US 261720 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
2 Sheets-Sheet 1.
S. L L A G N I K J ILLUMINATING TILE.
gatented July 25, 18 82.
By his Aftoz-neys,
ws moam WITNESSES:
2 Sheets-Sheet 2.
J. K. INGALLS.
No. 261,720.. Patented July 25, 1.882
mm by. By his Attorneys, 1
wdufiamn WITNESSES Maia UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
JOSHUA K. INGALLS, OF GLENORA, NEW YORK.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 261,720, dated July 25, 1882,
Application filed April 28, 1882. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, JOSHUA K. INGALLS, of. Glenora, in the county of Yates and State of New York, have invented certain Improve-l ments in Illuminating-Tiles, of whichthe following is a specification.
My im'ention relates to illuminating plates. or tiles for sidewalks, vaults, areas, and other uses; and its object is to cheapen and simplify their construction and improve their appearance.
1n the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a plan ofa port-ion ot'a sidewalk laid with knobtiles constructed according to my invention. Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary cross-section thereof, out along the line 2 2 in Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a similar section, cut on the line 3 3 in Fig.
'1. Fig. 4 is a sectional elevation of Fig. 1, out
along the line 4 4. Fig. 5 is a cross-section of a step constructed on the same principle. Fig. 6 is a view corresponding to Fig. 2, and showing a modification. Fig. 7 is a plan "iew similar to Fig. 1 of a portion of a concrete tile constructed according to my invention. Fig. 8 is aplan, on a larger scale, of anotherform of concrete tile; and Fig.9 is a cross-section of Fig. 8, cut on the line 9 9.
Illumin ating-tiles as now usually laid are set in. a cast-iron frame fitted into the sidewalk or into the space or opening between the sidewalk and the building, and divided by crossbars into panels or openin gs, into each of which one of the tiles or illuminating-plates is set and the joint around its edge made tight with cement. The frame has to be made especially to fit the place which it is to occupy. Its setting is a matter of considerable ditficnlty and expense, and thejoints between it and the tiles' are difficult to pack and continually liable to leak. Furthermore, the separate tiles, being isolated from each other by the intervening cross-bars of the frame, present a paneled or interrupted appearance. Thediagonal lines presented by the lenses when viewed diagonally terminate at the edge of each tile, and are not taken up and continued by the next tile,'but are there commenced anew from points intermediate of the lines on the first tile, there by breaking up that harmonious continuity of surliace and design which the eye naturally see s.
The object of my invention is to overcome these defects of the present method of laying the tiles. To this end I dispense with the frame and lay the tiles directly in the space or opening to be covered over, making them large enough, when joined together, to fill that space,
arranging them close together, edge to edge, and supporting them at intervals by crossbeams extending beneath the joints or seams formed by their meeting edges. Over these joints real or simulated lenses are placed, and the diagonal lines or rows of lenses continue across the joints without interruption. When a margin or border is desired to intervene between the illuminating portion of the plate and the edge of the opening in the sidewalk or other structure, the usual checkered or otherwise ornamented non-slippingborder is cast on the edges of the tiles or on separate plates fastened into recesses therein, and the transverse joints are concealed by the. formation at intervals of deep cross-grooves parallel with and simulating them.
An attempt has been made to obviate the disadvantage of the paneled appearance above referred to in a concrete tile by having adjoinin g sections meet over the cross-bar of the frame, arranging the border-rims back from the edges and far enough apart to receive a row of lenses between them, setting such lenses, and filling concrete around them but; this construction does not avoid the necessity of making a large frame to fit the opening to be covered, and in it the blind lenses over the seam are not confined in sockets, and hence are almost certain to become misplaced while runningin the concrete, and it is entirely inapplicable to knob-tiles.
My invention is especially designed to render knob-tiles susceptible of being laid with an apparently continuous or uninterrupted illuminating-surface, but is also in part applicable to concrete tiles, applied to which it constitutes an improvement on the tile above described.
In Figs. 1 to 4. is shown a tile of the character known as the elongated-knob tile, consistin g of acast-iron plate having knobs formed to project from its upper surface between every two lens-sockets, to form an anti-slipping foothold. I show this form of plate be cause I consider it the best of the anti-slipping iron plates, not because it is essential to my invention.
Let A designate the wall of the building, B the sidewalk, and Gthe vault or opening to be bridged or covered over with the illuminatingtiling.
D D are two of the sections of tiling or illuminating-plate, shown as laid in place and partly broken away. I will describe this construction in detail.
Around the opening 0 a groove or rabbet, a, is out in the stone of the sidewalk B, and against the wall of the building A a bar, I), is fastened. These are to provide ledges for the tiles to rest on, which ledges I shall refer to by the letter 0. The ledge on the building might .he formed in the masonry,or that on the stone might be formed by fastening on aplate or bar, or by an extension upward from the supporting-girder, or otherwise, as circumstances may Idictate.
