US 2621378 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 16, 1952 M. D. WILSON 2,621,378
DOUBLE-WALLED BUILDING PANEL Filed Sept. 14, 1948 2 SHEETS -SHEET 1 F :2. Fig.1.
INVENTOR. Marie! .D. Wilson Dec. 16, 1952 WILSON 2,621,378
DOUBLE-WALLED BUILDING PANEL Filed Sept. 14, 1948 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 Ill- INVENTOR. Mariel .D. Wilson YIIIIIIIIIIIIIIA Patented Dec. 16, 1952 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 1 (llaim. l V This invention relates to the building art and particularly to the production of prefabricated building structures.
The primary object of the invention is to pro duce a standardized low cost building panel unit which is capable of generalized adaptation to all the basic structural parts of a building such as the floors. both exterior and interior, walls, ceilings, and roof.
A further ob ect of the invention is to provide a'llof' the standardized-prefabricated anels of such structure that they may be fabricated in mass production and low cost through the instrumentality of automatic machines.
Still another important object of the invention is to provide a prefa ricated panel structure which will adapt itself to the erection of homes of varying architect ral designs and appearances as distinguished from that type of prefabricated structure which is adapted only to a standardized design resulting in identical appearance of all houses of a size commonly referred to as row houses.
In the accompanying drawings:
Figure 1 is a perspective vie partly broken out and in section, of one of the prefabricated panels.
Figure 2 is an exploded View in pers ective sho ing the means for connecting two adjacent panelsi Figure 3 is a fragmentary sect onal plan at a panel ioint ta en on a line 5, of Fig. 1.
Figure 4 is a fra mentary cr ss sectional View of a floor. wall and roof assembly.
Fi ure 5 is a fra mentary sect on sho ing the position of a roof panel just efore it is lowered into lace on the ce ling ranel.
F gure 6 is a fragmentary section showing a, wall Panel iu t before it is lowered into position on a f oor panel.
Referring now more particularly to the characters of reference on the drawings, and with particular reference to Fig. 3, the numeral i designates generally one of the wall panels which includes the basic structural detail about which the invention involves.
This panel I comprises a generally standard size unit which consists of a number of laterally spaced studs 2 connected intermediate their ends by blockings 3 for a purpose as will presently appear.
At their free ends the studs 2 are rabbeted out, as at 4, to form tenons 5 on the opposite sides of which are attached joining strips 6, the faces of which lie flush with the outer edges of the studs 2 as'do the-outerfaces ofthe'blockings- 3. These joining strips 6 project beyond the ends of" the tenons 5 to provide engaging slots l at the ends ofthe panel mounting the panels on continuous lower and upper wall tie bars- I? and 2'6; respectively, in a; manner to be described. The studs 2 at the side edges'of each panel are mortised out at one or more points to provide joining slots 9 for the reception of joining keys or splines it when the panels are erected edge to edge to form a wall or other structural entity of the building.
The above describes the structural detail of the panel unit, which; when com leted. leaves the outer faces of the elements 2', 3 and 6 flush with each other, thus forming plane surfaces on each side of the framework for the reception of facing sheets H of such material as may be selected. Preferably these facing sheets would be of plywood fabricated with moisture proof glue. so as to be non-warping. However, any
other siding sheets, such as wall board'sof various kinds, pressed wood or the like may be used if found a pro riate or desirable. These facing sheets of whatever composition can be automatically attached to the frame structure through-the use of automatic machinery and by glu n nailing. or both. as may be found most practicable; Also. the framework of the anels may be nailed together by automatic machinery similar to that used for wooden box making. Thus, the panels may be manufactured on a quantity production basis and at relatively low cost.
Using the described panel unit as the basic structural element for a prefabricated building the same may obviously be used in many different ways to produce dwellin s or other buildings of various sizes and designs. As an illustration the a plication of the same to the erection of a small dwelling will now be described.
In such erection. the foundation I4 is first o t in place. This may be concrete, brick, or other selected material. On the uoper edge of this foundation are placed the sills I5. On the sills are laid the floor panels IS. These panels it will differ from the basic wall panel I in that the facing sheets need not be placed on both sides of the supporting frame work and the respective frame works may be continuously nailed together as the floor is laid.
The floor panels having been laid, there are then placed the continuous wall tie bars I'l. See Figs. 4 and 6. These continuous wall ties are small bars or strips of wood or other selected ma terial of a cross sectional size to matchingly fit into the slots 1 of the basic wall panels I. These continuous ties are laid to follow the laid out wall contours of the dwelling.
The continuous wall ties I! having been laid, the erection of the walls is then proceeded with. The walls may be rapidly placed by fitting of the panels l over the continuous ties 17 with such ties being seated in the slots 7. As each panel I is placed the locking keys Ill are partially projected into the edge slots 9 of such panel and then the adjacent panel is moved into edge to edge engagement with the first panel, the projecting portions of the keys Ill then moving through the slots 9 of such adjacent panel thus effectively locking the two panels together against lateral deflection. Facing tape or other standard finishing off strips may be placed over the adjacent faces of the panels on either or both faces thereof as may be found desirable. Toe nailing of the bottoms of the panels i into the adiacent ties H or to the floor or sills may be indulged in where desired. Door and window openings of desired size and design and in desired position may of course be cut into different panels according to the selection of the designer.
As each wall is erected, or optionally when all walls have been erected, they are tied together at the top edge by the continuous wall tie bars 26 matchingly fitted into the slots 1' in the upper edges of the wall panels.
When the erection of the walls is completed the ceiling panels 29 are mounted on the top edges of the walls where they may be secured by nailing or the like, such panels 29 being similar in construction to the panels 16.
The ceiling panels having been placed, the dwelling is ready for the roof panels, indicated generally at 30. See Figs. and 11. These panels each comprises rafters 3| joined together at their ends and covered with outer facing sheets 32. To compensate for the slope of the roof the rafters 31 are notched at 33 and the bars 34 are fixed in said notches in a position to matchingly engage continuous tie bars 35 mounted on the top side of the ceiling panels 29 and following the contour of the roof. The interfitting of the bars 34 and 35 ties the roof panels in proper position where they may be secured by nailing the tie bars together.
The dwelling super structure having been thus completely erected, the same may be used without finishing material being applied; or at the will of the owner both outside and inside finishing material such as ordinary paint or stucco or texture paints may be applied to the outer surfaces of the panel facing sheets.
The structure of the panels also makes it possible to readily insulate the dwelling against heat and cold since insulating material may be readily inserted between the facing sheets during the fabrication of the panels.
From the foregoing description it will be readily seen that there has been produced such a structure as substantially fulfills the objects of the invention as set forth herein.
Having thus described the invention, the following is claimed as new and useful and upon which Letters Patent is desired:
A prefabricated building panel for erection on a supporting surface having a horizontal tie bar secured thereon; said panel comprising a rectangular frame which includes laterally spaced studs, the studs being rabbeted at their ends to form tenons the width of the tie bar, joining strips secured to the tenons, flush with the outer edges of the studs, and the outer horizontal edges of the strips projecting beyond the ends of the tenons to provide slots extending between the strips for the full length thereof whereby the panel may be engaged over the tie bar in locating relation; there being facing sheets disposed over the studs and strips on both sides of the frame.
MARTEL D. WILSON.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number I Name Date 2,129,441 Otto Sept. 6, 1938 2,140,772 Slayter et al. Dec. 20, 1938 2,157,622 Neesen et a1 May 9, 1939 2,225,315 Hamilton Sept. 9, 1941 2,321,568 Wilson June 15, 1943 2,365,579 Mulligan Dec. 19, 1944 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 118,869 Australia of 1944