US 2616145 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 4, 1952 H. M. DUFFORD CHANGEABLE PATTERN STENCIL FOR USE IN MOLDING DECORATIVE WALL FACINGS 2 Sl-IEETS-Sl-XEET 1 Filed Jan. 4, 1950 IN VEN TOR. Z/xyfl DZZ/J OJU Nov. 4, 1952 H. M. DUFFORD CHANGEABLE PATTERN STENCIL FOR USE IN MOLDING DECORATIVE WALL FACINGS 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 Filed Jan. 4, 1950 III o'ggq I N VEN TOR. fiwyfld fizz/561d Patented Nov. 4, 1952 UNIT-ED STATE-S. PATENT OFFECE 'CHANGEAELE PATTERN STENCIL'FOR USE ,IN MOLDING DECORATIVE WALL FACINGS I Harry Dui ford, Chicago, Ill. 7 Application January 4, I950, Serial'No. 136,690
4 Claims. (Cl...25--.- 113) Thisfiinventionrrelates:to a:facing;'for building walls, :and: is concerned primarily with the 'ap plication theretoof a plastic mix, such as mortar, in a predetermined pattern whereby to simulate "astructure of'stone'blocks having anatural and artistic texture. More. particularly I aim by Y thisiinventionto-produce a simulated stone ap- -pearance-characterized by a complete lack of 'repetitiveness-insofar as concerns the arrangement of stones inthe pattern and the texture of their exposed 'faces.
' In'the past various expedients have'been. employed for applying to the wall of a building or (elsewhere a facingwhich is intended to simulate a stone structure.
All such finishes are monotonous in that'they display a regular repetition of the pattern and of the texture of the stones-incorporated therein, due largely to the fact that a step ofimpression is employed in the process. The molds used in all such practices with which I am familiar do not'permit of any extended variationeither in the pattern, or in the texture of the finish applied to the stones comprised in the pattern, the result being that any such facing is deficient in naturalness of appearance and is unacceptable for many purposes.
The finish made according to my invention utilizes a changeable-pattern stencil 'of unusual characteristics. This stencil is open from front I to back, and its size and shape may be varied "within wide limits. Likewise the network of partitions which is comprised in the stencil to form the desired'pattern may also be varied wide- 1 ly. The stencil is used when applying a mortar coating to'the wall face to provide a seriesofv interconnecting grooves which simulate joints between the blocks of stones that are regularly comprised in a building structure. The mortar face in each of the areas defined by the grooves may then be worked over by hand to produce a de-.
siredtexture. Notonly is-the pattern produced upon the wall with the aid of this changeable stencil entirely variable at will, but the areas between thegroove-joints are rendered susceptible :ofindividual treatment .so as to acquire a surface texture which in each case may differ interestingly from those in other like areas. In this manner'a facing may be built upon the wall with a large number of simulatedstones of natural and interesting appearance, and the texture of the stones over the entire wall face will be sufiiciently varied by theindividual hand treatment so as to avoid anysuggestion of repetition 'or =samene'ss.
'- -My invention is concer-ned with the stencil "size and shape of the stencil may 2 which is employed. The, design incorporated into the stencil is changeable at willand this is read-i- -ly accomplished by 'means'which permits of areleasable connections-between certain-bars comprising the stencil frame and other bars comprising the partitions-therewithin. In addition, the frame bars are optionally extensible so that the readily be varied. The means for accomplishing all this-is set forth in detail in the following description whereinreference is made to the accompanying drawings which illustrate a preferred embodi- -ment of this inventionin the manner following:
Figure 1 is an elevation of a portion of a building wall whereon the application of a simulated stone facing is in process;
. Fig. 2 is a similar viewshowing the portion of a wall adjacent the cave of a gable roof;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view, taken on line 3-3 of Fig. l; i
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary-elevational view showing'a portion of the stencil frame adjacentits left lower corner;
Figs. 5, 6, and 7 are transverse sectional views, taken respectively on lines 5-5, 6-fi, and '!-'l of Fig. 4.;
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary detail in elevation showing a -modified stencil partition bar at its 'point of end connection with a second partition .bar -(or frame bar);
- Figs. -9and, 10 are sectional views, taken re- -spectively-onvlines9--9 and Idlii of Fig. 8; and
"Figrll, which is a-view similar'to Fig. 9, shows a; modification in the -leckingmeans in which one "of the partition bars isrelea-sably locked to an.- other suchbar (onto one of the frame bars).
