such a, fork can be projected through these openings, the prongs straddling the partition I2 which separates the openings. Also to enable the prongs to engage the corrugated bottom squarely, inverted channel sections I3 are welded into the eorrugations fia as shown in Figs. 4 and 12, these ,being arranged in rows, one of which is best fshowniinjFig. 8, and whichare spaced inwardly from the skids a distance such 'as to be reached by the ends of a lifting fork truck. There are 'Ttwo' su'ch rows of channels, one inwardly from each skid. The channel sections I3 which are flush with the bottom'of the floor panel of the box, assure that no matter'how the'lifting forks are inserted under the box, the box will be squarely supported. In other words, if these sections were not provided, one prong might engage-a channel, and onea rib, and the box would 'be tilted when it was lifted, which might result in thebox turning over. With these sections, such condition is prevented, as any fork followingj'alonga channel in the bottom will come un- Tderone ofthesejsections I3. These sections, being welded in place, also stiffen the bottom.
..Welded,t o each corner of the floor or base panel is acorner support, the supports at the front being designated I4, and those. at the back, I5. ',E"aclfl'w corner'support is'formed of heavy sheet or "light plate metal and is generally of angular form." The front corner elements have wings Md and Nb. (SeeFig. 8.) The wing I ia in turn bends inwardly, and has an upright chan- Tfnel section I40 formed integrally therewith. The wing Mb has an inwardly turned flange and lip portion designated 4d.
Thejre ar corner posts likewise have wings lid and .1 51), ie'a'ch'with a similar inwardly turned flangegand lip formation along the vertical edge 'thereofand. designated I50 and I5d.
."Each corner post has a, fiat baseplate I6 welded into] the lower end thereof. This forms a foot for the corner column that closes the bottom of the column. i
Side panels I! are welded against the'flanged ledges lqd and I5d of the front and rear posts respectively. These side panelsare made up of corrugated metal. Preferably the corrugations are of a, square form having relatively narrow j, outwardly: projecting ridges IIa and wider in- ;turned grooves I119. The narrow ridges I'Ia give the necessary rigidity to the panels, but they are less easily deformed by a blow which might be struck against them than a wider'ridge would be with the same impact. .On the other hand, the wider grooves IIb are protected by ribs against any blow that might be likely to damage them.
"Theribs-I'Id and the side panels are in alignment with the ribs on the floor panels, and this is for the purpose hereinafter-more fully described.
' the bottom edge of the side panel I1.
As best shown in Fig. 5, the side panels lap down past the base panel, and an angle member He is welded along the .bottom face and under However the angle does not completely close the bottom of the ribs or grooves I'Ia. This arrangement is definitely of advantage because any. rain that drives against the sides of the box can run down the grooves l1 and drain through the space IId at the bottom of the panel. On the other hand, air can enter the bottom of the box through the partially open ends of the ridges I'Ia, such openings being indicated at I'Ie (see Fig. 8). Because of this ventilation the contents of the box will be kept from sweating, resulting from temperature changes or changes in relative humidity.
. At the same time, wind-driven rain cannot enter the box.
Welded to the rear corner posts is an end panel I8 which is identical with the side panels so' far as construction is concerned, there being an angle I80 along the bottom of the panel, and the end panel laps down past the bottom panel in the same way to provide for circulation of air and efiective draining of water.
At the top of the box, along the two longitudinal edges, are angular metal plates I9 which are welded to the tops of the corner posts, and which provide a, ledge I9a along eachside of the box on the exterior thereof. These angular members at the top have a downwardly turned flange I9b which laps down over the outside of the side panels. An angle I welded to the inside of the horizontal portion of each of these members I9 laps down over the inside ofthe side panel I! as clearly shown in Fig. 4. This provides a weather-tight, or Weather shielded connection along the top edge of each side panel. As also shown in Fig; 5, the top edge of each side panel is spaced below the members I9-so that air can circulate under the flange I9b up throughthe grooves in the side and down into the ribs at the side, thus providing for the circulationof air at the top of the box to eliminate sweating, while providing a Weather-tight closure.
