|Publication number||US2615636 A|
|Publication date||Oct 28, 1952|
|Filing date||May 19, 1949|
|Priority date||May 19, 1949|
|Publication number||US 2615636 A, US 2615636A, US-A-2615636, US2615636 A, US2615636A|
|Inventors||Powers James H|
|Original Assignee||Gen Electric|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (12), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 28, 1952 J. H. POWERS 2,615,636
WASTE DISPOSAL APPARATUS WITH TIME DELAY SWITCH FiledMay 19, 1949 2Sl-EETS- Sl-IEET 1 Irwvncov: James H. powers,
Hls Abcor ey J. H. POWERS Oct. 28, 1952 WASTE DISPOSAL APPARATUS WITH TIME DELAY SWITCH Filed May 19, 1949 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 IfiVGTWbOT: James H. owers,
His Abtovn Patented Oct. 28, 1952 WASTE DISPOSAL APPARATUS WITH TIME DELAY SWITCH James H. Powers, Westport, Conn., assignor to General Electric Company, acorporation of New York Application May 19, 1949, Serial No. 94,154
1 Claim. 1
The present invention relates to waste disposal apparatus, and particularly to apparatus for attachment to a drain for receiving a mixture of garbage and water and reducing or comminuting the solid particles to produce a flowable mixture suitable for discharge into the drain line.
Among the objects of the invention is the provision of an improved and simplified control mechanism for increasing the efficiency, reliability, and safety of operation of such waste disposal apparatus.
"In the operation of waste disposal apparatus of the kind referred to, a generous flow of water is necessary at all times to facilitate reduction of the waste materials to a proper fiowable state for passage through the discharge clearances and piping system of the apparatus, and to act as a carrier for flushing the c'omminutedmaterial to the sewer or other receiving means. This prerequisite becomes particularly important in commercial installations where large quantities of garbage and other kitchen waste materials are to be disposed of by the use of such appara'tus' With inadequate water flow, the
sewer pipes may become plugged; also, if the process of comminution is started before an adequate flow of water reaches the grinding chamber, there is danger of overloading the apparatus, clogging it up, and causing permanent injury to the operating parts.
It is, therefore, a primary object of my invention to provide waste disposal apparatus in which operation is prevented or delayed until the proper volume of water is present in the comminuting or grinding chamber.
For use in commercial installations, such as restaurants and hotels, the waste disposal apparatus should present a large waste receiving volume. Also, the apparatus should lend itself to rapid clearance of garbage from plates, dishes and utensils. It is, therefore, a further object of my invention to provide waste disposal apparatus, particularly suitable for use in such commercial installations, fulfilling these requirements.
In accomplishment of the foregoing objectives, a feature of my inventionconsists of a control system for starting and stopping the operation of the comminuting apparatus, arranged to delay commencement of operation until an adequate time has elapsed from the start of flow of water to allow the water to reach the comminuting chamber. It is also a feature of my invention to provide a new and improved waste receiving receptacle or flush bowl mountable on the upper portion of the apparatus for receiving large quantities of waste; and this'waste receiving receptacle is provided with a guard over the entrance into the comminuting apparatus, which guard also serves as a bumper pad against which dishes maybe struck to aidin clearing the waste material. :1 H
The features of my invention which I believe to be novel are set forth with particularityin the appended claim. My invention itself, .hOW- everfbothas to its organization andmethod of operation, together with further objectsand advantages thereof, may. best be understood byreference to the following description taken'in connection with the accompanying drawings in which Fig. 1 is a front elevation of the installed apparatus; Fig. 2 is a sectionalview in elevation taken at right angles to the view shown .byeFig.
