|Publication number||US2618938 A|
|Publication date||Nov 25, 1952|
|Filing date||May 4, 1949|
|Priority date||May 4, 1949|
|Publication number||US 2618938 A, US 2618938A, US-A-2618938, US2618938 A, US2618938A|
|Inventors||George M Booth, Arthur H Patch|
|Original Assignee||Novadel Agene Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (17), Classifications (22)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Nov. 25, 1952 G. M. BOOTH ET AL 2,618,938
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR BEVERAGE COOLING AND DISPENSING Filed May 4, 1949 4 Sheets-Sheet l (war e If. fioa/lo BY flri ur [2. Pair/L METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR BEVERAGE COOLING AND DISPENSING 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May 4, 1949 N 4 0 0 O I f. H W n n u EEI QNI Q 0 5 nJ 4 w W: 1 m 1 :z: 4 7; 5 \W i A: 11 Z... 1 h W A .4, 1 T m E j t 0 w lll liiil Nov. 25, 1952 e. M. BOOTH ET AL 2,618,938
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR BEVERAGE COOLING AND DISPENSING Filed May 4, 1949 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Zia 34d Z 3 4 5 6 7 fL/IPSED TIME /V HUI/R6 ll 60 2 E K 50 E k k g 40 m ELHPSED TIME IN HOURS 00 "2 Q E 50 L 1 INVENTORS 0 1 a 4 5 6 fimr 21V. 300% EL/IPSED TIME /I\/ HOURS BY H1} 1' H l7 TTORNE) Fatented Nov. 25, .1932
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR BEVERAGE COOLING AND DISPENSING George M. Booth, Westfield, and Arthur H. Patch, Glen Ridge, N. J., assignors to Novadel-Agene Corporation, Belleville, N. J., a corporation of Delaware Application May 4, 1949, Serial No. 91,272
11 Claims. 1
This invention relates to the cooling and dispensing of beverages, specifically beer and similar brew, and in a more particular sense relates to apparatus and procedure for cooling brew which is packaged in metal barrels. It will be understood that the invention is applicable to the conditioning of beer, ale and other beverages of like character, each of which may be defined as brew; thus where reference is made hereinbelow to beer and operations for cooling or otherwise treating it, it will be understood that what is said is similarly applicable to other types of brew as just explained. While the storing and handling of beer in wooden barrels has been practiced for centuries and has certain advantages, there has recently been increasing use of metal barrels for such purpose, likewise to considerable but perhaps different advantage, especially in durability, ease of handling and over-all cost. The term metal barrels is here used to mean barrels made Wholly or substantially wholly of metal (aluminum, stainless steel, and ordinary or standard steel being the commonest examples of metals used for such structures), and specifically barrels wherein the entire wall is non-insulating or substantially non-insulating. Thus such barrels have their side walls and heads constructed of essentially a single thickness of metal of sheet or plate-like character, which is relatively durable and which has relatively substantial heat conductivity as distinguished from Wooden barrels or kegs (the term barrel being used herein synonymously with keg) or as distinguished from barrels having double walls packed with insulating material or providing quiescent air spaces of large extent.
While eminently satisfactory results, for cooling beer in barrels at the locality where it is dispensed, have been obtained in the case of wooden barrels by employing coolant coils inside the barrel, such structures are, for a number of reasons, not feasible or convenient for metal barrels. Accordingly various proposals have been made for cooling metal barrels, for instance by jacketing substantially the entire barrel with structure to convey a coolant liquid around it, or by subjecting the barrel to a continuous spray of cold water which runs down over its sides, or by simple air cooling, e. g. by mounting the barrel in a refrigerated chamber. It will be understood that the aim has been to provide a cooling of the beer in the barrel, as at the dispensing locality, so that the brew is kept cold from the time it is delivered at the restaurant, tavern, or the like, until the entire contents of the barrel has been dispensed, all without the use of external separately chilled, coils of pipe or the like through which the beverage must flow enroute to the faucet in order to cool it when no effort has been made to reduce its temperature inside the barrel. More specifically in many cases, a chief object in making provision for cooling beer Within the barrels is to carry out certain principal features and thereby obtain the advantages of the inventions embraced in U. S. Patent No. 2,051,013, granted August 11, 1986, to Herman E. Schulse, for improvements in the art of beverage conditioning and dispensing.
Experience has revealed, however, that prior proposals of the sort mentioned above for cooling beer in metal barrels have fallen short of providing a practical and satisfactory system, for example either because an inordinately large and consequently expensive cooling capacity has been required, or because the efiiciency and particularly the rate of cooling have been unduly low or because the proposed equipment has been complicated or objectionable in appearance or in other respects, beyond the criteria of neatness, convenience and simplicity Which a dispensing installation ought to satisfy.
More particularly, the general requirements of a beer cooling system to be employed in restaurants, taverns, clubs and the like where draught beer is dispensed, are that the arrangements andconnections be structurally simple and convenient for the insertion and removal of barrels, that the cooling effect in the case of a newly inserted barrel be quite prompt (so that cold beer can be drawn within a reasonably short time), that the system efiectively cool all of the beer in the barrel, and that the cooling capacity needed from the refrigerating and coolant circulating instrumentalities be as low as possible, for the sake of economy in both cost and operation of equip ment.
