US 2614497 A
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E. C. COWLES COMBINED COMPRESSOR AND ENGINE Oct. 21, 1952 4 SheetS-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 15. 1947 INVENTOR E2 Ewart/1C! Couried -H1S ATTORNEY- Oct. 21, 1952 E. c. cowLEs 2,614,497
COMBINED COMPRESSOR AND ENGINE Filed Feb. 15, 1947 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN OR BY C; I
H15 ATTORNEY VENT Elwwaz tll 6.6010105 4 Oct. 21, 1952 E. c. COWLES 2,614,497
COMBINED COMPRESSOR AND ENGINE- Filed Feb. 15, 1947 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR H l8 ATTORN EY Ellsworth C(Zou/Ze Oct. 21, 1952 E. c. cowLEs 2,614,497
COMBINED COMPRESSOR AND ENGINE Filed Feb. 15, 1947 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOF? .EZZSwoz-fkllb'awbeS Hi5 ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 21, 1952 COMBINED COMPRESSUR AND ENGINE Ellsworth C. Cowles, Corning, N. Y., assignor to H Ingersoll-Rand Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New Jersey Application February 15, 1947, Serial No. 728,775
6 Claims. (Cl. 103-6) This invention relates to compressors, and more particularly to a combined compressor and engine each having a plurality of pistons which are actuated by a single crank.
One object of the invention is to construct an inherently balanced, compact and rugged engine unit that will require only a small space and is of such weight that it may be conveniently carried manually from place to place.
Other objects will be in part obvious and in part pointed out hereinafter. i
In the drawings accompanying this specification and in which similar reference numerals refer to similar parts,
Figure 1 is a plan view of a compressor-engine unit constructed in accordance with the practice of the invention,
Figure 2 is a similar View, partly broken away, showing the piston and cylinder arrangement of the compressor and engine and the mode of connecting the pistons to the crank shaft of the unit,-
Figure 3 is an elevation, partly in section, taken through Figure 1 on the line 33 and looking in the direction indicated by the arrows,
Figure 4 is an elevation, partly in section, of a portion of the oiling system of the unit,
Figure 5 is a transverse view taken through Figure 4 on the line 5--5, 1
Figure 6 is a similar view taken through Figure 5 on the line 6-6,
Figure 7 is an enlarged view, partly in section, of a compressor cylinder and associated parts taken through Figure 3 on the line looking in the direction indicated by the arrows,
Figure 8 is a transverse view taken through Figure 3 on the line 8--8,'
' the compressor-engine unit, designated in its entirety by 20, is of the portable type. It comprises a frame 2|; having a plurality of radially extending wings 22 from which depend rods 23 that carry bearings 24 for shafts 25 having rollers 26 on their opposite ends. I
The portion of the frame 2| lying above the arms 22 constitutes a crank case 21, shown as being of hexagonal shape, and in the flatted sides thereof are equi-angularly spaced apertures 28 to accommodate the inner ends of radially extending cylinders all lying in the'same plane and three of which are designated 29 and serve as compressor cylinders. The remaining three cylinders, designated 30, serve as engine cylinders and are arranged in alternate relation with the compressor cylinders and each engine cylinder is positioned to lie diametrically opposite a compressor cylinder. Owing to this arrangement, each of the engine cylinders will be opposed by a compressor cylinder. Therefore, both the primary and secondary forces of the engine will be inherently balanced and the unit will operate smoothly and with a complete absence of vibration.