1; and Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of theconrtrol system. c
. Referring to the drawings, the 'installationi-llustrated is particularly suitable for commercial installation, although'it will beunderstood that the apparatus disclosed is. not limited solely thereto. As shownby Fig. 1, the *apparatus is positioned at a suitable location on a:counter I. A waste receiving receptacle or flush bowl '2 presents a large opening above the counter surface forreception of the waste material, and inwardly directed side walls 3 extend downwardly into ,the mouth of the comminuting apparatusl. ,1 A nonsplash water spigot 5 controlled by valve 6 is arranged above the flush bowl so that astream of water may be directed into the flush bowl to aid in clearing the waste material andtoprovide a generous. supply of water for the disposal operation. The comminuting apparatus 4 is driven by an electric motor 1.:
To provide adequate volume for the reception of waste material and .a chamber for the comminuting or grinding operation, a casing 8, best seen in Fig. '2, is attached under counter I by bolts 9. The lower part of the casing' has a frusto conical shape leading into a grinding or comminuting chamber. Attached to the lower end of easing 8 is a bottom flange in carrying the electric motor 1. Flange l0 'is clamped against a shoulder ll onthe'bottom "of easing 8 by a clamping ring I2. The bottom flange is provided with an outlet l3 for connection with the drain line or sewer. Aremovable shield l4 may be used to enclose the bottom flange to protect the bearing structure and mechanism supported within the fiangeQ A shredding chamber |5 is formed in the lower end portion of casing 8. This chamber is provided with a frusto conical wall l6 positioned between a shoulder H on bottom flange III and a shoulder |8 internally formed in casing 8. Resilient ,rings I9 and are arranged between the shredding chamber wall I6 and the shoulders to reduce the transmission of vibrations and to provide a liquid seal. Positioned in the lower end of shredding chamber I5 is a fly-wheel 2| carrying thereon a replaceable disc 22 of wear resisting material. Fly-wheel 2| and disc 22 are attached to motor shaft 23 which is rotatably mounted in bottom flange l0. Impeller blades 24 are carried by fly-wheel 2|, so that when the fly-wheel is rotated by motor a similar motion will be imparted to the waste material and water in the shredding chamber. When the flywheel 2| is at rest, impeller blades 24 will be in the dotted line position shown by Fig. 2. However, as the fiy-wheel is rotated, the impeller blades 22 will move by centrifugal force to the full line position. With the impeller blades .24 in the full line position, they are in shearing relation with shredding members 25 mounted at spaced points around shredding chamber wall l6. By reference to Fig. 2, it will beseen that impeller blades 24 are positioned on the radii of fly-wheel 2| so that they are at right angles to shredding chamber wall Hi. In operation, the rotation of fly-wheel 2| and impeller blades 24 cause the mixture of garbage and water to be whirled within the comminuting chamber I5. The centrifugal force causes the solid chunks of-waste material to be thrown outwardly against .wall I6. Thus, as the larger particles or pieces of .material whirling within the comminuting chamber strike the shredding members 25, a grindingor comminuting action takes place reducing the entire mass to a fiowable state. The importance of the presence of a large volume of water within the comminuting chamber can be readily appreciated, since otherwise the solid material would merely be reduced to a paste rather than a flowable mixture. Since the impeller blades are freely pivoted, the possibility of jamming is reduced.
Aseries of straining grooves 26 are provided at the lower end of side wall l6 communicating with an annular receiving chamber 21 within bottom flange Ill. The size of straining grooves 23 is selected so that only such particles as may be discharged safely into the sewer system will pass. From the annular receiving chamber 21, the comminuted waste material .may flow out through drain pipe I3 into the sewer system.
It frequently occurs in the use of waste disposal apparatus, that large quantities of water will be emptied into the apparatus when-the driving mechanism is at rest.
It is, therefore, desirable to provide-an additional means for passage of .such liquid through the'apparatus into the drain line; For this purpose, I have provided a series'of apertures 28 through the surface of disc 22, these apertures opening into :recessed areas 29 on the face of fly-wheel 2|. "Thus. liquid may pass through apertures28 and .into the annular receiving chamber 21 and hence tozthe. drain line. The size of these apertures of waste material will be confined by the centrifugal force to an .annulus in contactwith the comminuting chamber walls l6.
