US 2622950 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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(4x/Mona L. A//HMO /N VEN TOP A TTONEY Dec. 23, 1952 R. L. NIMMO CHIROPRACTIC TABLE Filed April 19. 1947 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 1 Kn/How L /V/HMo NVENTO A TTOFNEY Patented Dec. 23, 1952 UNITED STATES FATENT OFFICE CIHROPRACTIC TAELE Raymond L. Nimmo, Fort Worth, Tex.
Application April 19, 1947, Serial No. 742,590
1 This Iinvention relates to chiropractic equipment, or supporting devices for the human body and its appurtenances during the Iadministration of chiropractic adjustments, and it has particular reference to an automatic chiropractic table by the use of which anatomical adjustments can be performed by persons skilled in the science conventionally designated as chiropractics, and its principal object resides in the provision of an adjusting table in which is embodied a multiplicity of unique features by which the operator can effect the proper arrangement of the body, by the manipulation of certain adjusting devices, whereby to perform the necessary or desired adjustments along the spinal column of the patient, or to effect the relaxation of muscular tension, and other functions of the science, which can best be performed when the subject or patient is in such reclined and relaxed position.
Another object of the invention resides in the provision of a chiropractic adjusting table which is capable of both vertical and horizontal positions, conventionally referred to professionally as a hylo table, operated by an electric motor and comprising a compact and simple structure requiring a relatively small space for its use and operation, yet providing adequate facilities in the performance of the functions of one skilled in the art of chiropractic science, the invention possessing such salient features of construction as to render it capable of true vertical and horizontal positioning, as well as variable positions between the vertical and horizontal, if desirable, thus affording an effective medium by which chiropractic patients can be handled easily and with a minimum of effort yet with the least inconvenience to the subject,
A still further object of the invention resides in the provision of independently adjustable bodysupporting cushions arranged along the table and capable of being positioned in such a manner as to properly support the patient in' relaxed position and to contact portions of the body while affording the patient the maximum of comfort during the administration of the chiropractic treatments, the said adjustments being so arranged as to be capableof performance while the patient is reclining upon the table, and which adjustments may be found desirable after the patient has assumed his or her position thereon.
Broadly, the invention contemplates the provision of an automatically adjustable table, for use in the application vof chiropractic science,
which is simple and' compact in design and economical in construction, as well as attractive in appearance, and seeks to afford a medium whereby chiropractic adjustments can be performed with greater ease and efficiency than is found conventionally possible with equipment currently available to practitioners of the science.
While the foregoing objects are paramount, other and lesser objects will become manifest as the description proceeds, taken in connection with the appended drawings, wherein:
Figure l illustrates the invention in longitudinal section, showing the motor operating the table to vertical and'horizontal positions, and illustrating, in dotted lines, the variable positions of the body-supporting cushions.
Figure 2 is a fragmentary perspective illustration of the adjusting mechanism for the rear cushion carriage.
Figure 3 is alateral sectional illustration taken on lines 3 3 of Figure 13, showing portions of the several adjustments embodied in the invention and illustrating the principal axis thereof.
Figure 4 illustrates a transverse sectional view taken on lines 4 4 of Figure 3 showing the adjustable tensioning devices for the abdominal support and illustrating the adjustment for the head support, illustrated in detail in Figures 7 and 8.
Figure 5 is a transverse cross-sectional view of the adjusting mechanism for the rear carriage cushion, taken on lines 5 5 of Figure 3, and as shown in Figure l.
Figure 6 is a fragmentary transverse sectional view, taken on lines 5 6 of Figure 3, illustrating the rear view of the adjusting mechanism for the rear carriage cushion,
Figure 7 depicts a transverse cross-sectional illustration through the head piece on lines 1 1 of Figure 13, showing the variable adjustments therefor, the said head piece being illustrated in Figure 4 in greater detail, and illustrating the adjustable tensioning adjustment for the abdominal support illustrated in Figure 1.
Figure 8 is an inverted plan view of the headsupport showing the adjusting mechanism therefor by which the sectional members are moved outwardly, as illustrated in dotted lines, the said view being taken on lines 8 8 of Figure 7.
Figure 9 is a plan view of the tensioning adjustment for the abdominal support, showing the housing in partial cross-section on lines 9 9 of Figure '7.