As is now well recognized, it is very advantageous to keep all of the beer in a barrel at a low temperature, e. g. below 50 F., from the time that the barrel is delivered to the place of dispensing until the last available drop has been drawn. At higher temperatures, draught beer deteriorates rapidly in a number of respects, i. e. v
as to taste, appearance and other desirable characteristics. At the same time, the initial cooling load is much higher for bringing a freshly delivered, warm barrel of beer down to the required keeping and serving temperature, than to maintain the beer at such temperature thereafter. This is particularly true where, as is ordinarily preferred, the entire contents of the barrel are to be brought as promptly as possible to the stated low temperature, whether the barrel is immediately used for dispensing its contents or whether it is temporarily retained in a stand-by position until needed. Finally, the cooling arrangements, to be practical, should be compatible with the structure of metal barrels and should be such as to represent a minimum of expense and inconvenience, either in permanently or temporarily associating the cooling means with the barrel, or in respect to the equipment necessarily manipulated when a barrel is added to or removed from the cooling system.
Chief objects of the present inventionare thus to provide cooling apparatus and procedure for metal barrels of brew, such that the above requirements, or essential elements of them, are satisfactorily achieved. Further objects are to overcome one or more of the difiiculties or shortcomings heretofore encountered in previously proposed arrangements for cooling beer in metal barrels, and to provide improved, efficient and economical means for such purpose. Another and more specific object is to afford a novel and peculiarly satisfactory combination of cooling instrumentalities, which may be employed for cooling and conditioning brew packaged in metal barrrels, in the attainment of systems and operations such as embraced by the cited Schulse Patent No. 2,051,013. Additional objects are to provide simple and effective yet remarkably inexpensive arrangements for cooling brew in metal barrels, requiring a minimum of refrigerating capacity and affording great convenience in use.
To these and other ends, certain features and structures of the invention are illustrated, by way of example, in the accompanying drawings and are hereinbelow described.
Referring to the drawings:
Fig. 1 is an elevational view, partly in vertical section and partly diagrammatic, of a complete beer cooling system embodyin features of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is an elevation of a barrel, with parts broken away in vertical section, which is an element of the system of Fig. 1 and which incorporates cooling structure in accordance with the invention;
Fig. 3 is a horizontal section on line 3-3 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged, fragmentary horizontal section on line 4-4 of Fig. 2; v
Fig. 5 is an enlarged, fragmentary vertical section on line 55 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 6 is a vertical section of a barrel embodying another form of cooling structure which carries out the principles herein disclosed;
Fig. 7 is a horizontal section on line 11 of Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 is an enlarged, fragmentary perspective view of the lower part of the tap rod shown in Figs. 6 and '7, with a part of the outer shell broken away;
Fig. 9 is a view in vertical section, chiefly diagrammatic, showing structure employed in testing and demonstrating certain aspects of the invention in cooling a barrel of beer;
Figs. l0, l1 and 12 are curves or graphs illustrating certain results with various barrel-cooling structures; and
Fig. 13 is another graph or plotted tabulation illustrating specific results of cooling with various arrangements, especially the extent to which 4 cooled beverage can be drawn at successive time intervals.
The present improvements are grounded in major part upon the discovery that the foregoing objects in the cooling of metal barrels of beer may be achieved by the application of cooling influence to the barrel in a controlled or predetermined manner, preferably including a spatial or distributed relationship of the localities at which heat transfer is effected of such character as to afford a prompt cooling of beer at the locality from which it is actually drawn and as to provide a suitably rapid cooling of the entire body of liquid at least in part by convection or thermal circulation, all of these results being attainable by a very simple and convenient structural combination with the metal barrel.
Various schemes such as a cooling jacket around the entire cylindrical surface of the barrel, or cooling pipes spaced regularly throughout such surface, or similar means for uniform distribution of coolant on the outside of the structure, have been proposed as yielding a suitable cooling operation for the entire contents of a metal barrel. It has now been found, however, that unless the coolant is supplied at an excessive rate or at an inordinately low temperature such arrangements are of relatively slow eifect, as compared, for example, to the promptness with which cold beer may be drawn from a wooden barrel of the internally cooled type as shown in the cited Schulse patent. A high rate of coolant circulation requires a correspondingly large and expensive apparatus for supplying the refrigerated fluid, with a capacity far more than necessary to keep the beer cold during the relatively long time that the barrel usually remains in the dispensing position after the initial cooling operation.
To use very low temperatures for the coolant a so involves apparatus of disproportionate size and cost, considering the practical needs of the system during most of the time, and may yield and unfavorable over-cooling of the beer, i. e. in that the flavor and other characteristics of beer are considerably dulled at very low temperatures and may even be permanently impaired, especially if any part of the beverage actually freezes. On the other hand, tests of the sort described below have now indicated that when the cooling is ocalized at or near the bottom of the barrel where the tap rod or draught tube withdraws the beer, there can be an econmical cooling of the portion of the beverage which is first drawn at any time, but there is likely to be a complete failure of cooling as to other parts of the barrel contents.
More specifically, it has now been found that by simultaneously cooling both the lower part of the barrel (i. e. around or beneath the tap rod) and another and higher locality, preferably spaced from the cooled lower part, and by regulating or constructing the cooling arrangements for the upper locality so as to limit the cooling effect relative to that below, disadvantages of the sort stated may be overcome. That is to say, the beer adjacent the tap rod opening at thebottom is promptly cooled and may be drawn, in fully satisfactory condition, within a suitably short time from the installation of the barrel, while the controlled and substantially lesser cooling action at an upper locality serves in a cooperative manner (as will be explained) to bring the-temperature of the remainder of the barrel contents to the desired low value, by convection (thermal circulation) The quantitative relation between the two cooling operations is found to be of unusual significance, e. g. for economical attainment of the stated results. That is to say, investigation has now shown that the employment of coolant influence at the upper locality of the barrel in an amount commensurate with that used at the bottom, or in a greate amount, interferes seriously with the desired result of the localized bottom cooling; but we have found that if the application of coolant at the upper part of the barrel for transfer of heat by conduction is controlled at a value considerably less than the extent of coolant influence at the bottom, the desired convective effect, i. e. the thermal circulation of the beer, will occur to a sufiicient extent and yet will not physically disturb the rapidly chilled layer at the lower part.