The present stencil comprises a four-sided frame having a pair of vertical bars R and L interconnected at top and bottom by horizontal bars T and B, in combination with a plurality of partition barssome of which, designated as V, are vertically disposed while the remainder, designated as H, are extended horizontally. The cross-sectional form of each of the-frame and partition bars is desirably that of a channel whose open side is faced toward the work.
'At the frame'corners (see Figs. 4 and 6) the channel legs a of one bar, the vertical bar'L, forexample, are cut away to'allow the connecting 'web'b to project endwise for overlying the "webs b of the adjacent horizontal bars T and 1B, the distance of this web projection being msufficient to permit of alimited rotative'movement about-a pivotwhich is here shown as a bolt l 5 which traverses: registering, holes formed; in the overlapped webs, with a wing nut IE or other pressure device coacting therewith in the usual way. Each projecting web b may be outset slightly to form a shoulder I8 at about the point where it overlies the web of the adjacent bar, this shoulder assisting in the maintenance of a right angle at the frame corner. For a different angle the pivotal connection is first relaxed to allow one or both the frame bars to swing into another rotative position.
The size of the stencil frame will be determined in the light of experience. For convenience in description we may assume it is 32" x 36", with the long dimension horizontal. The size of the channel bars is also relatively narrow, a width of or so being suggested. The frame bars, both vertical and horizontal, are desirably extensible, this being accomplished (see Figs. 4 and 5) by utilizing for each bar a pair of channel sections 20 (outer) and 2| (inner) of slightly different cross-sectional size so that one section may slidingly interfit with the other. Into an elongated slot :2: in the web 11 ofrone of the channel sections is projected a securing bolt 23 based on the web b of the other interfitted section, the bolt being equipped with a wing nut 24 whereby to tighten one bar section to the other in any selected position of endwise adjustment.
So that neither bar section may separate transversely from the other, the interfitting legs a and a of the outer and inner channel sections may be slanted inwardly to a slight extent; this convergence of the. legs also facilitates withdrawal of the stencil from the surrounding mortar as will be hereinafter explained in detail. There is also provided, according to Figs. 8-11, a pluralityof closely spaced holes 25, about 1" apart, in the inner legs a of the several outer bar sections 20, other complementary holes 26 then being formed in the adjacent legs a of the inner bar sections 2| so as to register therewith in each of the lengthwise adjusted positions of the frame bars, all for a purpose that will presently appear.
, The partition bars now to be described are 7 illustrated in detail in Figs. 4 and '7. At opposite ends of these bars, also of channel cross section, the webs 0 may be extended sufflciently beyond the legs d to provide end walls 2 when bent laterally (see Fig. '7). According to the construction of these figures, a block 30 having a deep'slot 3| is fitted within the channel of the partition bar: the end wall e of the bar is received within this slot as are also the inside legs a and a of the frame bar sections to which the partition bar is to be joined. This block which projects inwardly of the legs a and a but slightly is provided with a bore 32 whose axis is parallel with and extends lengthwise of the partition bar and with a cross bore 33 which aligns with a hole 34 in the web 0 thereof. A locking pin 36 is slidably fitted in the bore 32 so as to engage the end wall e of the partition bar and exert thereon a frictional clamping pressure which is transmitted to the adjacent legs of the frame bar. To advance and hold the locking pin in its effective position a wedge pin 31 is slidably fitted in the cross bore 32,
this pin having a tapered face 38 in engage ment with a like tapered end face of the locking pin. When driven forwardly the wedge pin will advance the locking pin to frictionally lock the partition bar to the frame bar at a selected point; to release this look the wedge pin is 4 driven back again by a suitable implement which is entered into the hole 34. With this type of look no holes 25 and 26 need be provided in the legs of the inner and outer sections of the extensible frame bars.