Figure 10 fragmentarily illustrates, in perspective, the dual ratchet arrangement for adjusting the abdominal support.
Figure 11 illustrates, in fragmentary cross-section, one of the ratchet assemblies by which the vertical adjustment of the head pieces or the abdominal support is effected.
Figure 12 is a plan view of the invention when arranged in horizontal position, shown in Figure illustrating the adjusted positions of the supporting cushion in dotted lines.
Figure 13 is a side elevational view of the invention arranged in horizontal or operative position, and
Figure lll is a side elevational View of the invention showing same in vertical or inoperative position.
The invention accordingly comprises a base i which has vertical flanges 2 providing a partial housing for a motor 3 supported on the base i for operating the invention in a manner which will be presently described. The flanges 2 have vertically extended members ii which function as bearing supports for the stationary axis cr pivot 5 upon which a frame S is mounted.
The axis 5 is arranged transversely through the frame 5 and is spaced from one end to permit the frame to assume the vertical position shown in Figure 14. The frame 6 embraces all of the operative parts of the invention, as manifest in Figures 1 to G, inclusive, and is enclosed by a housing '5. The enclosed assembly will be hereafter referred to as a table 8 for clarity.
The table 8 is operated from horizontal to vertical positions, shown in Figures 13 and 14, and contrariwise, by the motor 3 through arms 9, keyed to the ends of stub shafts I of the gear reduction boxes I I, and connecting links I2 which are hingedly secured by pins I3 to the outer ends of the arms S, the opposite ends of the links i2 being pivoted on a shaft I4 extending across the back of the table 8, as shown in Figure 1.
rEhe arms il have opposing counter-weights l affording smoother operation of the assembly.
rlhe motor 3 is preferably arranged on the base i so that its shaft is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the table 8 and, through a suitable worm and gear assembly arranged in a housing it, rotates the shafts I0 through the gear reduction assemblies I I. It is expedient to provide the latter to accomplish the relatively slow movement of the table 8, in operation, which is desirable.
The supporting members for the patients body are arranged upon carriages slidably supported in the frame G on the front of the table S so that the carriages can be adjusted relative to each other longitudinally of the table 8.
The carriage Il, forwardly of the table S supports the head-rest members IS and IS', the chest support I9, and the abdominal support 2S, while the carriage 2|, rearwardly of the table 8, carries the thigh or lower-body support 22, as illustrated in Figure 1.
The carriage Il, a front end view of Which is shown in Figure 4, and a transverse sectional view being illustrated in Figure 7, comprises a frame 23 which is rectangular in shape and has integral ribs 24 formed along each side adapted to be slidably arranged in grooves 25 defined between spaced bars 2S secured longitudinally along the inner side Walls ofk the housing 1, as apparent in Figures 4 and 7, and by which the assembly is supportedin the frame E.
The carriage frame 23, the rectangular form of which is shown in Figure 9, has a horizontally arranged partition 2I forming an open housing 28 therebeneath in which a part of the adjusting mechanism for the abdominal support 2i! is enclosed and which Will be described presently. Vertical standards 29 are integrally formed with the frame 23 and extend upwardly therefrom on each side providing spaced supports for the paired sections l5 and I8 of the head rest, and the adjusting mechanism therefor, as shown in Figures '7 and 8.
The carriage Il is moved longitudinally of the frame 6 by the manual rotation of a shaft 33 -arranged transversely of the frame 23 and journalled in each of the standards 29 and having a pinion 3| at each end engageable with rack bars 32 secured to the inner side walls of the housing 'I and arranged longitudinally thereof, as apparent in Figures l, 3, 4 and 7. One end of the shaft 3S extends through a slot S3 in a wall of the housing 'l and is adapted to move therealong as it is manually rotated by a crank 34 attached to its extended end, as shown in Figures 3, l and 13.
The head rest IB-I8 is adjustable to cause the paired sectionsl to move yrelative to veach other in opposite directions laterally and provide a gap or space therebetween of variable proportions. As Will become manifest, the patient, when occupying the table, is properly lying face down, the sides of his face bearing upon the opposing sides of the cushioned members iii-I8' while his face is extended into the space therebetween.
