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Publication numberUS2616198 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 4, 1952
Filing dateJun 23, 1949
Priority dateJun 23, 1949
Publication numberUS 2616198 A, US 2616198A, US-A-2616198, US2616198 A, US2616198A
InventorsSewell Harry P
Original AssigneeSewell Harry P
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for forming raised characters and lines
US 2616198 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

H.- fz's-EWELL 2,616,198

METHOD AND APPARATUS Foa mamma. RAISED caARAcTERs AND LINES Nov. 4, 1952 Filed June 23, 1949 llll A Patented Nov. 4, 1952 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING RAISED CHARACTERS AND LINES Harry P. Sewell, Forest Hills, N. Y.

Application June 23, 1949, Serial No. 100,938

13 Claims. (Cl. 41-1) This invention relates to a method and apparatus for manually forming raised lines on the upper surface of a sheet of material, enabling the blind to read. Heretofore, symbols for the blind have been made on the underside of a sheet by pressing a hand tool into the sheet, necessitating the sheet to be turned over before it could be read by the blind. Under this invention line drawings are adapted to be made on the upper surface of a sheet enabling a blind person to distinguish the drawing or message as he progresses without having to turn the sheet each time between the formation and reading.

One object is to provide a method and apparatus for forming a raised line cn the upper or impression-receiving surface of a Sheet to be read without having to turn the sheet over. Another object is to enable a drawing or handwriting message to be made without recourse to Braille. Still another object is to form a line or lines as a message legible to both the blind and persons with sight. Yet a further object .is to enable a sighted or blind person to write or draw quickly and easily for the benefit of another blind person, without the limitations of the Braille system.

Specifically this is accomplished by means of a stylus stretching local portions of a sheet of material enough to give such portions a permanent set and substantially simultaneously with said stretching raising the stretched portions above the plane of the sheet. The formation of a line is preferably effected by means of a ball point stylus moving along regenerated cellulose sheeting known as cellophane. Pressure on the cellulose sheet pressesfsit into a smooth resilient gum rubber sheet about one sixteenth inch thick, stretching the cellulose sheet both laterally and longitudinally under the stylus giving it a permanent setl and. causing the stretched area to be raised as the stylus moves along the sheet when the rubber'is mounted on a non-yielding foundation.

Referring to the drawing,

Fig. l is a top plan View of a preferred type pad upon which lines or characters are to be formed.

Fig-2 is a section on the line 2-2 of Fig. l.

Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section of the lower end of the stylus or ball point pen used in forming a raised line.

Fig. 4 is an enlarged detail partly in section showing a type of raised line capable of being made under this invention.

v Fig. 5 is a top plan View of a portion of the sheet.

The pad for receiving the lines and symbols under the present invention comprises a stiff back I0 of any appropriate material, wood, metal or berboard. On the back I 0 is secured a sheet II of smooth gum rubber one-sixteenth of an inch thick. As shown in Fig. 2 of the drawing, the rubber layer II may be secured by means of cement or other appropriate securing means illustrated. Over the rubber and on which the lines Vare drawn is a sheet of a tough grade of regenerated cellulose I2 known as cellophane and having a thickness of .0016 inch. Bolts I3 and rivets I4 secure spring fingers I5 in place to hold the cellulose sheet I2 on the rubber pad during writing or drawing. Knurled nuts I6 on the bolts I3 control the tension or pressure of the fingers on the sheet I2 so that by loosening these nuts the sheet I2 may be slid out and another sheet replaced. f

In Fig. 3 is shown the lower part of a preferred stylus I'I constituted by a ball pointed pen. The ball I8 preferably has a diameter of .045 inch. In the reservoir I9 may be carried the usual ink or if no ink is used and the writing is entirely for the blind a lubricating oil is maintained. Between the ball and the reservoir I9 is a passage 20, .02 inch in diameter, to prevent either the lubricant or the ink from flowing too freely. This stylus is used for forming lines in writing or drawing.

Unlike prior practise in making lines or symbols, the present invention permits the formation of such lines or symbols on the top surface of the sheet rather than on the under side as heretofore has been the practise with drawing devices and a Braille slate. This new method obviates the need to turn over the drawing to be read, and which has in the past always ap'- peared in a reverse position.

To operate the stylus I 'I in the formation of raised lines on the right side of the sheet I2, such tool is held at preferably a small angle to the vertical, such as 5 to 10 although the stylus may be held at an angle to the vertical of as much as 30. Using only light pressure, a fairly light raised line will be formed. However, by using slightly heavier pressure than is used in drawing, it will be possible to form a heavier raised line, and the heavier raised line 28 as shown in Fig. 5 will be characterized by gathered portions 30 at frequent uniform intervals. The resulting interrupted line is more easily comprehended by the feeling finger of a blind reader as it is passed along the line.