The above description of the comminuting chamber and grinding mechanism is illustrative of arrangements known in the art. The specific embodiment illustrated by this portion of the disposal apparatus is more fully disclosed and .described in my copending application Serial No. 62,946, filed December 1, i948, and now Patent 2,562,736, dated July 31, 1951, assigned to the assignee of the present application. This invention, however, is not limited to this particular form of comminuting mechanism and other arrangements or devices for reducing particles of waste material into a flowable mass suitable for discharge into the sewer may be equally suitable.
The particular embodiment illustrated by the drawings is for an apparatus particularly suitable for a commercial installation. For commercial use, a large flush bowl or waste receiving receptacle is needed to handle the large volume of food scraps left on dishes by the patrons and the unusable scraps from the kitchen. To receive .the waste material, therefore, I prefer to use the large bowl-shaped receptacle 2 having a wide mouth or opening with inwardly directed side walls 3 leading into the entrance to casing 8.
v A rubber ring 30 covers the upper edge of bowl .mounted ;on-:the inwardly depending walls 3 of the hush bowl by screws 33. Such a,-guard re- .ducesv the danger of dishes or silverware being dropped into the grinding chamber, prevents the operator from reaching into the comminuting or grinding chamber while'the mechanism is in motion, and protects the operator from flying waste particles. On the upper surface of guard 3|, I provide a resilient :bumper pad 34, of rubber or like material, so that the dishes may be struck against this guard to facilitate clearance of the scraps from the dishes. As a further aid in cleaning the refuse from the dishes, a stream of water is directed into the flush bowl and against bumper 'pad 34. For this purpose, the water passes through the non-splash nozzle 5 under control of valve 6.
At the lower endof flush bowl 2,- a straight side wall portion 35 extends downwardly into casing 8 :of the-comminuting mechanism. The external diameter of portion 35 is proper to fit snugly, but removably, in the mouth of easing 8. Thus, the flush bowl 2 may be removed at any time for cleaning .and to provide access-to the grinding However, when flush bowl 2 is re- ;movedit is highly .desirable that a means be provided to prevent; operation of the grinding or comminuting mechanism. Otherwise, there is a danger of serious injury to the hands of the operator, or of foreign non-disposable articles being dropped into the rotating mechanism. I, thereiore, employ an interlock switch-'36, so that motor I can be operated only when flush bowl 2 is mounted in the position shown by Fig. 2. Switch 33 is actuated by a plunger 31 which isbiased 1n- .wardly by a spring 38. Thus, when the flush bowl 2 is removed from casing 8, spring. will forceeplunger .3! inwardly, resulting in the contests of switch 36 being opened to-prevent operation of the motor. The. lower extremity of the side walls of flush bowl 2 are beveled inwardly to formthe slopin wall portions 39. This beveled portion 39 aids in camming plunger 31 inwardly The components of my invention and theirinter-relation may be more readily understood by a reference to the schematic wiring diagram shown by Fig. 3. Electrical energy for operation of the motor isv supplied from power lines 46 and 4|. In this schematic diagram, the motor is shown as having a rotor 42, main field coils 43, and a starting coil 44. A centrifugally operated switch 45 is provided for disconnecting starting winding 44 after the motorhas come up to its normal speed, and a capacitor 46 is connected in series with the starting winding to improve the starting characteristics of the motor. A suitable overload relay is connected in the motor circuit, and as here shown, the overload protection consists of a heater element 41 in series with a portion of the main field, a bimetallic'strip 48, and a pivoted contact arm 49 in operative relation with the bimetallic strip. Damage to the motor is thus precluded in the event of an overload or jamming of the disposal apparatus.