The cylinders 29 are provided with inlet and discharge valve mechanisms 3| and'32yrespectively, for controlling communication between the cylinders 28 and inlet and discharge chambers 33 and 34 in heads 35' for the cylinders 29, and in the engine cylinder heads 36 are the'usual inlet and exhaust spring-pressed-poppet valves 31. and 38, respectively. The movement for openin the valves 31 and 38 is imparted thereto by rocker bars 39 and llland push rods 4| and 42 interposed between the rocker bars 39-458 and'cams 43 and M on cam shafts 65 in the casing 2|. The cam shafts 5 equal'in number the number of engine cylinders and are rotated for four-cycle inclined to bring their outer endsinto the same horizontal plane for engagement with thethrust ends 49 of the'rocker bars 39 and 4B. These ends v ofthe rocker bars lie'iri-closely spaced-relation with each other as'do' also the push rods M and 32 and the portions of the latter lying exteriorly of the casing parts'of the unit are encased by a single casing 50. v
The casings 50 are preferably in theform of tubes and have their ends in telescopic engagement with the frame 2| and the headset for V holding the casings in the correct assembled positions. Suitable sealing members 5| are disposed about the exteriors of the 'casings '50 and bear against the frame 2| and the head 36 to preclude the entrance of dirt into the unit.
The rocker bars 39 and diverge from each other from the thrust ends 49 for contact at their opposite ends with the stems of the valves 3'! and a8, and at the intermediate portions of the rocker bars are bearings 52 that are axially aligned with each other to receive a common shaft 53 that is supported at its ends by the head 35. The chamber containing the rocker bars is covered by a cap 54 which is secured to the head 35 by bolts 55 and the side walls of the cap 54 and the portion of the head enclosing the rocker bars converge toward the thrust end of said bars in order to minimize the weight of the unit. The tubes 59 are, for the same reason,
also constructed of light weight material and by so arranging the push rods 4I'42' that they may be encased in a common tube 50 instead of being separately encased, or arranged Within the casing parts of the unit, the total Weight of the unit may be further minimized.
The crank shaft 48 is common to the compressor and to the engine and has a single crank 56 for connection with the big end 51 of. a master connecting rod 53 the opposite end of which is connected to an engine piston 59 by a wrist pin 60. The remaining two engine pistons 59 are operatively connected to the end 57 of the master rod by links BI and pivot pins 62, and. similar pins 62 in the master rod serve. as pivots for links 63 connected to two of the compressor pistons. 64 by wrist pins G5.
Two pins 62 are arranged in the crank end of the rod 58. and two pins 62 in. the cap 66 for the rod 58. These pins are provided with notches B1 in their peripheries, for interlocking engagement with the bolts 68 that serve to secure the cap 66 to the master connecting rod 58.
They pin, 69 serving to connect the link 63- of the remaining compressor piston 64 to the connecting rod cap 66 is hollow and has a radially extending hole H3 near one end to register selectively with either of holes ll or 12. located at the opposite ends of the cap 66. The pin 69 is held against endwise movement by a key "I3 in the hole TI) and one of the holes II or #2, depending upon the position of the pin 69 in the cap 66. The key I3 is preferably, as indicated, an integral portion of a spring member 74 which comprises a pair of arms '55 and it that are disposed angularly with respect to the key I3 and are joined together by a U-shaped spring portion H. The arm it is of less length than the arm 14. Its free end bears against the interior surface of the pin 69, and the portion of the arm T carrying the key "I3 is bent out of the plane of the portion of said arm adjacent the U Ti and is flexed, in the locking position of the key T3, to retain the key in the holes.
The crank shaft carries counterweights 18' and is provided withanti-friction bearings I9 and 80 seatedin the frame H on the opposite sides of the crank pin. 1 On the portion of the crank shaft 48 lying below the bearing 80 is an oil pump 8! for pumping oil to the various bearing surfaces of the compressor and the engine. The pump 8I is arranged in an oil reservoir 82 defined by the lowermost portion 83 of the casing 2| which encircles the portion of the crank shaft. 48 lying immediately below the crankcase 21. The pump is of the gear type and its casing 84 is shown as being formed integrally with a cover plate 85 for the reservoir 82 and encircles the shaft 43.
The pumping chamber 86 of the pump isv located in the upper end of the casing 84 and contains a pair of intermeshing gears 81 and 88 the latter gear being keyed to the shaft 48 and the gear 8'! being journaled on an idler shaft 89 seated in the casing 84. The oil pumped by the gears 81 and 88 is filtered by a screen 93 encircling the casing 84. It enters the pumping chamber 86 through an inlet opening 9| and is discharged through a passage 92 opening into a discharge chamber. 33 in the lower portion of the casing 84 and encircling the shaft 48.
