US 2624624 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan 6, 1953 E. KIRSCHBAUM SPRAYER NOZZLE Filed Nov. 21 1949 l/VVE/W'0P EMIL KIRSCHBAUM BY W W ATTORNEYS Patented Jan. 6, 1953 SPRAYER NOZZLE Emil Kirschbaum, -Grotzingen near Karlsruhe,
Germany, assignor to Industrie Werke Karlsruhe Aktiengesellschaft, Karlsruhe, Germany Application November 21, 1949, Serial N0. 128,511 In Germany November 26, 1948 7 Claims.
My invention relates to improvements in sprayer nozzles and, more particularly, 150 sprayer nozzles for drying or dehydrating liquids such as solutions, emulsions and suspensions, to thereby transform the same into dry powder. Liquids containing dissolved or suspended substances are dissipated for the purpose oi drying in order to obiain a great contact surface with the drying gaseg used in this connection. A successfully employed principle for dissipating such liquids consists in introducing the liquid into rapidly flowing gas. In consequence of the high relative speed between gas and liquid, the latter is torn into finest partioles. The dissipating efiect 011 the liquid is achieved by sprayer nozzles of various types.
Especially when spraying tough or adhesive liquids, it was found that the sprayer nozzles lose their eiiiciency more and more and that they do not work at all after a certain period of operation. This disadvantage is caused by the fact that the nozzle is situated in the hol: gas atmosphere oi the drying appamtus so that the liquid is evaporated before being sprayed, und. so1id substances a1e precipitated. These substances, when arriving at the outlet of the nozzle, obstruct the latter or ab least disturb the spraying operation. Furthermore, turbulence in consequence of the high speed is caused outside ehe nozzle at the outlet of same creating crusts of solid substances Which likewise obstruct the spraying effect.
lt is therefore, an object of my invention to provide a method of and device for preventing the formation of incrustations at the nozzle outlet of spray dryers, so that proper functioning of the spray dryer Will be assured even though the nozzle has 130 Work in hol; air, as is frequently the case with spray dryers.
It is a further object of my invention 110 provide a sprayer nozzle for drying or dehydrating liquids such as solutions, emulsions and suspensions, in which a portion of the fluid medium used as spraying medium is used for a, dual purpose, namely, 110 cool the liquid conducting chamber or channel means in the nozzle head and 1:0 prevent incrustation at the extreme nozzle outlet.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention Will appear more clearly from the following specification in connection With the accompanying drawing, in which Figure 1 is a cross-sectional view of a sprayer 2 of che nozzle assembly, and Figure 2a is a sectional view similar to Figure 2 but showing the other one-half of the nozzle assembly and indi cated by line IIalIa on Figure 1.
Referring to the -drawing the sprayer nozzle comprises three main parts, viz. the conduit part I for ehe spraying medium, as e. g. co1d air,
part 2 forming the liquid containing and/o'r conducting chamber 3, and part 4 surroun'ding I:he outlet aperture 5 of the nozzle. Parts I, 2 and 3 are arranged concentrioally and conveniently secured 130 another, so that the proper nozzle aperture 6 lies coaxially with and above the somewhat wider, outlet aperture 5 of the'liqui'd conducting chamber 3. The liquid to be dissipated is 1ed into the chamber 3 through an inlet conduit or pipe 1 which tangentially communicates with said chamber through the passage 8 as may be seen from sectional view, Figure 2.
In order to prevent incrustations within ehe liquid chamber 3 on the outlet aperture 5 or other parts of the nozzle due 130 the influence of the ambient hob atmosphere prevailing drying apparatus, the invention provides for cooling cf the liquid chamber 3. This can, as'
will be understood, be realized in various ways. The example shown in the -drawing provides for cooling by means of the spraying medium itself which is fed through 'the conduit 9. For this purpose the conduit 9 communicates by passages, channels or bores II) with corresponding bores II, and the ring chamber I2 respectiely, surrounding the liquid chamber 3. The same part of spraying medium which is taken from the main spraying flow can also be used for preventing incrustations on the outlet aperture 5 oi the nozzle if, as shown in Fig. 1, the outlet passage I3 of the ring chamber I2 .is disposed discharge in close relationship Iso the outlet aperture 5 of the nozzle. Preferably, the outlet section of the ring chamber I2 is profiled to correspond with the acutely tapering outer Wall I4 of the nozzle outlet 5, as illustrated.