By way of illustration of the foregoing, reference is first made to Fig. 9 of the drawings, showing a metal barrel generally designated having a tap rod 2! extending down through its head 22 and carrying at its upper extremity a faucet 23 from which beer is to be drawn. The barrel is filled with beer 2 1, say to a level 25 near the upper head. The tap rod 2| opens at 26 near the bot tom or lower head 27 of the barrel, so that with the barrel contents maintained under appropriate pressure, either by reason of the natural carbonation or preferably by aid of the usual means (not shown) for introducing a gas, such as carbon dioxide or air, under pressure, beer may be drawn at the faucet 23 as desired. Around the vertical wall 28 of the barrel, briefly described as cylindrical although in fact usually having a bulging configuration of the nature shown, there are disposed (for purposes of the test apparatus here illustrated) narrow annular channels of considerable vertical height, viz. a channel 29 around the lowermost part of the cylindrical wall 28 and a channel 30 around the upper portion of the wall. For experimental measurement of temperatures of the beer in the apparatus of Fig. 9, a series of temperature-sensitive devices were arranged to extend through the barrel wall at spaced vertical intervals, for example five thermometers 3i, 32, 33, 3t and 35, each having a thermally insulated covering 31 through which it traversed the wall in sealed relation. Each thermometer had a tip or head portion 38, sensitive to temperature and disposed near the center part of the barrel, and an outer protruding portion 39 of suitable character for reading the temperature there, or for connection of remote indicating means, i. e. depending on the type of thermo-sensitive device used. In one set of tests, where the barrel 20 (of standard character) had an over-all vertical dimension H of 21 inches, the thermometers 3! to 35 inclusive were disposed respectively at distances of 2, 5 /2, 10 /2, 15 /2 and 18% inches from the bottom of the barrel, all of the thermally sensitive heads 38 being located approximately 2 /2 inches from the vertical axis of the barrel.
The channels 29, 36 provided enclosures or jackets which in these test operations were each open at the top, yet afforded a confinement of coolant, flowing in the channel, to an annular area of desired vertical extent, directly in contact with the outer face of the barrel wall. Provision (not shown) was made for circulation of coolant liquid, e. g. cold water at about 34 to 37 F., around each of the channels, i. e. annularly around the barrel so that cold water flowed from one locality of a given channel circumferentially of the barrel in contact with its wall back to essentially the same locality. The water was then returned to the tank of the refrigerating mean (not shown) for restoring it to the stated low temperature in the course of recirculation; the coolant supply in the channels was also controllable (as by adjusting the level of outlet) so as to maintain in each any selected depth of,
For comparison with the procedure and apparatus of the present invention, results are shown in Fig. 10 of a test wherein coolant liquid was circulated only through the lower channel 29. In this instance the vertical height B of the layer or bandcof circulating cold water in con tact with the barrel wall was 6 inches, the average temperature of the water being 35 F. Before the supply of cooling water to the band 29 was initiated, the temperature of the barrel and its contents, and likewise that of the surrounding space, was about 70 F. Fig. 10 shows the temperature readings taken with the several thermometers 31-35 inclusive over a period of about '7 hours from the commencement of the test, the cold water being circulated through the channel 29 throughout the entire time in the manner described. It will be noted that the lowermost layer of beer, 1. e. up to and around the thermometer 3|, represented by the curve 31a, cooled down quite promptly, reaching the optimum beer serving temperature of 42 F. in almost exactly 1 hour. It will be noted that here (and in Figs. 11 and 12 too) temperatures are noted as ordinates and elapsed times (in hours) as abscissas. The next higher thermometer 32 showed a much slower cooling rate for beer at the corresponding level, as in curve 32a, while at the upper levels, represented by curves 33a, Eta, and 35a for the correspondingly numbered thermometers, there was no appreciable cooling efiect whatever. In other words, the cold beer stratified at the bottom of the barrel, in the vicinity of the cooling band 29 and neither conduction nor thermal circulation occurred in any sufiicient extent to cool the beer in the upper two-thirds of the barrel. While cooling means so provided would eiiectively permit the withdrawal of cold beer through the tap rod 2| in moderate amounts from time to time, the major part of the beer in the barrel would not be kept at a low temperature and over even a short period, and very certainly within a few days, would deteriorate as explained above.
Figs. 11 and 12 show the results of further series of tests using coolant, i. e. cold water at about 34-37 F., in both bands 29 and 39, Fig. 12 representing a presently preferred operation according to the principles of the invention. In each of these sets of tests the cold water was circulated through the bottom band to the full height B of about 6 inches. For Fig. 11, the circulating water filled the upper band to a height C1 of 4% inches, representing a coolant efiect of similar order to but in fact somewhat less than that in the lower band. As will be apparent from Fig. 11 the lower part of the barrel cooled considerably more slowly than was the case in the test of Fig. 10 where no upper band of coolant was employed. Although the same heat removing influence was exerted at the bottom jacket as for Fig. 10, the lowermost thermometer 3| did not drop down to the desired temperature of about 42 F. until nearly 1% hours from the start, i. e. as shown by the curve 3|b. The curves 32b to 3512 inclusive, representing readings from the other thermometers, show that the entire contents of the barrel was 7 cooled-even the toplevl reaching the 42 FL mark by't'he end of hours.