The spacing adjustment of `the members Iii-I8 is accomplished :by the rotation of la rightand left-handthreaded rod or shaft 35 arranged in threaded bores through integral flanges'S formed on the bottom of each of the members IS-IB', as vapparent in Figures 4, 7 and'8, and 'rotatable by a crank 3'! on one end. The members Ill-I8 move in opposite directions, sliding along a polygonal shaft 33 which is `arranged through polygonal apertures through the flanges 36 of the head rest members I-IS, and journalled forrotation at each end in the upper ends of the 'standards 29. The shaft 38 thus actually supports the members i8-I8 and provides a limited rotative adjustment therefor to permit the same to be tilted forwardly to various positions as desired to effect the desired positions of the patients head,
At each end of the shaft 38 is a jaw coupling, each comprising, in part, a stationary disk-like member 40, rigidly secured by rivets a, or the like, to the upper-end of each of the standards 29 and providing bearings for the ends of the shaft 38. The opposing inner faces of the members 40 are formed with radial serrations having their inclinations in one direction to permit a rotative ratchet action of the companion members 4I whose operative faces are formed with complementary radial serrations and have polygonal axial bores adapting them to slidable mountings on the shaft 38. Each of the members 4I are formed with integral flanges 2 spaced from the members 4I to denelgrooves 43 to accommodate disengaging forks 44 and 45, the former being integral with a polygonal plunger 46 arranged through polygonal apertures in the flanges 36 and parallel to the shafts 35 and 36, previously described.
The opposite fork is hingedly connected to the end of a link 41 whose opposite end is pivoted to a bell crank 48 having a toggle association with the-plunger 45. The bell crank 48 is pivoted, at its bend, to a plate 49 arranged on the shaft 38 intermediate the flanges 36 and is yieldably retained by coil springs 50 on each side,
bearing at their opposite ends, against the iianges 36, as apparent in Figures 4, 7 and 8. Thus, to raise the forward ends of the head-rest members I 8-I8 it is necessary only to raise them to the desired position against the ratchet action of the jaw couplings, the members 4I being tensioned by coil springs 5l arranged about the shaft 33 and bearing against stationary washers 52 thereon, and thus are yieldable with respect to the stationary jaw members 4).
In order to lower the forward ends of the members l8-|8, however, the plunger 46 must be urged inwardly, by pressure upon the head 53 thereof, to move the sliding jaw members 4l away from their companion stationary members 40 against the tension of the springs 5I while pressure is applied to the head support members I8--I8 to lower them to the desired position. Obviously, the operation of the plunger 46 inwardly will actuate the forks 44 and 45 by the bell crank and linkage assembly previously described.
The chest support I9 is mounted on a rod 54 arranged transversely of the table 8 and through brackets 55 secured to the underside of the support i9, as apparent in Figures l, 13 and le. The ends of the rod 54 are connected to the upper ends of standards 56 positioned at an angle downwardly and forwardly of the as sembly, their lower ends extending into welk 51 formed in supporting blocks 58 rigidly secured to the inner sides of the standards 25, as shown in Figures 1 and 7, and inclined so that the standards 56 have a sliding, pistonlike action therein against springs 5S' in the bottoms of the wells 51. A cushioning action of the chest support I9 is the result of the mounting arrangement just described.
Rearwardly of the chest support I5 is an abdominal support which has its bearing on the ends of rearwardly projecting arms 59 whose forward ends have sections 60 of a pair of jaw couplings rigidly attached thereto. The members Eil are similar to the disk-like members 4@ or 4|, of the head support assembly, and have their engaging faces formed with radial serrations whose inclinations are in one direction, as apparent in Figures 10` and l1.
The members 65 are axially bored and threaded, rightand left-hand, and are threadedly applied to a shaft 5| whose ends are journalled in ears 62 formed on the standards 29, as in Figures 1 and 10. A knurled knob B3 is provided on one end of the shaft 5l for rotating the same and is shown in Figure 4. By turning the knob 63 the members 65 are moved toward each other so that their serrated faces will become disengaged from the corresponding radially serrated faces of complementary members @il rigidly secured to the upper ends of spaced arms which extend downwardly, with slight outward offset bends b, and are connected at their opposite ends with a rod 66 extending therebetween.
in Figure 91 is illustrated, in plan, a tensioning or holding assembly for the abdominal support 2i) whereby the same can be properly tensioned when the desired adjustment is accomplished. In the assembly there are a plurality of spaced and parallel arranged rods 61 whose free ends extend through vertical slots B8, in the depending ange 59 of the open housing 28 in the bottom of the frame 23, and turn downwardly forming hooks ,15 which are adapted to se- 6 lectively overreach and restrain the rod 66 in the manner shown in Figures 4 and 10.