The exact nature of what transpires when the cellulose sheet I2 is operated upon by the stylus I1 is not understood with certainty. However, it is believed that the stylus effects a permanent stretching of the cellulose both transversely and longitudinally of the line being formed. Perhaps it is not the reaction from the live rubber alone which forces the stretched portions of the cellulose upward since motion of the stylus is needed to eiiect the raised line. It is therefore believed that movement of the ball creates a wave in both the rubber and cellulose layer which has the efect of longitudinally stretching portions of the cellulose in the raised line. Possibly it is the reaction of the pressure wave in the yieldable sheets Il and l2 which assist in the production of .the permanently stretched raised line. At least, .the stretch seems certain. The degree of pressure and degree of longitudinal stretch are believed responsible for the gathered portions. Too thin a cellophane sheet is likely to be torn by the pressure of the stylus, whereas if the sheet is too thick, the raised line may not be as clear, andtoo thick a sheet l2 detracts from .definition in the finished product. lThe resilient sheet H needs to be considerably thicker than the sheet i2 in which the markings occur. If the rubber I l is too thick, .the cellophane may be y.torn vand if it is too thin, more than a convenient degree of pressure or power is needed.

Other materials than cellophane have been found appropriate, for example, the usual fibrous paper used for rreceiving Braille characteristics, will be appropriate, and a cellulose acetate sheet has also been found satisfactory. The chief characteristic of such a `sheet i2 is that it must be capable of being stretched readily bythe stylus to receive a permanent set by the stretching, yet not be resilient because the resilience would cause the sheet to return to its former position withouthaving any raised portion. Also, other materials than rubber will be found appropriate, the needed .characteristic being appropriate vresilience to the sheet il.

With the present stylus one 'blind person is enabled to write or draw quickly and easily for the ready interpretation by another blind vperson of what has been written or drawn, since the writing is on the right or upper side of the sheet l2, and Yit is not necessary for the sheet to be turned over 'to be read. This invention opens up a new 'field to the blind. lt enables maps and drawings 'to be made so as to be quickly sensed by either the see- 4ing or the blind. Whenever writing or drawing'is intended for both the seeing and the blind, the Vraised lines will be made when the stylus is filled withink instead of a lubricant. A stylus of a different vtype than that illustrated is also appropriate, for example, an ordinary pencil, if the point is not vtoo sharp, might suffice for the format-ion of the necessary structure and raised lines. The ball point pen is preferred rbecause it roils and its point is always of a given shape that does not change. A comparatively large diameter ball 4i3 lis preferred to reduce the danger of the paper being torn during the writing or drawing, and the im; or oil lubrioates the `ball so as to make certain that it will be free to roll, thereby minimizing any tendency to Apull and undesirably deforrn the cellophane.

Due to the width of the raised lines formed by the stylus of Figs. 3 and li, there is substantially little, if any, danger of a cellophane sheet of the thickness mentioned being punctured or torn.

An important advantage of this invention resides in its ready adap'ahility for use in executing drawings in duplicate. The method and apparatus remain substantially unchanged. It is simply necessary for either the sighted or blind operator to use two superimposed sheets of cellophane instead of the aforesaid single sheet. By following the same technique previously described, the under sheet will simultaneously produce raised lines corresponding to those being inscribed on the upper sheet. Thus, a reference vcopy of a drawing may be obtained, which has been quite impossible with any other line drawing system heretofore known.

A new eld is now opened for producing raised line tracings of ink drawings, charts, graphs, imaps, symbols, electrical circuits, etc. Here again, the aforesaid technique is used, but with a slight Vmodication of the apparatus. The sheet H made of a 'latex which possesses a degree of transparency, is substituted for the non-transparent sheet I l, and the ink drawing intended to be traced in raised line form, is placed under the transparent .sheet Ill. :Then a cel-lophanelsheet i2 is positioned on .top `'of the rubber sheet iii, :and the tracing is executed byia sighted person the y.previously described marmer without damaging the original ink drawing, since it is shielded from direct contact with the stylus by the intermediate lsheet Iii. 'Traced raised line copies may besinn- -la-rly obtained directly vfrom ink print papers, bocksypeniodicals, etc. without 'the aid of askilled person, and likewise without dmaging the originals which may often be costly, such as .vaiuable books.

I claim.:

i. A process of :forming a raised line which cornprises stretching a tough substantially inelastic and stretchable sheet .of material to give 'it la per manent set in .tension along and across a nar-row elongated area'under pressure of a moving stylus havinga point shaped to avoid tearing said sheet pressing .said sheet into a resilient sheet thicker than the inelastic sheet and Iwithout 'tearing such inelastic sheet as the stylus is moved along the impression receiving vside of .said iirst sheet, and then raising said stretched portion above the plane of said iirst mentioned sheet under the impetus of rebound of said second sheet upon removal of pressure of said'stylus as i-t is moved along :said sheet.