Within the shaft 48 is a passage 94 that com-' municates with the discharge chamber 93 through ports 95 and extends to the crank pin 56 for delivering oil to the cooperating surfaces of the crank pin and the master rod 58 and to deliver oil to the various bearing surfaces of the links onnecting the compressor and engine pistons to the master rod 58.
Some of the oil discharged into the discharge chamber 93 by the pump is delivered to the upper portion of the frame 2I for splash lubrication of the bearing surfaces therein. To this end the discharge chamber $3 is provided with a discharge passage 9,6 that extends through the cover plate and the frame 2I and opens into a conduit 9i leading to the frame 2I at a point above the gears 45 so that the oil discharged into the upper portion of the frame 2| will flow by gravity over the gears 46-41, the cams 43 and 44 and onto the anti-friction bearings I9 and 86.
During. its course downwardly through the frame some of the oil will also splash upon the walls of the compressor and engine cylinders and upon the ends of the push rods 4| and 42 and will flow along the surfaces of the push rods into the heads 36 for lubricating the bearing surfaces of the rocker bars and the valves 31'- and 38. Any excess oil delivered to the heads 35 will return by gravity through drain pipes 98 leading from low points in the heads 36 to the reservoir 32. Suitable openings 99- in the roof of the reservoir 82 will also permit oil to drain from the crank case 2! to the reservoir.
In order to prevent the occurrence of excessive pressure on the discharge side of the pump 8| the-passage 96 is provided with a pressure relief valve mechanism I60. The valve mechanism I00 comprises a tubular body IIlI that extends into the reservoir 82 and is threaded into' the cover plate 85. The body I ill has a passage I62 opening into the discharge passage 96 at one end and its other end is controlled by a ball valve I93 that is normally held in closed position by a spring I04 the force of which may be varied by a screw I05 threaded into the upper end of the body IflI. Ports I08 in the wall of the body IBI permit the escape of oil from the interior of the body into the reservoir 82.
Suitable. sealing means, designated in its entirety by N31, is disposed about the shaft 48 to preclude the leakage of oil from the lower end of the discharge chamber 33. to the exterior of the unit. In the form. shown, the sealing means I01 comprises a flexible sealing ring I08 that bears with its peripheral surface against the wall of the chamber 93 and. rests upon an annular plate I 09 supported by a spring ring I II) in the wall of the chamber 83. The ring I08 is held in sealing. engagement with the wall of the chamber 93 by a, retainer I I I which extends into the sealing ring and is frictionally held therebyagainstv rotary movement.
The. upper end of the retainer constitutes a sealing surface I I2 that. cooperates with a rotat-- able. sealing member I I3 to prevent leakage of oil from the chamber 93 to the portion of the shaft extending through the cover plate 85. The sealing member Il3 lies within a holder H4, and a rubber sleeve H5 in the holder embracing the shaft 48 serves as a yieldable abutment for the sealing member I I3. A spring HIS-interposed between the holder II 4 and a washer II1 on the shaft 48 constantly urges the holder and its contents in the direction of the sealing surface I I2.
In order to cause the quick dissipation of the heat of combustion and of compression and also to maintain the temperature of the oil in the reservoir 82 at a sufficiently low value to assure good lubrication, the unit is provided with afan II8 on the lower end of the crank shaft 48 to pump air over the casing portion 83 and over and between the compressor and engine cylinders. The fan IIB lies outside of the casing 2I and beneath the reservoir 82 and its hub H9 is secured to the shaft 48 by a nut and at the outer margin of the web portion I of the fan is an annular flange I2I that supports the inner ends of the fan blades I22 which lie partly beneath the oil reservoir 82 so that a portion of the air pumped toward the cylinders by the fan will pass over the bottom and the peripheral surface of the casing 83 to cool the oil therein. The outer ends of the blades I22 are joined to a rim I23which encircles the fan and is of light weight to .add to the fan the fly-wheel eifect required to assure smooth operation of the unit.