All of the rods 61 normally lie across a plurality of spaced bars 1| which are slidably supported in guides 12 and 13 on each side of the frame 23, as illustrated in Figure 9, and each of the bars 1| is formed with a vertical lever 14, on the right side of the table 8, as one stands behind the head rests, by which they can be longitudinally operated in the guides 12 and 13 by plungers 15 extending through the slot 33 in the wall of the housing 1.
Each bar 1l has a cam 16 formed on its upper edge capable of engaging one of the rods B1, when each is moved longitudinally, to raise the same and free the rod 66. It is contemplated, however, that the bars 1I will be positioned, in operation, so that all but one of the rods 61 are in raised position and thus only one being engaged with the rod 65, as in Figures 4 and 7.
Each rod 61 is hingedly connected, at its opposite end, with plunger rods 11 having clevises 18 thereon and operatively arranged through sleeves 19 in the rear member of the frame 23. All except one of the rods 61 are slidably arranged in the sleeves 19 and have compression springs arranged thereon so that a tension is exerted when pressure is applied to the abdominal support 25.
The single rod 51 having no spring 85 is rigidly secured in the frame 23 by a nut 8l and, when it engages the rod 66 the abdomen support 20 is also rigid and unyielding. Each of the springs 8D can be adjusted to increase or decrease tension by nuts 82 threaded on the ends of the plunger rods 11. The abdominal support 20 may be capable of a limited downward movement, as indicated in dotted lines in Figure 1, when pressure is applied thereto, due to the cushioning action of the springs Ell. Higher adjustment of the member 25 may be accomplished by simply raising up on the same against the ratchet action of the members eil-54, the outward tension of the arms 59, which flex inwardly, serving to retain the members 65--54 in engagement to normally hold the arms 59 in rigid association with the arms S5, as in Figure 10.
The carriage 2l, on which the support 22 is mounted, comprises a plate 83 which has a depending iiange 84 in front to which is pivotally connected a bar 85 which extends forwardly of the table 8 and is formed with a series of serrations or notches 86 toward its free end, the inclinations of which are directed forwardly, as in Figure 1, the said notches 8S being engageable by a cam, or movable stop 81 which is slidably operated transversely of the table 8 by a plunger 88 extending through the slot 33 on the left side of the table, as shown in Figures 3, 4, 7 and 13. The stop B1 is formed with an angular surface c which engages the bar 85 and obviously expedites the movement of the stop 81. The plunger 88 is formed with the stop 31 by a vertically arranged integral arm 85. The bar 85 operates in a guide member 95 rising vertically from the frame 23.
The carriage 2l is moved longitudinally of the table 8 by a rack bar 9| which has a round threaded portion 52 upon which is threaded a bevelled pinion 93 rotatably secured to an L- shaped bracket 94 which is pivotally connected to the bearing hanger casting 95, illustrated in perspective in Figure 2, and shown in Figures l,
3 and 5. The casting is substantially U'-shaped and has a shaft 36 journalled. through its upwardly projecting legs 91 and arranged transversely of the table 8;
Near one -end of the shaft 9'6 is a pinion 98 thereon which is meshed with another pinion 93 therebeneath on the' end of a worm |00 having its bearings in the legs 9.1 of. the casting. 95; and opposite the pinion 99', extends through the L- shaped bracket 34, by which the latter is .pivotally supported, and has a bevelled :pinion IG! thereon meshing with the pinion 93;
The worm le is in mesh with a` worm gear 1%"2 on a transverse axis in the lower portion |03 of the casting 95 and has. a polygonal shaft |04 slidably arranged through its polygonala'xial bore whereby, when either of the cranks or IDB on each end of the shaft 85' is turned, thej polygonal shaft |=l is rotatedand. by reason ofthe rotation of the pinion S3 which is threadedly associated with the threaded portion 32 of the rack barSI, the carriage 2| is moved forward, the teeth |01 of the bar 9| being en'gageable by a depending flange |88 on the rear of the carriage 2|, as illustrated in Figure 1.