In the test reported in Fig. 12, the height of coolant in the upper channel 30 was kept at a relatively small value C2, specifically 1 inch, representing very substantially less cooling influence or a very substantially smaller rate of heat withdrawal for the upper part of the barrel, than exerted at the lower part by the 6 inch coolant layer in the channel 29. As will be seen from Fig. 12, the temperature at the lowest thermometer (curve 3E0) dropped noticeably faster than in the case of Fig. 12, while the temperature of upper parts of the barrel as shown by c'urves 32c, 33c and 340 dropped slowly but efiectively to points well below 45 F. in not more than about 6 hours. Even the temperature of the highest thermometer 35 fell materially throughout the period, the direction of its plotted readings 350 as well as experience in more extended tests, revealing that only a few hours more than the indicated 6 or 7 are necessary to bring the entire contents of the barrel below the safe keeping temperature of 50 F. Other tests also revealed that the temperature of the lowermost layer of beer, i. e. below the thermometer 3i and yet fully surrounding the open end 26 of the tap rod 2|, dropped noticeably faster than indicated by the curve Etc.- A further curve 42 is therefore included in Fig. 12,
by extrapolation, representing the temperature change at the lowermost point of the barrel around the beer withdrawing locality 26. Here the beer effectively reaches about 42 to 43 F. within an hour, just as in the case of the readings at the lower locality in Fig. where the cooling action was confined to the lower band 29 alone.
Another type of comparative test demonstrating the significance of the invention is reported in Fig. 13. Under conditions comparable to those a with circulating cold water to a level of 4% inches,
i. e. as in tests of Fig. 11. In another the amount or" collant in the upper channel was restricted to a level C2 of 1 inch, as for Fig. 12, while in a third barrel the upper band of circulating coolant had a height C3 (Fig. 9) of 2 inches.
The plotted results of the tests are designated by the lines or curves 44, A5 and 46, respectively corresponding to the upper cooling band widths of 4% inches, 1 inch and 2 inches. In each case coolant circulation was initiated with the metal barrel and its contents at room temperature, e. g. about 70 F. At the end of 1 hour attempt was made in each case to draw beer from the barrel through the tap rod 2! and faucet 23 in the customary manner, i. e. with the view of withdrawing a usefully substantial quantity of beer at a temperature at least as low as 42 F. To the extent possible, beer was drawn until its temperature as discharged rose to about 43 F., whereupon draught was discontinued for approximately minutes. Then beer was again drawn (the initial temperature being found to have reached 42 F. or below) until the discharged stream again rose to 43 F., whereupon the faucet was closedfor another 20 minutes and the operation repeated. Record was made of the amount of beer removed at each step. Accordingly, in Fig. 13 the abscissas indicate elapsed time in hours from the commencement of the cooling operation, while the ordinates indicate the total amount of beer drawn from the keg, i. e. from the start of operations. Thus each of the curves or lines M to 46 has the shape of successive steps, in which the nearly vertical rises indicate drawing periods and represent by their vertical extent the amount of beer drawn in such period, while the horizontal portionsrepresent waiting intervals between successive discharges of beer.
As shown, in the case of the barrel having the relatively large upper cooling band and represented by line 46, cold beer could not be drawn until 1 hour and minutes from the commencement of cooling operation. At that time approximately 14 pounds of beer were discharged at a temperature of 42 to 43 F., thereafter at intervals of 15 to 20 minutes successive, like amounts, ranging from 10 to 20 pounds could-be obtained. In the case of both of the other barrels, however, having a substantially smaller cooling action at the upper part and represented by the curves t5 and it, satisfactorily large quantitles of beer could be drawn at the end of only 1 hour from the commencement of cooling, e. g. from about 7 to 9 pounds (equal to about 20 8- ounce glasses). At successive intervals of 20 minutes, more or less, correspondingly large or larger quantities of beer were drawn off in each case, representing throughout the remainder of the time a practical utility fully equal to or greater than the results in the corresponding part of the draw tests with the barrel having a large upper cooling band, reported at line 44.
The unusual results obtained by the preferred cooling structures and operations of the present invention are thus indicated by Figs. 10-13. More particularly, by utilizing a coolant circulation of substantial extent at the lower part of the barrel,
and a coolant application of selected and considerably less extent at the upper part (c. g. as in the operations reported in Fig. 12 and lines and 36 of Fig. 13), the following ensues: (1) the entire contents of the barrel are brought to a low temperature suitable for keeping the beer, within a reasonably safe time, and are thereafter maintained at such temperature; (2) the beer at the locality from which it is first drawn, e. g. at the bottom, is brought quite rapidly to a suitable or indeed optimum drawing temperature, and in sufficient quantity for the requirements of actual practice; and (3) the entire operation is performed with a minimum rate of heat re moval, and thus with an economy of refrigeration, comparable to the requirements for cooling beer in wooden barrels with internal coils. These results contrast markedly with: (a) the situation where coolant is applied only at the bottom of the metal barrel (Fig. 10) and where the stratification of cold beer prevents any efiective tem of Fig. 11, the superior cooling results of the present invention, avoiding the objectionable delay just mentioned, are achieved with a positive reduction or saving of refrigerating capacity, in that a substantially lower rate of refrigeration is required.