E E are cross-beams or girders extending across the opening 0, and which will be one or morein number, according to the size of the opening. The back end of each is fastened to or against the building by being set into the masonry, or by being cut out, as shown in Fig. 4, and resting on the bar I), or in an indentation therein, so as to bring their top surfaces on a level. The front end of each girder is cut away, as shown in Fig. 4, and rests in a notch out in the stone B deeper than the rabbet a, and it has a spur, d, projecting down.
diagonally into the stone, as indicated, and packed with lead, so that it is securely fastened down. These girders E E may be of wrought T or I beam, or they may be cast.
The sections D D'are two or more in number, and fit together edge to edge, the joints or seams formed by their meeting edges coming directly over the girders E E. When fitted together they appear as one large tile which.
has beencut transversely at intervals into sections, arearranged equidistantly and in symmetrical order, preferably in the manner shown in Fig. 1, and the knobs are disposed uniformly around them. The lenses and knobs extend over the dividing-joints without interruption, so that the design appears continuous over the entire composite tile. Each dividing-joint is formed through the centers of the lens-sockets in the row which extends over the girder E, the top of the latter being made of such width as to intercept the light from only this one row of sockets. These divided sockets are formed with bottom webs, as shown in Fig. 2, which strengthen the edges of the plates and serve as flanges to bolt through in order to fasten the sections to the girders, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The dividing-joint extends in zigzag direction through these sockets, as shown in Fig. 1, whereby the cutting of the projecting knobs is avoided and the joint is rendered less apparent than if it were straight. Each plate or section D thus has alternate projections and indentations, which fit to and interlock with like projections and indentations in the edge of the adjoining section. The projecting portions of both plates extend beyond the center of the girder, so that a heavier weight on one plate than on the other is transmitted to both sides of the girderand has no tendency to tilt it, so that there is less likelihood of opening the joint and causing it to leak than if a straight joint were used. The sections D D are laid separately. Each is of such length as to ex tend-across the openingO and rest on the ledges c c, to which it is fastened in any good way. For the fastening to the stone I have devised the method shown best in Fig. 3. The edge of the tile is notched atg g, Fig. 1, and opposite each notch a hole, h, is bored diagonally into the stone. Into this hole a pin or spike, t, is placed and packed with lead. Its head, which overhangs the edge of the plate D, is then battered or riveted down to make it confine the plate tightly. The sections D D are of two kinds-wend sections and middle sections-both of which are shown in Fig. 1. The
margin, F, on three edges-that is, on its two opposite ends and one side. This margin is here shown asbeing a recess, 6, of a depth equal to about half the thickness of the section or plate D, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, and ofa width which may equal that of the usual checkered border of the frame heretofore used.
This checkered border is then formed on separate thin plates ff. a series of which plates are laid in the recess 0 end to end, so as to break joints with the sections D, and are fastened down by screws. These plates serve to conceal the fastenings g t, as shown in Fig. 3. The middle sections, D,one of which is shown at the left in Fig. 1, have the margin F formed across only their ends, so that when laid these margins iorm continuations of those on the adjoining tiles. The platesf may be made the entire length of the margins around the composite tile, so that but one plate will be used for each of the four sides. The sections D D are laid and fastened down, as described. The joints between the sections and around the opening 0 are packed with cement or otherwise in any usual or good manner. The lenses are set in the sockets, including the blind sockets over the girders, and the borderplates ff are applied.
Fig. 5 shows a step, the plate D forming the tread, and a vertical plate, G, forming the riser. The two are united by an angle-plate, H, the upper portion of which forms the checked antislipping plate f, before described. I have shown this plate fas extending back but half the width of the border, the remainder of the latter being formed on the surface of the plate D. The angle-plateH is cast with the usual nosing, and is gonnected to the plates D and G by screws or olts.
Instead of making the seams or joints between theseparate plates D D by simply bring? ing their edges together, their edges may be made to overlap, as shown inFig. 6. 1' have here shown the upper laps as formed with con- .vex projections l,oneof which is shown in sec- .tion to simulate lenses,'iustead of setting glass lenses in blind sockets over the girder.
In Fig. 7 is shown a concrete light with a checkered iron border, the latter being cast in one piece with the iron plate of the tile. 1 The .plates are-united by a zigzagjoiufi'as in Fig.
1, and the border is crossed diagonally by the joint. To conceal this diagonal joint the border is crossed at intervals by diagonal grooves, as shown, extending parallel with the joint and cutting up the border into diamond-shaped spaces instead of squares.
. Thelensispretrrahlyconsiderablysmallerthan the cell, so that the intervening spacemay be filled with concrete or beton up to'the level of the ribs, to form an anti slippingfoothold. The seam or joint is here shown as being a straight line extending over the center of the girder beneath. As but little of the iron plate is visible after the concrete is filled in, a straight seam answers nearly as well for this variety of light as a zigzag seam. The bottoms of the cells over the girder are closed to form flanges to bolt through, as in Fig. 1. When a concrete light of this character is to have a border I make the plate, as shown in Fig. 8, with acoutinuous recessed margin, F, into which may be set encaustic tiles m m, as shown, or which may be filled with cement. in either case the joint across the margin is concealed.