The shaft |24 is rotatably journalled near one end in a hanger It attached tothe flange 84 in front of the carriage 2| and has' a crank or cam H0 on its extremity which, when' rotated, engages the horizontal member of the substantially U-shaped frame member ||2 supporting the cushion 22 andraises" the latter, according to the degree of rotation, in the manner shown in dotted lines in Figure l.
The fra-me 2| is slidably supportedin the housing 'i on bars H3 by flanges ||4 on each side of the plate S3, shown more in detail in Figure 6, by which grooves are dened between their upper edges and the top of the housing The teeth |31 of the bar 9| do not engage the flange member |68, however, until the bar 9| is raised by the cam I i9 when the latter engages the-horizontal member the spring. ||5, shownn Figure 1, providing a yieldable connection between the bar 9| and the framemember 2`.
By turning either of the cranksA |55* or |06 the frame 2| canhbe moved-upwardA in front' and forward, as indicated in dotted lines in Figure 1, and thus prevent dragging the fore' part of the patients body backwards when itis desirable to raise or adjust the position o'f. theY lower part of the body.
The longitudinal movement ofthe carriages and 2| with respect to each other is accomplished by the operation of the crank 34 operating: the pinions 3| along the rack bars 32;.an adjustable connection between the carriages IT andA 2| being had through the notched bar 85. When the carriages are connected by the bar 85, however, both move forwardly on the table 8 in the same manner. The dotted lines in Figure 12 indicate the variable relationship that can be accomplished by the adjustments described.
A bumper spring H6 is secured to the b'ac'kof the flange |68 on the rearl of the carriage 2| to absorb the shock when the latter isrelea'sedlwhile the table 8 is in a verticalposition. The. spring IIS is designed to strike against a stop secured to the underside of the top ofv the housing 1.
The rear portion of the cushion 2-2Y is. supported on a pair of standards ||8 and is-pivoted to their upper ends. These standards are rigidly secured to the plate S3 and, like the front members ||2, operate in slots ||9 in the top anaal-ong each side of the-table S. The cushion 22 is alsopi'v` otally attached to thev upper endsof the" standardsl l2; y Y Y A-tread stand |207` isv attached to the rear end of the table 8- and is adapted to assume a horizontal position, transverse to the longitudinal planeof the table 8 when the latter is in vertical' position, shown in Figure 14. As the table 8 assumes the horizontal position-shown in Figure 13, however, the stand |251 is moved to an angular positionof about 45degrees.
rlhe stand is attached to a shaft lf2-i across the rear of the table S, as shown in Figures l and 3, tol which is securedi al lever |22? having a link |23 pivoted thereto and connected, at its opposite end, to another lever |211V on the main axial shaft 5 which, as previously stated, i's stationary. The movement of thc table 8 will automatically adjust the stand |20 to its desired positions. Y
A supporting leg or apron |25 is arranged on the forward end of the table 8 and' is pivoted on the ends of a shaft |26 arranged transversely through the bottom of the housing as shown Figures 1 and fl, adapting the apron |25 to assume a vertical position to support the front end of the table il in its horizontal position. The shaft |25 has a lever |21 xed rigidly thereon to which is pivotally connected a rod |23 which extends rearwardly through the housing and is pivotally attached to another lever |29 on the shaft 5. The member |25 thus is automatically raised or lowered, as the table 8 is moved. folding into an opening |30 in the bottom-of the f housing l, as depicted in Figure 1.
A leg rest |3|, comprising a cushion supported upon the upper end of a racked standard |32, is arranged on the rear end of the table 8 and is adapted to be adjusted to various heights and automatically raised to operative position by the action of the table 3. The standard |32 is preferably arranged on one side ofy the table 3, the cushion |3| extending laterally from its upper end and across the table S.
An' operating mechanism for the rest |3| comprises a shaft |33 arranged in a bearing |34, supported in the housing and av pinion |33 on the enelV of the shaft |33l meshed with the teeth of the standard |32. The shaft |33 s'rotated through a clutchl |34 by a shaft |35 supported in a bearing |36 and having a bevelled pinion |31, on its opposite end, which is engaged by a bevelled gear |38 on the axial shaft 5 of the assembly, as shown in Figures 1 and 3.