Assuming that the overload relay is in its normally closed position, power is supplied to the motor through a time delay relay. There are numerous time delay relays suitable for this application having a delayed movement to closed position while permitting instantaneous opening of the contacts. The schematic diagram of Fig. 3 is illustrative of such a relay in which an energizing coil 56 acting on an armature-5| tends to close contactor 52 by means of a stem 53. In accordance with my invention, movement of contactor 52 to its closed position is delayed for a predetermined period of time after application of power to energizing coil 56 by a timing device 54. Timer 54 may be any one of several types, such as mechanical, hydraulic, or pneumatic to delay closing of contactor 52 while permitting instantaneous opening thereof. As an example, a suitable time delay relay is available in the form of a solenoid operated mercury switch from Durakool, Inc., of Elkhart, Indiana.
Application of power to the coil 50 of the time delay relay for starting the driving motor is controlled -by interlock contactors 55 and 56, Contactor 55 is the switch blade of switch 36 which is operated to its closed position upon mounting of flush bowl 2 in the mouth of casing 8,- as described above. Interlock 55, therefore, prevents operation of the driving motor unless flush bowl 2 is properly positioned. Interlock 56, which is normally open, is closed in response to a predetermined flow of water through the water supply pipe or conduit 51. The purpose of interlock 56 is to prevent operation of the disposal apparatus unless the prerequisite volume of water is flowing into the apparatus. While carrying out the present invention various forms of flow responsive devices may be employed for operation of interlock 56, but I prefer to employ the improved switch which forms the basis of my Patent 2,244,373, granted June 3, 1941, and assigned to the assignee of the present invention. Su-ificient details of the construction of this flow responsive device are given herein to insure an understanding of the present invention.
As will be seen best from Fig. 3, the flow responsive device 58 has a housing 59 connected by pipe-threaded fitting with the incoming water line 57 at its lower end and to the water discharge conduit at its upper end. Within housing 59 is an axially movable flow actuable element in the form of a plunger 60 which seats on the end of 6 water supply pipe 51 projecting into housing 59. The bottom portion of plunger 66 is provided with longitudinally extending ribs 6!, the spaces between adjacent ribs serving to prevent jamming of the plunger due to collection of scale or other solid particles in the clearance between plunger 66 and the inside of water supply conduit 51. For
operation of the switch interlock, a crank shaft 62 is rotatably mounted in housing 59, a suitable gland '63 preventing leakage of water. Crank 62 has a bent-over portion 64 resting on top of plunger =60 whereby any movement of plunger 60 causes partial rotation of crank 62. The outer end of crank 62 carries a switch operating arm 65 biased by a spring 66 in a direction to oppose movement imparted by flow of water through housing 56. An adjustable member 61 acting-on spring 66 permits adjustment to the proper'operating point. Switch operating arm 65 is so positioned with respect to contactor 56 that, upon rotation in a clockwise direction, the switch operating arm presses on the contactor stem to close interlock 56. The components of flow responsive device 58 are so proportioned and adjusted that contactor-56 will be moved to its closed position" i only when an adequate flow of water is passing ing of interlock 56. breaking the circuit to relay coil 56, and thus terminatingmotor operation.
The flow responsive device and the time delay relay may be located at any convenient point with respect to the disposal apparatus. Interlock switch 36, permitting operation of the unit only when flush bowl 2, is in position, must, of course, be mounted near themouth of casing 8 for cooperation with the flush bowl. For convenience, I prefer to mount the interlock switch 36, the time delay relay assembly 66, and the motor starting capacitor 46 on the side of casing8. This arrangement provides a satisfactory location for the components of the control system, and reduces the length of wire required for interconnecting these components." For mounting time delay relay assembly 66 on casing 8, a mounting clamp 61 is employed. Likewise, a clamp 68 is used for attaching capacitor 46 to casing 8.
" To protect these elements in their mounted positions, a removable cover 69, as shown by Fig. 2, is provided.