All of the air flowing to the compressor cylinders 29 for compression and to the engine cylinders 30 for supporting combustion passes through a common filter I24 which is seated upon a manifold I25 overlying the unit. At the periphery of the manifold are outlet openings I26 that communicate with the inlet chambers 33 of the heads 35 through conduits I21. The air conveyed thereby enters the compressor cylinders 29 through the inlet valves 3| and, upon compression, passes through the discharge valves 32 into the discharge chamber 34, thence through discharge conduits I 28 depending from into a manifold I29 that encircles the fan II8 to serve as a guard therefor. A suitable discharge conduit I9 communicating with one of the discharge chambers 34 conveys the compressed fluid to a point of utilization.
The manifold I25 is shown superimposed upon the fuel carburetor I30, for the engine, which has an air intake conduit I3I extending through the lower wall of the manifoldto communicate with the interior thereof. The fuel constituent of the fuel charges for the engine cylinders is conveyed to thecarburetor I30 by a pipe I 32 leading from a suitable filtering device I33 and the combustible mixture'issuing from the carburetor enters a chamber I34 beneath the carburetor, whence it passes through conduits I35 to inlet passages I36 in the heads 36 for admission into the engine cylinders.
The exhaust of the products of combustion from the engine cylinders is controlled by the discharge valves 38, as is well understood, and passes into exhaust passages I31 in the heads 36 and through exhaust pipes I38 to the atmosphere. The exhaust pipes I38 occupy horizontal positions and their outlet ends I 39 lie outside of the path of the current of air flowing upwardly from the fan IIB to avoid the introduction of the hot exhaust gases into the air stream.
The distribution of electrical current for igniting the fuel charges in the engine cylinders is controlled by a suitable distributor I40 on the frame 2I driven by the crank shaft through gears III and I42 and having the usual cables I43 for carrying the current the spark plugs I44 in the heads 36.
Means are provided for manually starting the engine. To this end a shaft I45 is journaled in the frame 2I and carries a pinion I46 to'mesh with a gear I41 on the crank shaft 48. On the opposite-end of the shaft 64 is a clutch member I48 for cooperation with a complementary member I49 carried by a shaft I50 rotatable in a bearing I5I. The shaft I50 may be movable endwise' in a well known manner within the bearing I5I for effecting engagement and disengagement of the clutch members, and on the outer end of the shaft I50 is a sheave I52 having a rope I53 wound thereon for rotating the shafts to start the engine.
The unit being of light weight may be readily lifted manually for placing it in a desired position and is accordinglyprovided with a tubular member I54 which lies in a horizontal position at the upperend of the frame 2I to receive a removable carrying rod I55. The rod I55 is preferably of such length that its terminal portions may be conveniently gripped at opposite sides of the unit, and the tubular member I54 is so positioned that the rod I55 may be conveniently inserted thereinto without hindrance by the adjacent parts of the unit. The tubular member I54 may be secured to the frame 21 in any suitable manner, as for instance, by brackets I56 connected thereto and secured to the frame 2I by bolts I51.
From the foregoing description it will be readily apparent to those familiar with machines of the character described that by constructing the engine of the unit of three cylinders and opposing each enginecylinder with a compressor cylinder, both the primary and secondary forces of the engine will be inherently balanced. The unit may, therefore, be of light-weight construction and the fly-wheel weight required for its smooth operation may also be reduced to a minimum. A further highly desirable feature of the present invention is that, owing to the arrangement of the fan II8 beneath the unit, cool air will be caused to circulate over the oil reservoir and the compressor-and engine cylinders and the temperature of these parts-and of the oil will at all times be'of a value well suited to assure the efficient operation of the unit and the adequate lubrication of its bearing surfaces.