The locking means illustrated in Figs. 8-10 makes use of elongated brackets 43 afixed, as by welding, near opposite ends of each partition bar within the channel thereof; the two spaced legs f and g of such a bracket will then lie transversely of the partition bar with the outer leg 9 adjacent the end thereof to provide an end wall therefor. In the legs I and g of such a bracket I provide ali ned holes 4| through which a locking bolt 42 is slidably fitted. The acting end of this bolt is doubled back upon itself to provide a cross sectionally elongated head 43, thereby requiring that the conforming hole 4! provided for its reception in the bracket leg 9 be elongated in the form of a slot. A plurality of keeper holes 25 and 26, spaced closely apart, are also provided in the adjacent legs a and a of the frame bar, each of these holes being elongated as indicated clearly in Fig. 10.
A spring 41 which is coiled around the bolt exerts opposing pressures on the bracket leg 1 and the bolt head 43, tending to maintain the latter in an advanced position wherein it is engaged with one of the keeper holes 45. The tail end 48 of the bolt is laterally turned to extend through a slot 49 in the web of the partition bar so as to provide means for manual retraction of the'bolt.
In the construction of Figs. 4 and 7, the partition bar is clamped tightly to the frame bar so as to remain connected therewith during operative handling and use of the stencil frame. In addition, the partition bar is prevented from turning about an axis longitudinally of itself,
and this is an important point. The same objectives are attained by the construction of Figs. 8-10, the cross-sectionally elongated form of the bolt head assuring a non-rotative mounting of the partition bar in the frame.
In Fig. 11 a generally similar bolt connection is provided, but in this case the bolt 5| is straight from end to end so as to preserve a round contour at every point. The bolt is supported by two spaced legs h and 2' depending from a bracket 52, the bolt being slidably fitted through a pair ofaligned holes 53 which are formed in these legs. A coiled spring 55 surrounding the bolt exerts a forward thrust upon a pin 56 which extends laterally therefrom and through a, pair of registering slots 51 and 58 in the bracket and bar web 0, respectively. This pin affords a means by which the bolt may be manually retracted against the tension of the spring 55. The web 0 of the partition bar H in this construction is desirably extended beyond the outer bracket leg 2' so as to overlie and engage with the web b of the proximate bar R; and substantially at a point which is opposite the leg 2' the bar web 0 is humped out to provide a shoulder 69 for engaging the web 17, thereby to correctly fix the V angular position of one bar relative to the other.
In this construction, a plurality of aligned holes 25 and 26 is provided lengthwise of the inner webs a and a of the frame bars, each to receive the acting end of the bolt 5| to establish a releasable connection therewith. The extending end of the web 0 which overlies and maintains engagement with the outer face of the proximate bar'web acts to prevent any rotative movement its of'-the' partition bar" when-amounted izreplaces as I just-described.
- This 'invention--rcontemplates =-a -multil-si'ded ssten'cil frame'which'isvariously adjustable :to
provide a mounting "for ap1ura11 -or partition bars which-also are adj ustableto --various posi- 'tions 'so-- I as to produce a changeable pattern sten'cil. ForeXampleFig; Z'suggests a'stencil "pattern that is adapted for positioning adjacent an-inclined'eavefil atone end of va building having a gable roof. *Here-the'top frame bar T is shown as considerablyshortened,'andthe left framebar. L considerably lengthened so as to extend obliquely "intparallelism" with "the :eave,: the :Tremaining frame components still remaining "in iiitheir: usual" zvertical" rand horizontal positions. The connectingi'meanspfFigs. 8 11 aresuchjas "'to"'permit the partition :bars itoflioin. with any -frame'bar. that is: obliquely disposed. It, is'manifest:that':the .prese'nt stencil, because .of its flex- "'ibility'as to size and, shape,"will. therefore be suitable .for use in .various places j upon walls where irregular'c'onditions are encountered. Also jin"Fig.; 12 the, pattern provided by the partition ."bars carried inwardly of the frameissomewhat different from that illustrated inF'ig -l. These two figures show .twolof manypos'sible variations in the stencil pattern.