The clutch is operable by a fork |39 and a rod H38 connected to a bell crank IM. A lever |42 is connected to the opposite-side of the bell crank IM and extends through the wall of the housing 'I and has a knob |43thereon. Thus, if it is desirable that the rest |3`| not be raised when the table S is lowered, it is only necessary to disengagc the clutch |34'.
A counter-balance weight U24 is arranged in a slide in the bottom of the housing 1 and is supported on a chain |45 connected. at its opposite end, to-the frontcarriage- I1. The chain |45 is operated over a sprocket or pulley |46 secured in the end of the housing 7. The weight |44 serves to counter-balance the weight of the carriages and 2| when the table 8 is in a vertical position.
Manifestly, the structure herein shown and described is capable of considerable changes in modicat'ions from time to time, by persons skilled inthe' art, without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In a chiropractic adjusting table having an enclosed frame and a base member pivotally supporting saidfframe, and a motor on said base adapted to raise the said frame to a vertical position, in combination, a head, chest and abdominal support adjustably arranged forwardly of said frame, a carriage supporting said supports and adjustable longitudinally of said frame, a thigh support arranged rearwardly of said frame and in operative relation to the said rst named support, the said support being arranged on the outer ends Vof a pair of arms pivotally connected to the carriage supporting the same and adjustable on an arc with respect to said carriage and vertically with respect to said head and chest supports, a toothed bar having connection withfsaid thigh support carriage for adjusting the latter forwardly and rearwardly of said frame, means operated from the side of said frame for tilting the said thigh support on its said carriage, a leg support arranged at the base of said frame and having means for automatically raising and lowering the same when said frame is raised and lowered, and variable tensioned means for supporting said abdominal support in operative positionsl,y
2. In an automatic chiropratic adjusting table capable of vertical and horizontal positions, and having a base, and a frame pivotally attached near one end to said base, a motor supported on said base and having an operative connection with said frame to raise and lower same on its said pivot, in combination, a body supporting carriage adjustably arranged forwardly of said frame when in horizontal position, head, chest and abdomial supports carried by said carriage, the said head and abdominal supports being independently adjustable on said carriage, ratchet means for adjusting said abdominal support to various tilted positions with respect to the said head and chest supports, a thigh support arranged rearwardly of said frame and having a carriage adjustable longitudinally of said frame and to variable tilted positions, eccentric means operated from the side of said frame for actuating the said thigh support to different tilted positions and move the same longitudinally of said frame, and a leg rest arranged at the base of said frame and connected thereto whereby to provide automatic vertical adjustment with respect to said frame as the latter is operated to vertical and horizontal positions.
3. In an automatically operated chiropractic adjusting table having a base member and a frame pivotally supported near one end of said base member, and a motor arranged in said base having an operative connection with said frame and capable of operating same on its said pivot, in combination, a head, chest and abdominal cushion supporting carriage arranged forwardly of said frame and adjustable longitudinally thereof, a body supporting carriage spaced rearwardly from said rst named carriage and adjustable on said frame, adjustable tensioning means for said abdominal cushion "comprising a plurality of tensioned bars in said iframe, means on said first named carriage for adjusting said head cushion, and means externally of said frame for manually performing each of said adjustments independently.
4. In an automatically operated chiropractic table adapted for vertical and horizontal positions, and having a base member and a frame member pivoted near one end to said base member, and a body supporting carriage adjustably arranged rearwardly of said frame, in combination, a head, chest and abdominal supporting carriage arranged forwardly of said frame and longitudinally adjustable thereon, said head support having a dual arrangement of cushions adapted for lateral spaced adjustment in a horizontal plane, adjustable tensioning means for said abdominal support, the said means comprising a plurality of notched bars, means in said frame providing for spaced longitudinal relationship of said carriages, a foot rest arranged in the rear of said frame adapted to be automatically adjusted as said table is operated from vertical to horizontal positions, and means in said frame providing for the independent manual adjustment of each of said carriages and supports.
RAYMOND L. NIMMO.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the iile of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,171,713 Gilkerson Feb. 15, 1916 1,194,939 Bishop Aug. 15, 1916 1,504,111 Evins Aug. 5, 1924 2,172,941 Manning et al Sept. 12, 1939 2,381,922' Norris Aug. 14, 1945