2. A process according to claim 1 in which the rebound of said second sheet is assisted by its being compressed against -a substantially nonyielding foundation.

3. A process according to claim 2 in which said first Sheet has a stretch and `toughness equivalent to that of a sheet of regenerated cellulose known as cellophane .0016 inch thick, and the second sheet has an elasticity equivalent to that of -a gum rubber .06 inch thick.

4. A process according to claim v3 in which the narrow stretched area is substantially as wide as that formed in using a ball point pen in Which the balLhas a diameter of .045 inch.

5. A process according to claim l in which the pressure on said stylus is heavy enough to prduce laterally gathered portions or dots along a line.

6. A process according to claim 1 in which said stylus is held at an angle of 0 to 30 to the vertical during most of 'the formation of said raised line.

7. A process according to claim 1 in which said stylus is a ball point pen and a substantial part of the stretched area of said rst sheet is coated with ink.

8. A process according to claim 1 in which said stylus is a ball point pen having no ink therein but in which the ball is supplied with a lubricant.

9. A process of forming a raised line which comprises stretching a narrow elongated area of a sheet of material having the stretch and toughness of regenerated cellulose known as cellophane .0016 inch thick under pressure of a moving ball point stylus pressing the material into a second sheet of material having the resilience substantially equivalent to that possessed by a sheet of gum rubber .06 inch thick, and raising the stretched area of said first sheet above the plane thereof under the impetus of the release of pressure from said second sheet and its live rebound when said second sheet has been compressed between a non-yielding foundation and said stylus pressing and stretching said first sheet.

l0. A process of simultaneously forming raised lines on sheets of tough cellophane which comprises placing said sheets one on the other and on a resilient sheet thicker than said first mentioned sheets, stretching said rst sheets simultaneously to give them a permanent set along a narrow elongated area under pressure of a moving stylus having a rounded point, pressing said rst sheets into the resilient sheet, and then raising said stretched portions of each of said first sheets above its plane surface under the impetus of rebound of said resilient sheet upon removal of.

pressure of said stylus as it is moved along said first sheets.

1l. A process of forming a raised line tracing which comprises placing a transparent and re-Y silient latex sheet over the sheet to be traced and with a tough cellophane sheet over the latex sheet, stretching the cellophane to give it a permanent set along a narrow elongated area under pressure of a moving stylus having a rounded point pressing said cellophane into said sheet of resilient latex, and then raising said stretched portion above the plane of the upper surface of said cellophane sheet under the impetus of rebound of said latex sheet upon removal of pressure of said stylus as it is moved along over said sheets.

12. Apparatus for forming a raised line on a tough sheet of material which comprises in combination said tough sheet of material being nonelastic and capable of being stretched along a narrow elongated area, a stylus having a point which is rounded for stretching said material without tearing it under pressure applied to said stylus, a resilient sheet contiguous to said nonelastic sheet and into which said tough material is adapted to be pressed without tearing by said stylus as it is moved over the tough and resilient sheets, said resilient sheet being capable of raising the stretched narrow area of said tough material above the plane of the unstretched portion thereof under the impetus of rebound of said resilient sheet upon removal of pressure of said stylus upon said material and resilient sheet as the stylus is moved along said sheets.

13. A process of forming raised lines upon the top or impression-receiving side of a tough inelastic, stretchable sheet thick enough not to tear under pressure of a stylus having a rounded point upon said inelastic sheet when said sheet is contiguous to an elastic sheet at least several times thicker than the inelastic sheet which comprises moving said stylus along said inelastic sheet, thereby pressing t-he inelastic sheet into the elastic sheet without tearing it under pressure of said stylus, stretching the inelastic sheet by said stylus longitudinally and transversely of a line being drawn giving such local portions of the inelastic sheet a permanent set in tension and raising said stretched portions of the inelastic sheet above the plane of the rest of said sheet as and after the stylus passes over the sheet probably by a reaction of the elastic sheet.


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Referenced by
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US2711039 *Apr 28, 1953Jun 21, 1955Alex WittmanMethod of making three-dimensional objects of flat sheets
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US5993089 *Feb 3, 1997Nov 30, 1999Burrell, Iv; James William8-bit binary code for use as an 8-dot braille arrangement and data entry system and method for 8-key chordic binary keyboards
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U.S. Classification264/320, 401/209, 462/84, 264/293, 434/112, 264/339, 400/109.1, 101/3.1
International ClassificationG09B21/00
Cooperative ClassificationG09B21/003
European ClassificationG09B21/00B3