.. It..will..be.notedtthat each partition bar is equipped at each "or its ends with means for releasably securing. it tO=I1&*Of"=the channel bars of the frame or to another partition bar. The same assortment of partition'bars'assembled into a stencil may be combinedtdproduce any one of a number of different patternspand by selecting partition bars of still different length.either from the-same or other assortments the pattern maybe-varied still further. .These changes may be made. readily in one andthesame'stencil, or
--. several stencils may be made .up, each "having a pattern'difiering from the .others, :therseveral stenci-ls to be used in any .orderconsecutively, .-alternately, at random,--.orzotherwise. flhe'point is that the pattern exhibited in each stencil is that of a desired arrangement of stones of varying siz and shape to be reproduced by transference to a predetermined area upon the wall of a building in the manner now to be explained.
The stencil, completed and ready for use, is a unitary structure, open from front to back except for the several bars comprised in the frame and partitions. By using bars of channel cross section, the stencil is made light and rigid, and may be handled with ease and facility by a skilled workman, perhaps with the aid of a handle bar 62 as per Fig. 1. To the building wall W whereon the facing is to be placed is first secured a suitable lathing 65 to which is keyed a scratch coat 66 of plastic mix, and over this is spread and bonded the usual brown coat 61. It is upon a foundation such as this that I build an outer coat of mortar M or the like which, with the aid of the present stencil, is fashioned into simulated stones 5 having an entirely natural appearance. These stones may appear at random, or at regular, irregular, symmetrical, or asymmetrical places, or according to any other desired arrangement, and be variously colored and textured. There is accordingly full opportunity for avoidance of repetition or sameness in design.
Having completed the foundation to which the simulated stonework is to be affixed, the workman places the stencil against the wall at the first point of application. It will be noted that the open sides of the channel barsare-rafaced toward the wall for engagement therewith; and i thatf the channel legs are converg'ed 1 inwardly etowafd the wall. Mortar oran-a r r and colori's then spreadupon the zwall fo wall. -In this movementrthe frame and'partition i barsrare :freelto aise'parateiiand draw .awayffrom fthe tappliedxmortar, .iand'. the "linear spaces which they ::.formerly :occupied in the'fmortar-applying .r operatiorli then zappearsas grooves Ii ii of perhaps 1 5? :orsso. in :width. The location of. thesei'grooves :is', of, course, predetermined by therpa'ttern ithat is :built into the istencii",-:.and they simulatea'per- 1 ::f-ect1y;:1the joints; that :regularly; appear between adj ac'entsstones in axmasonrystructure.
" Theisamei stencil with thetsame' oria different ;.:pattern.may again beapplied :to the1nextra'd- ::.jacent .walliarea thatiszto-be operated upon. i-It iis goptional, of :course, to use another patterned :stencil instead, A further spread sofsmortar' is applied through the re-positioned stencil to the ufoundation awaiting its application, :and thereafter thetsten'cil is again removed. .This operation is repeatedas often as necessary 'until the entireibuilding wall has been'covered, one or "more stencil patterns beingused'in these-opera- 'tions. iWhile' this work is proceeding other workim'enwith the aid of trowels or other tools'then i go overreach 'of:thei mortarzareas defined by the grooves :m 'tofashionthe'surface thereof into 'desired"textures. "Skill acquired in this operation will enable the workmen to 1 proceed rapidly,
and produce various'texture'finishes withgreat dexterity, the'effect being wholly natural and "very attractive to the eye.