The special cooperation of the described heatwithdrawing means in the presently improved system should now be manifest. While the coolant in the lower channel 29 chills the bottom layers of liquid promptly and effectively, the upper band of circulating coolant extracts heat by conduction from the immediately adjacent beer and effectuates cooling, by thermal circulation, of all the barrel contents above the lowermost part, yet without disturbing the peculiarly important promptness of chilling action at the latter locality. That is to say. as the portion of beer near the channel 39 becomes colder it falls, physically, within the body of beer, displacing the warmer liquid below it and causing the latter to rise and indeed all of the contents (above the lowest strata) to circulate toward and downwardly past the region of the band 30. A thermal circulation or convection of the liquid is thus obtained, presumably corres onding in path to the arro s indicated in dotted lines at 41, 48 on Fig. 9. While the use of a relatively large coolant area in channel 30 (e. g. as at C1 in Fig. 9) likewise establishes a coolant circulation, tests such as described above indicate that it is excessively violent. to the e tent of disru ting and indeed destroying the chilled status of the layer at the very bottom of the barrel.
But by simultaneously extracting heat at spaced lower and upper parts of the container while regulating the relative extent of the cooling operations (in any of various ways, examples being the se ection of different areas of cooling jackets, or the control of coolant circulation at different rates in the res ective jackets) so that thermal circulation does not deleteriously impair the cooled stratum of beer at the bottom, the results are peculiarly suitable for the requirements of use and yet involve an actual economy of coolant action (and thus a saving of refrigeration) as compared with operations that are much less satisfactory.
While other structures and tynes of cooling bands or iacketin ay be employed in carrying out the invention, Figs. 1 to inclusive show one simple 'examnle of a s ecific embodiment suitable for practical use in handling and d spensing beer. In Fi s. 2 to 5 the metal barrel 55, e. g. of sta nless steel or alum num. has a sleeve or annular late 52 dis osed in s aced relation around its lo e art and secured to its outer surface. as by welding, at un er and lower e es of the sleeve, 1. e. at circum erential regions spaced axially of the barrel. hus the upper ed e of the slee e 5 mav be welded at or as shown. somewhat below the lo er bil e or rolling ring 54, wh le the lower ed e of the sleeve 52 can be welded to the barrel wall at 56 not far above, or preferably as c o as ossible to, the lo ermost chime ort on 51 of the barrel. The str cture thus ro i es a channel or acket 58 around the barrel wall. through which liquid may be circulated by means of inlet and outlet fittings 5%, 6| (Figs. 3, 4 and 5) carried by a connecting head or ada ter 62 which is removably mounted on the plate 52 and which has nipples 64, 65 for hose or like connection to the delivery and return pipes of a coolant circulating system. A partition member 66 extends vertically in the channel 58 (i. e. axially of the barrel) between the openings 60, 61 whereby cold water entering the fitting 64 and thence flowing into the channel 58 through the opening 60 may circulate once around the barrel and then discharge through the opening 51 and the outlet fitting 65. For ready removal, the adapter head 62 is secured to the face of the band 52 by a central bolt or stud 65a threaded into the member 66 and turned, to tighten or release the assembly, by a handle 56b. A gasket 6'! is thus clamped between the adapter 62 and the band 52 around the openings through which the fittings 60, 6| penetrate the band, so as to seal the water connections when the adapter is secured in place.
A sleeve 68 of similarmechanical construction is secured in spaced relation around the upper part'of the barrel, with its edges welded to the barrel wall at 10, H to provide an upper coolantcirculating channel 12. The channel 72 has a vertical partition 13 and connecting means such as the removable adapter 14 for admissionand withdrawal of the circulating coolant; identical with such structure in the lower band, including inlet and outlet fittings 15, 16 for hose connece tion to the supply and return lines. It will be noted that the width or vertical extent of the jacket 12 is substantially less than that of the lower jacket 58; with the latter, as shown, of sufficient extent to provide a rapid cooling of beer at the bottom of the barrel, the height of the up er jacket (1. e. its vertical width) need not ordinarily be more than one-half that of the lower one and may preferably be even less, e. 'g a smaller fraction such as one-third or one-sixth. Althou h other cooling arrangements may be employed in some cases, including cooling means applied to the ends (especially the bottom) instead of or as well as arts of the side walls of the barrel, the use of circumferential bands has been found notably convenient and effective. Furthermore. while the control of cooling eiTect to achieve the desired proportionality between different localities of the barrel can be achieved in a number of ways. as by controlling the rate of circulation of coolant rather than by selecting or controlling the s ecific size of each cooled area, very simple and accurate regulation for the purposes of the invention has been obtained in the illustrated exam les wherein the chief contrOl factor has been the effective area of coolan circulation.
Fi 1 shows schematically a beer cooling installation. at a bar or the like. which incorporates metal barrels h ving cooling means of the sort illustrated in Figs. 2 to 5 inclu ive. The
. a paratus includes a suitab e r fri erat n machine or comnressor generally designated 8" and suonlving refrigerant in the pip n svstem 8' to a refri erating coil 32 mounted within an insulating tank 84 of water 85. The tank 84 serves as a coolant cir ulator and includes a pump 87 (d iven by suitable means not shown) for delivering cold water through a header pipe 88 into the coolant circulating system. from which the water is returned through another header line 89, dischar ing into the tank 84. As shown, the pipes 88, 89 may be housed in a thermally insulated enclosure 90 beneath the top of the counter or bar 92 where beverages are to be dispensed. Space is also afiorded behind and beneath the bar for the desired number of barrels 50 in upright dispensing or storing position, the barrels bein conveniently enclosed in a thermally insulated housing as indicated at 94, andeach barrel 11 50 havinglower and uppercooling jackets 5B and I2.
