US 2625155 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 13, 1953 A. E. ENGELDER 2,625,155
FACE MASK Filed Dec. 11, 195o INVENTOR.
ArhurEErgeZder BY//f//fw y N..
ATTORNEY Patented Jan. 13, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE FACE M'SIi Arthur Ei Engelder, Douglas, Ariz. Applcatinf- December' 11, 1950;A Seriali' N 0r 200,250 9 Claims (Cl. 12S-146) Thee-present invention relates in: general to. face masks suitable. for` use with metabolism in` strumentsresuscitators^ and anesthesia machines- In particular the invention relates to an improvedl face mask embodying. the following de sired characteristics; a close seal between the periphery of the mask and the face; comfortableconformity of the mask tov theA contours' of -the face; unobstructed transparency of the mask seV that the face ofthe patient, may befviewed without removal' of the. mask for' examination' of thealipsg.. mouth and: nasal. area, all: metal. yokes inf-r cluding. the yoke ati the; apexi being.: eliminated; and; an: improved constructionxof. the mask and. of the.y means to secure:y it to. thev patient-fs .head to reduce: to a minimum the.y tendency torslip'to- Wards the eyes. An additional important., fea tureA comprises the structural incorporation of meansin the mask to permit removal of accumulated secretions from theV mouth and nose of the patient by suctionv through. an-` ordinary catheter without necessity for lifting or removing the.V mask.
Standard face masks in-` use today with metabolism instruments, resuscitators and anesthesia machines consist.A of a. plasti`c. metal. or. stiff rubber domesur-mounting aninated rubbery ring held. against the: subjects facer.. over his mouthI and-nose', by means of a headharnesa Usually located'. on: the apex of the dome is a breathing; port to which rubberftubes.areconnected through a. relatively heavy movable metal connecting yoke.. The` combination of. domeA and inflated. rubber ring provides:y an. adequate` seal. against` leakage only whenthe mask is pressed-very. tight ly' against the face, a situation sometimes u-ncomfortable to the` patient.. The connecting. yokef lfrequently incorporates a. swivel attachment ine the port and is subject to some leakage and therefore undesirable. Additionally, the. weight ofthe yoke tends. to cause. the. mask to` slip onthe pa tients. face,l a. tendency aggravated by the` fact. that. the: periphery of the` conventional. dome? does not usually conform toA the normal anatomical contours of the: face. Any tendency ofthe; maskto slip upwardly is undesirable in thatdis'- placement over the patients eyes hindersandi interferes with the anesthetist who may nd: it desirable to examineV the pupils. of. the patients eyes. A displacement of the mask. downwardsL overthe` chinexposes a'wide area to leakageisalong.. the lateral angles of the patients chin or. ad;` jacent cheeks..
Frequently during tha administration .ofY are` estlieticsfr or; while a patientis unconscious.. the` accumulation. of salivaz and: mucous in. the nose,
mouth and throat. constitutes ai serious hazard. which can be met only by' suction. removal of t-heiy secretions before theyare aspirated'y into the` lungs; this is because the protectivev tendency to. cough. is. suppressedv byanesthetics and` is absentwhenzthe patient is=unconscious. On conf ventional masks no means are provided toallow aspiration of. the: nose and throat.` without.A complete or partiali removalof theI mask.
In at masky constructedL in' accordance.'y with thel present:- invention the` shortcomings andi defectsV of the prior art-have been` largely overeomewhile usehas been made. of the advantages;l The present. invention comprises af rigid and transparent plastic dome contoured to thev anatomical features general conformity tol` of thel face. Normal variation@T of facial. contours makes it impracti cable to design one rigid. mask` to t allI faces.Y
Two porta with` removablel plugs, are. positioned opposite the mouthA and.. nostrils soa that aspiration of theoral .andnasalpassages may be accomplished readily by use of suction tubing.
It is.v an objectof the. present invention to` pro'- vide: anv improved Vfacemask for." use withmetabolisnr instrumenta. resuscitat'ors and) anesthesia.