It will be understood that by fixing upon several standard widths for the opening 0 and keeping in stock a number of end and middle tiles, D D, of length to fit those widths, and by constructing the opening 0 to one of the widths, my tiles can be laid without necessarily casting them to order for each job. To
, make the. tiles fit the. length of the opening O, a portion may be cutoff the width ot one of the middle tiles, or one middle tile may be cast wider or narrower than the others.
My invention avoids theexpenseof the framing heretofore employed. It reduces the total length of the seams to lessthan one-half. It secures a greater area of lighting-surface, and it presents a more uniform and finished appearance from above. It also produces a stronger structure to the same weight, as the frame heretofore used is an element of weakness, being liable to rupture from blows where unprotected by the tiles.
1 make no claim to anything claimed in the patent of W. J. Fryer, J r., dated April 5,1881, No. 239,607.
I claim as my invention- 1'. The improved process of layin g'illuminatiug-plates which consists in forming a ledge, c, on opposite sides of the opening to be covered," setting cross beams or girders E E transversely across said opening at intervals, laying sections D D'of illuminating-plates, ea'cli'of a length equaling the width of said opening, transversely across said opening, with their ends resting on said ledges,'and with their meeting edges fitting together over said girdersywhereby the girders are concealed and the edges of both plates are supported by "them, substantially as set forth.
' 2. A composite illuminating-tile consisting of sections of illuminating-plate, each section forming an uninterrupted continuation of the illuminating-surface of the adjoining section, and having a length equaling the width of the opening to be covered, the several sections laid across said opening and fitted together edge to edge, in combination with supportinggirders extendingacross said opening beneath and in contact with the meeting edges of the illuminating-sections, thereby forming bearers for said edges, substantially as set forth.
3. The combination ofa section ofilluminatiug-plate formed with uniformly-distributed' lens-sockets, and having on its edge a row of divided or incomplete sockets, with a second similar section adapted to meet the first edge to edge, and formed on its meeting edge with divided or incomplete sockets, coinciding with those on the edge of the first section, and adapted, when the two sections are fitted together, to form continuations of and to complete said sockets, thereby forming a row of sockets along the seam, and with a supportin g-girder extending beneath said row of sockets and forming a bearer for the meeting edges of both sections, substantially as set forth.
4. A composite illuminating-tile consisting of sections of illuminating-plate provided with equidistant and symmetricallyarranged lenssockets, set with lenses, and with upwardlyprojecting anti-slippin g knobs disposed around and between said sockets, the sections fitting together edge to edge, the lenses and knobs on one section forming an uninterrupted continuation ot'those on the adjoining section, and the line of separation between the sections extending through the plate and. avoiding the knobs, whereby the seam or joint is rendered but slightly apparent, in combination with a supporting-girder extending beneath the said joint and forming a bearer for both meeting tending through and dividing the lens-sockets of one row and avoiding the projecting knobs, in combination with a supporting-girder arranged beneath said row of sockets, and with blind lenses set in said sockets, substantially as set forth.
6. A composite illuminating-tile consisting of two or more illuminating-sections fitting together edge to edge, the line of theirjunction extending diagonally hack and forth in zigzag direction through a row of lens-sockets, substantially as shown, and for the purposes set forth.
';7. The combination of an illuminating-section, D, having one or more sides formed in a zigzag outline, and provided with half-lens sockets on said zigzag side, said half-sockets having bottom webs, in combination with another like section having a zigzag edge fitting to and interlocking with that of the first section, substantially as set forth.
8. The combination of two or more illuminating-sections, D D, adapted to bridge an opening or vault, and to fit together edge to edge, with a margin, F, extending along the edge of the opening, east or formed in one piece with the illuminating portion of the sections, and that on one section forming an uninterrupted continuation of that on the adjoining one, substantially as set forth.
9. The combination of two or more sections of illuminating-tiling adapted to be laid side by side and fitting together edge to edge, so as to produce a continuous illuminating-surface, and each formed with a margin, F, cast or made in one piece with the illuminating portion of the sections, so disposed that when the sections are laid together to form a composite tile the margin will extend around the outer edge thereof and surround the entire illuminatingsurface, substantially as set forth.
10. The combination, with sectional illuminating-tiles' formed to fit together edge to edge, and so produce a continuous illuminatingsurface, of a sectional border of checkered or otherwise ornamented non-slipping surface, arranged to surround the illuminating-surface when the sections are laid together, and provided with deep grooves at intervals simulating and parallel with the joints between the sections, substantially as set forth.
11. The combination, with illuminating-sections D D, formed with a recessed margin, F, of sectional border-plates ff, having a checkered or other anti-slipping upper surface fit ting into said recessed margin, substantially as set forth.
12. The combination, with plate or section D, of the fastening for confining it to the stone, consisting of diagonal hole IL in the latter and pin or spike i set in said hole, and its head overhanging the edge of the plate, and with the border-plate f fastened over and concealing said pin, substantially as set forth.
13. The combination of stone B and girder E with spur of on the latter projecting diagonally downward into the stone, substantially as shown and described.
In witness whereof I have hereunto signed my name in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
JOSHUA K. INGALLS.
Witnesses ARTHUR O. FRASER, HENRY OONNETT.