Hose lines 96 extend from the cold water supply header 88 to the inlet fixtures 15,04 of each barrel, while similar hose lines carry the coolant liquid away from the fittings I 6, 65 to the header '89, for return to the circulator tank 80. Each of the barrels may be fitted with a tap rod I00 terminating in a faucet M2 at or near the level of the bar counter 92, to permit the beverage to be drawn on as desired. Supplemental mstrumentalities usually appurtenant to beer cooling and dispensing systems may also be incorporated, for example, including a supply I04 ofrgas under pressure, such as carbon dioxide, leading through a gas header line I05 'toappropri'ate fittings I06 'at' the heads of the several barrels.
In operation, the refrigerating equipment 80 functions to keep the water 05 in the tank 04 at anappropriately low temperature, e. g. 33 to 37 for circulation at such temperature into the header 88 and thence through the cooling bands 58,12 e'fthe several barrels 50. By the described circulation of coolant, and in the novel and effective mannerexplained hereinabove, the entire contents of each barrel is brought to and kept at a desirably low temperature of 50 F. or below, the lowermost layer of beer being promptly chilled and maintained at an optimum serving temperature, say 39 to 44 'F. ormore specifically 42 R, to meet the requirements of service. While -'c'e'rtain advantage "(e. g. economy) may sometimes be obtaine'd'by series connection of the cooling bands of each barrel, for instance so that the water flows first through the lower and then through the upper band (the actual, desired effects being determined, as indeed in all cases h'erein, by taking account of the temperature and rate of coolant flow in each band as well as its area), separateconnections to the coolant mains as shown, afford some structural or other convenience.
To disconnect and remove a barrel from the dispensing locality, it is only necessary to separate the adapter devices 62, M (byunscrewing them with the handles 66b) from the barrels (thus in effect disconnecting the hose lines 96, 98), and alsoto disconnect the gas pressure line and remove the draught tube in usual fashion, whereupon the barrel can be taken out. Installation of a fresh barrel is correspondingly simple; the-barrel is placed in position, and the hose linefconnectors 62, I4, and the gas fitting are reconnected, and the draught tube I00 re-installed. If a freshly received barrel is not immediately needed for service butis to be kept in reserve,'it is sufiicient to'have hose lines 08, 98 connectedfto the cooling jackets; then when the barrel is needed for replacement in service of beer, it maybe tapped with adraught rod as shown or otherwise, it being understood that in some installations the tap connection (made through 'a'central rod or bottom side fitting) may beeffe'ctedthroug'h flexible tubing, for example we central faucet station on the bar. In all cases the-cooling operation is entirely automatic andnot onlypermits'prompt and reasonably continuous draught of beer at proper serving temperature but keeps the entire contents of each barrel fullycooled against spoilage or deterioration.
7 Figs -6, '7 and 8 illustrate an alternative structure which has been found, by tests similar to those reported'in Figs. 10 to 13 inclusive, to accomplish like results of afiording a prompt cooling of the first available beer while reducing the entire contents to a satisfactorily low temperature in a convenient time, and all with an economy of cooling operation and without requiring an excessive cooling load at the outset of operation. In this arrangement the metal barrel H0 has a lower cooling jacket II2 of relatively substantial height, with a vertical partition I I4 and a fitting IIB whereby coolant liquid may be supplied and withdrawn to afford a continuous circulation around the barrel in direct, heat-exchange relation to the metal wall. If desired, the jacket H2 and associated parts just described may be identical with the jacket 58 and corresponding elements'inFigs. 2 to 5.
Instead of an upper jacket around the outer surface of the barrel, the structure of Figs. 6 to 8 includes a tubular, cylindrical jacket II8 coaxially surrounding the tap rod (1'. e. tube) H0, and closed at its bottom I20, around the draught tube, near the bottom opening I.?.I of the latter. A vertical or axial partition I23, conveniently made in two parts on either side of the tap rod H 9 as shown, divides the jacket II 8 into two chambers from its top I24 above the barrel (where the jacket is again closed to the tap rod) to a'point I25 spaced a short distance above the bottom I of the jacket. Nipples I26, I21 are fitted in the upper part of the jacket IIS above the barrel, so as to open respectively into the two chambers. Thus coolant liquid'may be circulated in through the fitting I25, down one of the chambers'of the jacket to the vicinity of the bottom [20, then below the lower end I 25 of the partition and back up through the other or chamber to the outlet :fitting I21. The jacketed tap rod may be removably secured in the usual draught opening in the barrel head by a suitable fitting 128, including passage structure I29, with a connecting element I30, for introduction of air or gas under pressure to the space above the beer in the barrel.
With this arrangement whereby coolant is circulated in direct heat exchange relation to a wall element II'8 which is in contact 'with the barrel contents, i. e. the beer, and which is spaced from the locality of'theperipheral cooling jacket H2 and is disposed at least in part above the latter, results of the-sort explained above have been achieved. While theband I I2 affords quick cooling of beer to be drawn from the lowermost stratum, the cold water in the draught tube jacket creates enough thermal circulation, especially'in regionsabove such stratum, to bring all of the beer to a safe-keeping temperature; yet the effective cooling area of the jacket H8 is sufficiently limitedto'prevent such circulation from disrupting the bottom layer of cold beer.