The nozzle operates 'as follows. Gold spraying medium e. g. air, flows through the inlet conduit 9 to the proper nozzle aperture 6 in order o0 spray the liquid medium conducted the charmber 3 through the pipe l and passage 8when running down the inner wal1s I5 of the outlet bore and escaping through the aperture 5. On
its Way, pari; of the spraying medium flows'. through the b0res III, and II respectivelY, into the ring chamber I2, thus cooling the liquid chamber 3 up to it's outlet aperture 5 whre the:
passages I3 discharge the cooling medium from the channel l 2, thus preventing at the same time incrustations on this part of the nozzle.
If spraying is eifected by hob gas, the bores H) are dispensed with and the ring chamber 12 is fed through a separate pipe or conduit (not shown) with ccoling medium, of gaseous or liquid constitution as the case may be.
Incrustations near the outlet aperture are prevented even then when ehe spraying medium which escapes in the neighbourhood of the outlet is hot.
The arrangement can also be such that a cooling chamber is continuously fed with water through a separate inlet conduit and'the cooling water is discharged from -a cooling chamber through a special outlet conduit, while incrustations on the outlet aperture 5 of the nozzle are prevented by a current of air flowing through a properly disposed air inlet conduit into a chamber or into passages the discharge apertures of which being arranged in close relationship to the outlet aperture 5 0f the nozzle.
It is also possible 130 arrange fo1 a cooling chamber between the passages, channels er comduits of the spraying medium and the liquid containing and/or conducting chamber 01' channels. Important is that in order to avoid the form-ation of incrustations from precipitated solid particles in the interior of the nozzle, the wall on which the liquid medium moves before escaping from the nozzle, is cooled by means of cold liquid 01 gaseous media, whilst incrustations due to turbulence a1e avoided by a curreni: of gaseous medium existing 011 the place cf its formation, said current pushing out the particles of the liquid in the diiecti0n of the spraying medium, and serving, as the case m-ay be ab the Same time as cooling medium.
It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the construction as illustrated in the drawings, but includes any modifications within the scope of the appended claims.
l. In -3 sprayer nozzle for use in connection with spray dryers, a first body part provided with conduit means ending in a first nozzle opening for receiving and conveying a spraying medium through said nozzle opening, a second body part associated With said first body part and comfining therewith channel meang adjacent a portion of said conduit means near said first nozzle opening, said channel means ending in a second nozzle opening arranged in substantially axia l alignment with said first nozzle opening and -axially spaced therefrom, said second body part also being provided with inlet means communicating with said channel means for receiving the liquid to be dried so the said liquid can be supplied 130 the space between the said nozzle openings, und a, third body part associated with said second body part; and confining therewith a cooling chamber having means adapted to convey a cooling medium thereto, said cooling chamber including conduit means ending in a third nozzle opening at the outer edge of said second nozzle opening, said second and third nozzle openings being co-planar.
2. In a, sprayer nozzle for use in connection With spray dryers, a first body part provided with main conduit means ending in a first nozzle opening for receiving and conveying a spraying medium through said nozzle opening, said first body part also being provided with branch conduit means branching ofl. said main conduit means, a, second body part associated with said first body part am]. confining therewith chamber means adjacent a portion of said main conduit means near said first nozzle opening said chamher means communicating with a second nozzle opening provided in said second body part and in substantially axial alignment with said first nozz1e opening, said second nozzle opening being axi-ally spaced from said first I1OZZ1e opening, said second body part also being provided with inlet means communicating with said chamber means for receiving liquid to be dehydrated so the liquid can be delivered through said chamber to the space between the nozzle openings, said second body part furthermore being provided With passage meang communicating With said brauch conduit means, and a third body part associated with said second body part and confining therewith a cooling chamber communicacing with said passage means anti including conduit means ending in a third nozzle opening ab and around the outer edge of said second nozzle means, said second and third nozzle openings being co-planar.
3. In a sprayer nozzle for use in connection with spray dryers for dehydrating liquid such as solutions, suspensions and emulsions, a first body p-a1t provided With conduit means ending in a first nozzle opening for receiving and conveying a spraying, medium through said nozzle opening, a second body part associated with said first body part and confining therewith channel means adjacent a portion of said conduit means and near said firsb nozzle opening, said channel means ending in a second nozzle opening arranged in substantially axia1 alignment with said first nozzle opening said second nozzle opening being axially spaced from said first nozzle opening, said second body part also being provided with inlet means communicating with said channel means for receiving the liquid to be dehydrated so the liquid can be delivered through said charmber the space between the nozzle openings, and a third body part associated With saicl second body part and confining therewith a cooling chamber having means adapted to convey a cooling mediurn thereto, said cooling chamber in cluding annular channel means surrounding said second nozzle opening and in substantially axial alignment therewith, said channel means tape1 ing toward and ending in a third nozzle opening closely surrounding and co-planar wlth thc eclge of saicl second nozzle opening.