'It'is'optional to vary the procedure, within certain .limits, from that hereinbefore described. For-cexample, texture'finishing of the applied "mortar may take .place'while-the stencil frame v" is .maintainedlin its original position upon' the .wall; intother words," the order of theistencilremoving and texture-finishing operations may be reversed in case there should be any advantage in so doing.
When the stencil frame is to be placed in a second position immediately adjacent a position which it has previously occupied for a mortarapplying operation, it is desirable that each pattern to be produced on the wall should connect up with and appear as a continuation of the patterns already established. To assure of attaining this objective the frame bar proximate to a pattern already built up on the wall is positioned in the groove-joint along the border of that pattern. By so proceeding, there will be a single groove-ioint along the common border of two immediately adiacent pattern applications, thereby maintaining the integrity of the overall pattern that is extended over the wall in its entirety.
For convenience in description, I have throughout this specification referred to "stones as the building units to be simulated. This term should be construed to include anykind of blocks, or other equivalent units. Also in specifying a wall to which the present invention is applicable, I would have it understood that this term includes either the inner or outer side of the wall of a building, or of a partition interiorly thereof, or, in fact, of any wall whether or not it be structurally any part of a building.
. I claim:
1. A changeable-pattern stencil for use in application of a mortar mix to a wall, comprising four extensible frame bars interconnected to form a. quadrangle of variable shape and area, and a plurality of partition bars releasably interconnected with each other and with the frame bars to form an open pattern therewithin, all of the bars having the cross section of a channel whose open sides face toward the wall when operatively positioned thereupon, and the legs of each channel converging slightly toward the wall to facilitate outward movement therefrom following application of a mortar mix through the pattern openings thereof, the interconnections between said bars forming the same into *a unitary stencil placeable against a wall as a unit and removable therefrom as a unitafter the mortar mix has been applied to said wall.
2. A changeable-pattern stencil for use in application of a mortar mix to a wall, comprising a plurality of extensible frame bars interconnected to form a quadrangle of variable shape and area, and a plurality of partition bars releasably interconnected with each other and with the frame bars to form an open pattern therewithin, all of the bars having the cross section of a channel whose open sides face toward the wall when operatively positioned thereupon and the sides of all the bars converging slightly toward the inner side of the stencil to facilitate outward movement of the stencil from a wall to which mortar has been applied therethrough for bonding with the wall surface, the interconnections between said bars forming the same into a unitary stencil placeable against a wall as a unit and removable therefrom as a unit after the mortar mix has been applied to said wall.
3. A changeable-pattern stencil for use in application of a mortar mix to a wall, comprising a plurality of frame bars each of channel cross section with its legs converging toward the open side thereof, other associated frame bars of similar but slightly smaller cross section for interfitting with the frame bars first named and longitudinally slidable relative thereto, clamping means operating on the interfitted bars for securing them in fixed positions of longitudinal adjustment relative to each other, and a plurality of partition bars releasably interconnected with each other and with the frame bars to form an open pattern therewith, the clamping means for the bars and the interconnections between the bars forming said bars into a unitary stencil placeable against a wall as a unit and removable therefrom as aunit after the mortar mix has been applied to said wall.
4. A changeable-pattern stencil for use in application of a mortar mix to a wall comprising a quadrangular frame, a plurality of partition bars releasably end-connected with each other and with the inner sides of the frame at points remote from the corners thereof to form an open pattern therewith, and means upon the in ner sides of the frame coacting with means at the proximate ends of the partition bars for interlocking therewith at any selected one of a plurality of points upon the frame, the connections between the partition bars and the frame by said interlocking means forming the frame and the partition bars into a unitary stencil placeable against a wall as a unit and removable therefrom as a unit after the mortar mix has been applied to the wall.
HARRY M. DUFFORD.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,341,528 Walling May 25, 1920 1,532,684 Carter Apr. '7, 1925 1,564,578 Kennedy Dec. 8, 1925 1,968,189 Bartels July 31, 1934 2,113,086 Jennings Apr. 5, 1938 2,514,805 Seymour July 11, 1950 2,567,843 Gedminas Sept. 11, 1951