The lower part 'of the draught tube jacket, e. g. as marked L in Fig. 6, may be considered'as a supplement to the external cooling band II2 for chilling the beer at the bottom; the upper and major portion ofthe jacket H8, throughout the region marked U, then corresponds to the top band I2 of Fig. '2 to provide cooling by convection in the upper parts of the barrel. Thus the area of the cooled surface H8 throughout its region U is preferably much less than that'enclosed by the external jacket '2, either above or at least as supplemented'by the jacket portion L. In each of the notably successful devices shown in Figs. 2 and 6 respectively, the convection cooling appears .to be facilitated by substantial spacing (i.:e."as measured in the beer-holding space of the barrel) between the two coolantcirculating means, e. g. a distance at least about as great as the vertical extent of the lower band 58 or H2. It will also be understood that structures such as shown in Figs. 6 to 8 are designed to be employed in the system of Fig. 1, by similar connections as for the barrels 50.
It will now be seen that the apparatus and procedure of the invention afford a simple and convenient way of cooling beer in metal barrels, satisfying the several objects stated above and involving a remarkable economy of structure and of expense for refrigeration and upkeep. The system lends itself to association with metal barrels in a wide variety of embodiments of which some examples have been indicated above, simple to manufacture and requiring no modification of the basic structure of the barrel.
It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific procedures and apparatus herein shown and described, but may be carried out in other ways without departure from its spirit.
1. Apparatus for cooling brew contained in a metal barrel, comprising means engaging the outer surface of the barrel near the bottom thereof for circulating coolant around the barrel, means disposed at least in part above said firstmentioned means and providing a vessel for circulating coolant in heat exchange relation to the brew at a higher level than said first-mentioned means, each of said means affording a surface exposed to the brew in the barrel and cooled by circulating coolant, the second-mentioned means being dimensioned and located to provide such surface which is substantially smaller than that of the first-mentioned means and which is disposed in upwardly spaced relation to the surface of the first-mentioned means, said dimensioning a and location of the second-mentioned means permitting downward convection of brew cooled by the second-mentioned means, away from the latter, and convection to said second-mentioned means of brew originally located above the firstmentioned means, without disturbing brew cooled adjacent the bottom of the barrel by the first mentioned means.
2. In combination with a metal barrel adapted to contain brew, means surrounding at least a major part of a lowermost zone of said barrel, for circulation of coolant to provide localized cooling of the brew in said zone, and means disposed at least in part at an upper zone of said barrel and spaced from said first mentioned means at a distance, measured within the brewreceiving space of the barrel, at least as great as the height of said lowermost zone, for circulation of coolant to withdraw heat from the brew in the barrel at an upper region thereof, said lastmentioned means having a coolant-circulating capacity substantially less than that of the firstmentioned means.
3. Apparatus for cooling brew contained in a metal barrel, comprising means engaging a portion of the outer surface of the barrel at the lower part of the barrel, and providin a vessel for circulation of coolant to extract heat from the brew by conduction through said portion of the barrel surface, said means thereby providing a corresponding area of the inner surface of the barrel which engages the brew and is directly cooled by the coolant, means disposed at an upper part of the barrel and providing a vessel wh ch is adapted for circulation of coolant and which '14 affords another area of surface engaging the brew and directly cooled by the coolant, the cooled, brew-engaging surface provided by the secondmentioned means at the upper part of the barrel being not substantially greater than about onehalf of that provided by the first-mentioned means and being disposed with at least a part thereof near the top of the barrel and spaced by an essentially vertical column of brew from the cooled surface of the first-mentioned means, to provide thermal circulation of the brew in the entire region above the first-mentioned means, and connecting means through which coolant may be supplied to and removed from said first and second-mentioned means for circulation through them.
4. The apparatus described in claim 3 wherein the first-mentioned means comprises a circumferential hollow band around the outside of the vertical wall of the barrel near the bottom, and the second-mentioned means comprises a second circumferential hollow band around the outside of the vertical wall of the barrel near the top, said second band being vertically spaced from the first and having a substantially smaller height than the first.
5. Brew-cooling apparatus as described in claim 2, wherein each of the aforesaid first and second mentioned means respectively comprises a coolant-circulating vessel surrounding and engaging the cylindrical wall of the barrel for direct conductive transfer of heat from the brew through said wall to the coolant, the first of said vessels being disposed near the bottom of the barrel and the second of said vessels being spaced above the first and disposed substantially within the upper third of the cylindrical wall surface of the barrel, and the first vessel having a width, axially of the barrel, substantially greater than that of the said second vessel, to provide greater meat-withdrawing capacity of the first)v mentioned coolant circulating means, the second mentioned means correspondingly having the aforesaid lesser coolant-circulating capacity than the first means.
6. Brew-cooling apparatus comprising, in combination, a metal barrel, tap .rod means having an opening within the barrel adjacent the bottom thereof for withdrawing brew, means including conduit structure engaging the outer surface of the barrel at the lower part thereof, for circulating coolant in heat exchange relation to said lower part of the barrel surface to cool the stratum of brew surrounding the tap rod opening, and means including additional conduit structure in heat withdrawing relation to the brew at an upper part of the barrel, for circulating coolant to cool a portion of the brew above said stratum, said additional conduit structure being disposed to effect convective circulation and cooling of the brew above said stratum, and said first mentioned coolant circulating means having a heat-withdrawing capacity substantially greater than that of the second-mentioned coolant circulating means, so that the aforesaid convective circulation does not disrupt the cooling of the aforesaid stratum of brew by the first-mentioned coolant circulating means, the said tap rod means piercing the top wall of the barrel and extending axially downward within the latter to its opening at the bottom, and the aforesaid additional conduit structure comprising a coolant-circulating jacket around said tap rod means, axially coextensive with the latter at least through the upper half of the barrel. said jacket presenting a coolant-cooled :outer surface in direct contact with the brew, and. said first mentioned conduit structure afiording a ,coolant-cooledarea of the barrel wall which is substantially greater than the aforesaid outer surface of the jacket'to provide the aforesaid greater heat-withdrawing capacity of the first-mentioned coolant circulating means.