A corrugated top panel similar to theside and floor panels, is welded into place between the two longitudinaltop side members I 9. This corrugated top sheet is designated 20. Over the top sheet 20 there is a flat sheet metal cover 2|, whose edges lap over the vertical flanges of the members I9 to shed water. The ribs and grooves in the top member 20 are also in line with the corresponding ribs and grooves in the side panels I1 The purpose of this will be hereinafter more fully described.
As shown in Fig. 4, a flat metal plate 22 extends upwardly from the top of the rear panel I8 under the downwardly turned rear edge 2Ia of the cover sheet 2|. The corrugated top panel 20 terminates against this sheet 22 and is Welded thereto at 22a.
An inverted angle section of heavy metal, designated 23, is welded onto the ledge I 9 on the outside of the box near each corner of the box. The angle section is set on its two edges with the corner pointing upwardly in the general form' of an inverted V. Each of these members 23 has a notch 24 cut therein and a hole 25. By reason of this arrangement, hooks at the ends of hoisting chains can be quickly hooked into the top of while the hole 2 5 allows the point of the ook to pass there'through. 'Thisprovidesa simple into the box.
but-strong means to: attaching hoisting chains to the box. 1
Also the ledgesprovide a surface, as shown-1n Fig. 2,-whereby the'skid ill of onegboxmayxbe; set
on the ledge of another box for stacking the "boxes-one on :top of another, without danger of their sliding. The slope and spacing .of ,the members :23 is such that when one box is set on another,the inclined -.surfaces'of the. angle sections 12.3 tend to guide the skids of the superim-- 'posed'boxinto position. The members. 23 also provide abutments to prevent-.one-box from sliding endwayson another when they are super-. "imposed. y
The superimposed box of course is kept from sliding sideways on the box on which it rests by reason of the fact. that its skids l0 straddle the higher top portions'of the under box-when one box is restedon the ledge of another. .Thelifting members 23 are spaced back from, the extreme ends of theledges so that thereis a flat space on I theledge of each cornerof thebox where a superimposed box that has corner lugs instead of skids can be set.
, The frontof the box is provided with a movable closure means, this preferablybeing in the form of two hinged doors designated generally as 26 and 21. Each of-the doors is made with-a corrugated panel 26a and 27a respectivelyformed-similarly to the side and back walls. Along each 'bottom edge of the door there'is'an angle strip 28 whichlaps under the edge of the sheet metal panel, but which does not completely close it."
Each door is hinged to one of the corner posts 114,- the hinge being welded, as best shown in Fig. 8, to that partof the-corner post Me which extends inwardly and connects to the post M0.
The hinges as thus located are set inwardly from the front of the corners, so that they. are protected from impact; Atthetop of the end box is a top door framing-member 29 which has a portion 29a over which the cover sheet 2| laps. It has an inwardly set portion 291) with a horizontal bottom ledge 29c and an upturned flange 2901. At the top of each corrugated door panel thereis a metal strip 30 (see Fig. 4) that'extends up past the lip or flange 29d.on the frontframe member 29. This member 30 has its top edge "turned inwardly and downwardly as indicated are provided-with annular strips 3 l These strips form a labyrinth sealwith the parts Me of the corner posts. Water which drives in along the vertical edges of the two doors where they are hinged thus enters the part Mc-and'cannot get As previously stated, the lower edge of each door panel'laps down past the level .of the floor, and water driven against the front of'thedoor thus drainsdownwardly. The door is therefore tight against wind-driven rain, even though no gasket or'packingis used.
The verticalfree edge-of the door-2'1 is provided with an angle plate 32 extending'from the top to'the bottom of the door, the angle plate 32 having a ledge 33attheback plane of the door. The -f-ree' verticaledge of the door is likewiseproyided-cwith a "strip "35- whichwis'fwelded: thereto,-
and which extends the full height or the door,
and :,which has a lip portion-36 that. overlaps'fthe angle member 32 when the two doors are closed to, provide a seal. Any "rain that is driven in under thelip 36 can'run out the vertical-passageway. 31 provided-between the two confronting edgesof the doors.