Flow responsive device 58 preferably is enclosed in a housing 69, along with the interlock switch 56. This device can be located anywhere in the water supply line leading to valve 6; however, for convenience, I prefer to mount this device as near as possible to the time delay relay assembly 66 and interlock switch 36. Therefore, as shown by Fig. 1, flow responsive device 58 is mounted on water supply conduit 51 just under the work surface I. An insulated cable 10 extends from device 58 to within the housing formed by casing 8 and cover 69.
With respect to the overload relay for motor 1 comprising the elements 41, 48 and 49, as shown by Fig. 3, the preferable location is on the housing' of motor I. As shown by Fig. 1, this overload relay is enclosed in a housing H, having a relay reset button I2.
Various modifications may be desirable on the above arrangement of equipment. For example, a manually operable switch may be installed at a convenient location near the work surface for starting and stopping the motor 7. Such a switch maybe wired in series with the interlock switch 55 and the flow control interlock 55. so that in any event the grinding mechanism cannot be operated unless the flush bowl 2 is properly positioned and there is an adequate flow of water into the apparatus. A further possible modification is to replace the hand controlled water supply valve 6 by a solenoid operated Water supply valve. Such a solenoid operated water supply valve would be adjusted to insure an adequate flow of water into the apparatus.
With respectto the-settingv on time delay relay 66. it has been found that a delay of approximately 6 seconds is desirable to insure that water from discharge nozzle 5 reaches the grinding or comminuting chamber. In the embodiment illustrated, this delay of 6 seconds prevents the starting of the comminuting mechanism for 6 seconds after the water supply has been adjusted to the minimum rate of flow. If, for any reason, water flow is interrupted or flush bowl 2 is removed during operation, the motor circuit is instantaneously opened.
From the above description taken in connection with drawings, it will be seen that a new and improved disposal. device is provided. One advantage of the above arrangement is in the flushbowl or waste-receiving receptacle construction, which provides an increased volume for reception of waste material, and by the addition of the resilient striker plate the clearing of waste material from dishes and cooking utensils is facilitated. The above disclosed construction also results in increased safety inasmuch as the operator cannot come in contact with the moving'grinding apparatus. A further and important advantage of this apparatus is in the delay in starting of the comminuting mechanism until an adequate water supply is in the comminuting chamber. Thus, the comminuted waste is in all cases reduced to a proper flowable mixture suitable for discharge into the sewer, and the danger of clogging or plugging up the drain line or sewer is substantially eliminated.
While the present invention has been described by reference to particular embodiments thereof, it will be understood that numerous modifications may be made by those skilled in the art without actually departing from the invention. I, therefore, aim in the appended claim to cover all such equivalent variations as come within the true spirit and scope of the foregoing disclosure.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
In combination with a waste disposal appliance including a comminuting ,casing having comminuting means therein and a drain beyond said comminuting means into which the comminuted material is fed from said casing, an electric motor for driving said comminuting means, and a water supply conduit system for supplying water to said casing to aid in the operation of said comminuting means in comminuting waste material and disposing it into said drain, of an electro-responsive time delay switch which when energized moves in a predetermined time interval to one controlling position and when de-energized moves instantaneously to another controlling position, connecting means connecting said switch in the energizing circuit of said motor to energize the motor to operate said comminuting means when said switch moves to said one position and to de-energize said motor tostop said comminuting means when said switch moves to said other position, and a fluid responsive switch in said conduit system connected to control the energization of said time delayswitch to energize it only when there is a predetermined minimum volume of water flowing in said system to said casing, whereby said motor is energized to operate said comminuting means a predetermined interval of time after said predetermined minimum volume of water flowing to said casing has been established, and is deenergized to stop said comminuting means instantly upon cessation of flow of at least said predetermined minimum volume of water in said system.
JAMES H. POWERS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Powers May 3, 1949
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|U.S. Classification||241/36, 241/62, 241/46.8, 241/46.13|
|International Classification||E03C1/266, E03C1/26|