4. In a sprayer nozzle f01 use in connection with spray dryers f0r drying liquids such as solutions, suspensions and emulsions, a body having conduit means ending in a first nozzle opening 1or receiving and conveying a spraying medium through said nozzle opening, said body also being provided with channel means surrounding a portion o1" said conduit means adjacent said nozzle opening and adaptecl to receive liquid to be dried, said channel means ending near a second nozzle opening arranged substantially in alignmeni: with said first nozzle opening, said second nozzle opening bein axially spaced from said first nozzle opening, said body furthermore being provided with chamber means surrounding said channel means and comprising a taperin g portion ending in a third nozzle opening that sur rounds and is co-planar with said second nozzle opening for receiving a cooling medium and passing the same through said tapering portion anti third nozzle opening.
5. In a sprayer nozzle for use in connection with spray dryers for drying liquids such as solutions, suspensions and emulsions a body having conduit means ending in a first cylindrical nozz1e opening for receiving and conveying a, spraying medium through said nozzle opening, said body also being provided with channe1 means surrounding a portion of said conduit means adjacent said nozz1e opening and adapted to receive liquid to be dried and ending in a second nozzle opening axially aligned with but spaced from the first nozzle opening, said second nozzle opening also being substantially cylindrical and having a diameter larger than said first nozz1e opening, said body furthermore being provided with chamber means surrounding said channe1 means and comprising a. tapering portion ending in a third nozzle opening surrounding and coplanar with said second nozzle opening for receiving an cooling medium and passing ehe same through said tapering portion and third nozzle opening.
6. In a sprayer nozzle for use in connection With spray dryers, 2, first body part comprising a hollow cylindrical extension ending in a first cylindrical nozz1e opening ab the end and adapted 130 receive and convey a spraying medium through said first nozzle opening a second body part having a bell-shaped portion spaced from and surrounding said cylindrical extension of said first body part so as 110 confine with said extension an annular ohamber, said bell-shaped portion containing an outwardly tapering part with a seoond cylindrical nozzle opening therein ar ranged in substantially axial alignment with but axially spaced from said second nozzle opening to provide a space between the nozzles for introducing the liquid 120 be dried, means oommunicating with said chamber for admitting liquid 130 be dried, and a third body part surroundim; said bell-shaped portion so as to confine therewith annular channel means and having a portion of said third body part profiled in conformity with but spaced from said tapering part so as 130 confine therewith a cone-shaped annular passage com municating with said channel means and ending in a, third nozz1e surrounding and co-pl-anar with the outer end 0f said second nozz1e opening, said annular channel means having associated therewith means for admitting a cooling medium thereto.
7. A sprayer nozzle for drying 0r dehydrating liquids such a.s solutions, emulsions, and suspensions, thereby to transform the liquid being 6 treated into a substantially City powder comprising; a first body part comprising a downwardly directed cylindrical extension, said extensio-n being hollow and terminating at its 1ower end in a cylindrical nozz1e opening for a spraying medium, a seoond body part mounted on said first body part a.nd comprising a hollow cylindrical portion surrounding the cylindrical extension of the first body part and spaced therefrom, thereby define channel means With said cylindrical exten5ion, said second body part also comprising a second cylindrical nozzle opening in spaced coaxial relation with said first nozz1e opening whereby liquid to be dried can be introcluced through said ch-annel means and directed substantially at right ang1es to the stream of spraying medium passing from said first nozzle opening to said second nozz1e opening, and a third body part surrounding said. second body part in spaced relation therewith so as 130 define a. chamber f0r receiving a cooling medium, said third body part having a third nozzle opening surrounding the said second nozz1e opening anol co-planar therewith said second body part 0n the outside thereof surrounding the said second nozzle opening therein tapering inwardly tovv-ard the axis of the said second nozz1e opening toward the discharge end thereof, and said. third body part having a corresponding shape in the same region whereby the supply cf cooling medium to the third nozzle opening Will serve to prevent the formation of incrustations abouu the discharge end of the second nozzle opening.
EMIL KIRSCHBAUM REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the fi1e of this patent:
UNI'I'ED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1093,996 Kestner Apr. 21, 1914 1526429 Morse Feb. 17, 1925 156'7482 Anthony Dec. 29, 1925 1,594641 Starr Aug. 3, 1926 1629144 Burdiek May 17, 1927 1641581 Egan Sept. 6, 1927 1884931 Voorheis Oct. 25, 1932 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 186,148 Great Britain Sept. 21, 1922