- The strip '35 arrangedin the manner indicated also provides a'cover over a vertical channel- 38 forming a part of the door whereby toprovide a housing for a lockingbolt mechanism of a-more or less conventional type designated generally v as 39. 7 With this type of latching mechanism,
there are two bolts, one which extends'downwardly, and one which extends upwardly from an operating cam or eccentric 40. This bolt-in turn is movedby means of a lever 4| at the outside of the'door; The lever M is so positioned that it may be movedwhen it sets the bolts in looking position adjacent a hasp (not shown) to The latching bolts cooperate with keepers which are secured to the'lower edge of the member 29. v
The purpose of putting the grooves in the corrugated roof and in the corrugated sides pint-o registration or in the same plane, is to-enable a temporary partitionto be erected at one'or more points crosswise of the box. This is shown in Figs. 19 and 11 where a temporary partitionis made up of horizontal wooden strips. or battens 45. There are other vertical strips'or battens 46. The strips and 46 are bolted" together where they intersect. The ends of the horizontal members are entered into the grooves formed by the outwardly extending ribs inthe side walls,
and the upper ends of the vertical strips 46 are likewise entered into the internal'grooves formed in the corrugated top plate. By reason of the cross bars b eing'thus fitted into the grooves, the partition cannot be moved after it is set into place. If desired, plywood or other sheet '41 may be secured to these-strips 45 and 46. With this arrangement it is possible to segregate 1 small shipments intended for the samegeneral destination, and. it is impossible for one shipment to become confused with another in transit. The partitions can be readily removed and reset at various points along the side walls, as may be required.
The box as thus constructed provides a strong,
sturdy, but economical ship-ping container especially useful for the handling of less than carload shipments, and is particularly useful in circumstances where thecargo is subject to pilferage. Being of strong construction with corrugated panels, they can withstand abusive handling. While sturdy and rugged, the weight is not excessive relative to their-Capacity; By reason of the smooth interior floor construction, in conjunction with the corrugated sheet under the bottom, a strong but smooth bottom is provided to facilitate loading and unloading; The structure is :well. adapted for handling by means of a liiting fork as well: as by: a crane,'land likespace requires that another.
fact that containers may be stacked one upon another, and be interlocked when so stacked, they are safe to use on wharves,in holds of ships,
and other places where conservation of floor they be placed one upon The structure has further utilityv by reason of the arrangement herein described, permitting use -ofone or more transverse partitions at various places along the length of the box.
' While we have shown and described one preferred embodiment of our invention, it will be understood that this is by way of illustration, and
a that various modifications and changes are within the contemplation of our invention.
We claim: w I LA shipping container of the class described ;having top, bottom, side and end walls wherein the bottom is comprised of a corrugated sheet metal panel substantially coextensive with the area of the container and having welded to the top surface thereof a flat sheet metal panel, said container having skids secured to the under side of the bottom along opposite edges thereof and extending crosswise of the corrugations and set inwardly from the plane of the side walls, and transverse fillers between downwardly-turned corrugations of the bottom flush with the bottom .surfaces of the corrugations to prevent the fork of a lifting truck from entering a space between .two corrugations, the skids being provided with spaced openings therethrough adjacent the plane of the bottom of the container through which the prongs of a lift truck may be entered.
2. A shipping container of the class described having a bottom panel coextensive with the area of the bottom of the container, said bottom panel being formed of a corrugated sheet to the top of which is welded a flat metal sheet, a corner post at each corner of the base panel of generally angular section,-side and rear wall panels of corrugated metal Welded to the corner posts and lapping past the edges of the base panel, angle-shaped topstrips along each longitudinal edge of the top welded to the side panels and -to the corner posts, said angle pieces having spaced depending flanges, one of which laps over the side panel, and one of whichis inside the side panel, said angle-shaped top strips also .having an upwardly-turned flange inside the plane of the side walls and a top panel secured to said angle pieces and comprised of a corrugated inner panel with a flat sheet metal panel welded thereto, the edges of the sheet metal panel overlapping said upwardly-turnedflange of said angle pieces.