Owing, moreover, to the arrangement of the air filter I24,'the manifold I25, chamber I34 and. the carburetor I30 all of the air delivered to the engine and compressor cylinders may be cleansed by a single filter which need be of no greater size than that required for any of the individual cylinders.
1. In a combined compressor and engine, a.
plurality of radially extending compressor cylinders, a plurality of radially extending engine cylinders arranged in alternate relation with the compressor cylinders and each engine cylinder lying opposite a compressor cylinder, reciprocatorypistons in the compressor and engine cylinders, a common crank shaft for all the pistons having only one crank, connecting rods for conin the same horizontal plane and each cylinderlying opposite. another cylinder; means for renderi'ng alternate cylinders operative as compressor cylinders, means for rendering the remaining cylinders operative as engine cylinders, reciprocatory pistons inthe cylinders, a vertical common crank shaftf or the pistons having only one crank, connecting rods for connecting the pistons to the crank, a fan on the lower end of the crank shaft for blowing air against the cylinders, and a reservoir for oil extending with its peripheral portion into the air stream flowing from the fan to the'cylinders,
3'.. In a combined compressor and engine, a plurality of horizontally disposed radially extending cylinders all lying in the same horizontal plane, means for. rendering alternate cylinders. operative as compressor cylinders, means for rendering the remaining cylinders operative as engine cylinders, reciprocatory pistons in. the cylinders, a vertical common crank shaft for the pistons having only one crank, connecting rods for connecting the pistons to the crank, a casing beneath the. cylinders to encircle the crank shaft and forming a reservoir for oil for the compres- S01 and the. engine, and a. flywheel for the shaft arranged beneath the. reservoir having fan blades positioned to blow air against the bottom and. the peripheral surface of. the casing and. over all of the. cylinders,
4. In a combined compressor and engine, a plurality of radially extending compressor cylinders, a: plurality of radially extending engine cylinders arranged in alternate, relation with the compressor cylinders, inlet and exhaust valves for the engine cylinders; pistons in the compressor and engine cylinders, a common crank shaft for the. pistons having only one crank, means for transmitting motion. from the crank shaft to the valves, connecting rods for connecting the pistons to the: crank, there being a passage in the crank shaft for conveying oiltothe connecting rods, a pump: driven by the crank shaft forpumping oil to the passage and having a discharge chamber encircling-the crank shaft and inv constant communication with the passage, and conduit means for conveying oil from the. discharge chamberhaving its outlet end so positioned with respect to the motion transmitting means. that the oil discharged therefrom will gravitate onto the said motiontransmitting. means;
5. In a combined compressor and engine, a plurality of radially extending compressor cylinders, av plurality of radially extending engine cylinders arranged in alternate relation; with the compressor cylinders, inlet and exhaust valves for the engine cylinders, rocker bars to engage the valves with. one, end and converging toward each other to bring their other ends into closely spaced relation with each other, pistons in the compressor and engine cylinders, a common crank shaft for the pistons, a common cam shaft for the inlet and exhaust valve of each cylinder, means for transmitting movement from the crank shaft to each cam shaft, pairs of push rods extending along the exteriors of the cylinders for transmitting movement from the cam shafts to the rocker bars, and tubular casings for incasing each. pair of push rods.
6.. In. a combined compressor and engine, a plurality of radially extending compressor cylinders, a plurality of. radially extending engine cylinders arranged in alternate relation with the compressor cylinders, reciprocatory pistons in the cylinders, a common crank shaft for the pistons having only onev crank, a master connecting rod on the crank connected to; one piston, a cap for the connecting, rod, connecting rods for the remaining pistons, pins. for connecting the last mentioned connecting rods to the master connecting rod. and. the cap, bolts for securing the cap to the master connecting rod and to interlockingly engage all but one of the pins to hold said pins against endwise movement, and a spring key within, the. remaining pin. having a leg in in.- te-rlocking engagement with the said remaining pin and the cap;
ELLSWORTl-I C. COWLlJS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
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