'7. Brew-cooling apparatus comprising, in combination, a metal barrel, hollow means at the exterior of the lower part of the barrel, constituting a vessel for circulation of coolant in heat exchange relation to the wall of the barrel, a second hollow means at the exterior of an upper part of the barrel, constituting a second vessel for circulation of coolant in heat exchange relationto the wall of the barrel, Said first vessel providing 9, directly cooled area of the barrel wall forcooline brew atthe bottom ofthe barrel, and said second hollow means, being spaced above the first means to eifect thermal circulation of the brew in the barrel di posed above the location of the f rst means for cooling all of the brew so disposed, and saidsecond vessel providing a directly cooled area of the bar-rel wall which is sufiiciently smaller than the area provided by the first vessel to prevent said thermal circulation from disturbing the brew cooled by the first yessel at the bottom of the barrel.
8. Apparatus as described in claim 7, wherein the cooledarea provided by the second means is between one eighth and onehalf of the cooled area provided by the first means.
9. A method of cooling a metal barrel filled with brew, comprising circulating coolant in heat exchange relation to a lower part of the barrel, to cool'the brew promptly at the bottom of the barrel, simultaneously circulating coolant in heat exchange relationship to a portion of the brew at an upper part of the barrel, said second circulation of coolant being effected at a locality disposed to produce convective circulation of the brew in regions above the bottom, and said second circulation of coolant being limited to provide substantially less heat withdrawal than the first circulation or" coolant, to prevent said convective circulation from disrupting the aforesaid cooling of brew at the bottom of the barrel, and maintaining said second circulation of coolant limited as aforesaid, continuously from the time that the barrel is initially subjected to said first coolant circulation until the brew in the bottom zoneof the barrel has been all-cooled to a desired low temperature by said first coolant circulation, and continuously thereafterwhile the brew in all portions of the barrel above the bottom zone is brought to and maintained at a desired low temperature by the aforesaid convective circulation of brew.
l0. Apparatus for cooling brew contained in a metal barrel, comprising cooling means which includesmeans jacketing the exterior surface of the barrel for circulating coolant in heat-removing relation to said surface, said jacketing means being disposed to cover, in total, substantially lessthan half the entire exterior surface of the barrel leaving substantiall more than half of said surface unjacketed, said jacketingmeans-ineluding jacketing structure at the lowermost part of the barrel for rapid and sustained cooling of brew in such part, and jacketing structure at an upper part of the barrel and substantially spaced from the first jacketing structure to cool the remainder of the brewby thermal circulation, said cooling means removing heat from the upper part of the barrel at a rate sufficiently continuously lower than at the lowermost part, to prevent said thermal circulation from significantly impairing the cooling of brew at said lowermost part by said lower jacketing structure.
11. A method of cooling a metal barrel filled with initially warmbrew, comprising removing heat from a lower part of the barrel by circulating coolant exteriorly of the barrel andin heat exchange relation thereto, throughout a'predetermined area of said lower part of the barrel, said heat removal from the lower part of the barrel being sufficient and effective essentially of itsell to cool a bottom layer of brew at leasta few inches high, down to at least a predetermined serving temperature within a short time from the initiation of said coolant circulation, and removing heat from the remainder of the brew, above the said lower part of the barrel, by circulating coolant in heat exchange relationship to a portion of the brew in an upper part of the barrel over an area of heat exchange contact which is equal to much less than the total barrel surface outside the first-mentioned area, said second circulation of coolant being eifected ata locality disposed to provide convective circulation of the brew in regions above said bottom layer, said heat removal from the remainder of the brew by said second circulation of coolant, being limited, relative to the first-mentioned heat removal operation, so that the remainder of the brew is cooled much more gradually than the cooling of the bottom layer of brew and so that the aforesaid convective circulation of brew is prevented from disrupting the aforesaid cooled bottom layer of brew, and said second heat re moval operation being suflicient, in cooperation with said first heat removal operation, to cool the entire contents of the barrel to a temperature at least as low as about F. within the time of less than a day, said first-mentioned circulation of coolant being continued to maintain a cooled layer of brew at the bottom of the barrel substantially throughout said time.
GEORGE M. BOOTH. ARTHUR H. PATCH.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 891,492 Lloyd June 23, 1908 2,098,210 Schulse Nov. 2, 1937 2,249,051 Schulse July 15, 1941 2,252,173 Gibson Aug. 12, 1941 2,367,340 Duan Jan. 16, 1945
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|U.S. Classification||62/64, 62/434, 62/393, 62/390, 165/169, 62/298, 374/189, 165/104.31, 62/436, 165/11.1, 62/306|
|International Classification||F25D31/00, F25D17/02, B67D1/08|
|Cooperative Classification||F25D31/006, B67D1/0867, F25D17/02, F25D2331/806, F25D2331/802|
|European Classification||F25D17/02, F25D31/00H, B67D1/08D2C6B|