3. A structure of the class described having a bottom panel, corrugated side panels extending upwardly at each side of the base, an angle member mounted on the top edge of each side panel, said angle members having a horizontal flange and a vertical flange set inwardly from the side walls of the box, whereby to provide a shoulder along the top of the box at each side thereof, and means providing a weather shielded connection between the horizontal flange of the angle and the corrugated side walls, the box having also end closures and having a top secured to the .vertical flanges of the angle members and to the top edges of the end closures.
. 4. A shipping container, having a bottom panel *formed of a corrugated sheet with, a flat sheet coextensive with the area thereof welded thereto, said container having corrugated side walls and corrugated rear walls, said container also hav-.
. tudinally extending skids thereon along the bottom edges thereof, the skids being so positioned that they may be set on the angle pieces of a similar container when two such containers are arranged in superimposed relation.
5. A container having abottom panel, means for providing supports for holding the bottom panel elevated above the floor on which the container is set, the container having corrugated side panels and having a corner post of angular section at each corner thereof the container having a stepped top portion formed to provide a horizontal ledge continuously along each side of the top for the resting of the supports of one container on the ledges of another container.
6. A container having a bottom panel, means for providing supports for holding the bottom panel elevated above'the floor on which the container is set, the container having corrugated side panels and having a corner post of angular section at each corner thereof, the container having a steppedtop portion formed to provide "a horizontal ledge continuously along each side of the top for the resting of the supports of, one
container on the ledges of another container, and
elements secured to the ledges near the ends thereof constituting stops for holding a superimposed container against endwise movement.
, 7. A container having a bottom panel, means for providing supports for holding the bottom panel elevated above the floor on which the container is 'set,the container having corrugated side panels and having a corner post of angular, section at each corner thereof,-the container having a stepped top portion formed to provide a horizontal ledge continuously along each side of the top for the resting of the supports of one container on the ledges 'of' another container, said ledges being provided near each end thereof withan inverted V'-shaped fitting welded thereto, which fittings are provided with openings to accept the hooks of a hoisting chain. v
8. A shipping container ofthe class described having a base and having corner posts at each corner of the base, said corner posts being of generally angular section, each corner post at the front of the section being formed with a substantially channel-shaped flange" extending vertically therealong, a cross member at the top of the container also of generally angular section, and having a portion which forms a substantially horizontally extending channel across the top of the front of the container, the top and sides of the door opening thus being defined by channels, these channels each having a web in the plane of the front .of the containerfand each having an outwardly-turned flange that forms the boundary of the opening and closure means acrosssaid front, said closure means having edge flanges thereon that extend into but are spaced from the aforesaid channels to forma labyrinth seal t xc ude ra a d losu e means. havi a surfaces in the plane of the closures which bear against said outwardly-turned flanges.
9. A shipping container of the class described having a composite base panel formed of a fiat sheet of metal welded to the top of a corrugated sheet of metal with the corrugations extending in acrosswise direction of the container, a corner post of angle section at each corner of the base, a corrugated side panel at each side of the container welded to the corner posts at the front and back, the corrugated side panel lapping down past the edge of the base, an angular reinforcement along the bottom edge of each side panel with a horizontal flange that extends partway under the bottom edge of the side panel, allowing for the drainage of water and providing for the entrance of air into the container around the base, a similarly arranged end panel between the two corner posts at the rear of the container, j
angle pieces along each top edge of the container extending from the front corner post to the back, and providing an offset in the top of the container,
said angle pieces having inner and outer flanges between which the side panels are fitted and welded providing for ventilation at the top of the container, a roof panel of reinforced corrugated construction in the top of the container secured to said angle pieces, and a metal plate on the back Wall panel extending up and secured to the roof panel, a pair of doors constituting the front wall of the container, the corrugations in the side and rear panels having squared outwardly extending ribs of relatively narrow width between which are relatively wide channels.
WELROSE L. NEWHAIL. ERNEST WILLISON. JOSEPH STEVENS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the 'file of this patent:
' UNITED STATES PATENTS France Oct. 12, 1931