It is, a; furtherr object. of vtheV invention. to pro.-y vide' altace` maskhaving a periphery contoured to# tclosely the' anatomical features of' the. face and provid-ingr an effective sealagainst` leak-'age off oxygen or" anesthetic and which employs the anatomical features tostabilize` itsv position' andl in particular t'o prevent slippaget along the bridge of" t'lieAv nose" towards the eyes:
It'is' a further' object of theinvention to pro'- vide'y a face mask" including a seating ring of' plastic,Y resilient material aroundits periphery adapted to. adjust itself to usual' variances in facial' contours. normally encountered;
It isa further. object of'the invention to provide a faceimaskincluding adomefthewalls of which extend perpendicularly to the surfacer` of thevface atV their lines ofl contact therewith, and inl parV tisularl across.v the: nose: in order that the: re-- 5'5" taining forcel applied through tliesecuringstraps preferred embodiment of the invention is illustrated:
Figure 1 is a side view of the mask positioned upon the patients face with certain parts broken away and shown in vertical section;
Figure 2 is a view of the mask opposite that shown in Figure 1 and illustrates the breathing ports and the nose and mouth aspiration ports;
Figure 3 is a horizontal sectional view of the mask taken on line 3-3 of Figure l;
Figure 4 is a detail view of an aspiration port with sealing rings, either mouth or nose, showing a rubber closure cap in place to close same;
Figure 5 is a detail view of an aspiration port similar to Figure 4 but showing the threaded plug closure means;
Figure 6 is a detail view of an aspiration port similar to Figures 4 and 5 and a compound closure plug having inner and outer parts, the former being threaded into the latter which in turn is threaded into the port; and
Figure 'I' is a side elevational View of the mask ring showing the general configuration of the lateral contact sectors. 3
Referring to Figure 1, the face mask is shown positioned correctly on the patients face and comprises a rigid convex dome I0 of transparent material, for example a suitable transparent plastic, a ring I2 of resilient cellular rubber, or its equivalent, sealed to the periphery thereof, a pair of straps I4 and I5 to retain the mask securely in place relative to the patients face. Vertically spaced pins I3 extend rigidly outwardly from the sides of the dome'being adapted to seat the ends of the straps I4 and I5. Nose and mouth ports I6 and I8 are positioned in the front of the dome slightly below center and in vertical alignment, being closed normally by plugs I'I and I9. Externally corrugated centrally bored nipples 33 and 34, shown best in Figure 2, connect interiorly to the dome and provide seating means for the ends of conducting tubes leading, for example, to a metabolism instrument, resuscitator, anesthesia machine or an oxygen cylinder.
The dome IIl may be constructed of any rigid transparent material, plastic being preferred generally, and has a spheroidal surface the major axis of the spheroid being parallel to the centerline of the face. The peripheral edge of the dome, indicated at II, departs from the normally spheroidal character of the surface and extends inwardly as a rim 22 at an angle such that at every point of contact between the mask and the face the peripheral rim is extended essentially perpendicular to the surface of the face. The angle between the tangent to the spheroid and the inclination of the rim varies around the periphery of the mask and depends upon curvature of the surface of the face at the different points of contact. The mask may be constructed by employing a double cavity mold, which would formfthe rim and the bottom half of each breathing port in one section, and form the-spheroid from the side with the upper half of each port in the other section. When this type of mold is used in conjunction With the injection technique of molding, a product of perfect transparency and one free of distortion will result.
Sealed to the marginal rim 22 of the dome I0 is the soft sealing ring I2. This ring is constructed of plastic, resilient material such as cellular rubber, and, like the dome, is contoured to conform to anatomical features of the average face, the details of contouring of the dome and the ring being best shown in Figures 3 and 7. In Figure '7 the broken line 23 indicates the line along which the dome is sealed, the face-contacting surface being indicated by reference character 24. Along the chin sector 25, Figures l, 2 and 7, the ring I2 and the rim are curved to conform to the general contour of the chin. From this sector the ring and rim are very gently curved to follow the conguration of the cheeks, gradually merging into the somewhat sharper curvature 26, to accommodate the malar region or cheekbone, from whence the ring and rim continue in increasing curvature to meet the corresponding sector of the opposite side in the midline conformable at 21 with the bridge of the nose.
By contourng the peripheral edge of the marginal rim 22 of the mask to conform closely to the anatomical features a twofold advantage is gained. First, a perfect seal of the mask with the face is eifected with a minimum of discomfort to the patient. Second, the upwardly inclined rim 22 serves to distribute the retaining force exerted through the pins I3 generally normal to the face along each sector of contact but especially over` the nasal sector and mental or chin sector, so as to stabilize the position of the mask with reference to its longitudinal axis.
The soft resilient rubber ring is desirable and necessary because of the variation in facial contours found in patents. In addition, a rigid mask fitted tightly to the face without such a ring interposed would cause great discomfort to the wearer.
In the front of the dome are two ports, a nasal port I6 and an oral port I8, each sealed by its removable plug indicated by the reference characters I1 and I9, respectively.. The general function of the ports is to provide access to the nasal and oral cavities without removal of the mask to permit aspiration of secretions from the mouth and nose. Removal of such secretions is considered absolutely essential in modern practice to prevent drainage into the lungs. An additional function of the ports is to provide means whereby the patient can, during an interval in the anesthetic, for instance, breathe under atmospherc conditions.
The nasal port I6 is constructed very slightly below the centerline of the mask in a central area generally covering the nasal region of the face. So positioned a suction catheter tube can be directed through either nostril to any point between the inferior turbinate and the ioor of the nose and beyond if necessary to the junction of the nose and throat, where secretions of the nose accumulate. The oral port i8 is constructed in the vertical centerline ofthe mask below the port IE and in an area generally covering the oral region of the face. It is so positioned as to allow a suction catheter tube to be directed to that very important point located between the root of thetongue and the back of the throat. Aspiration is accomplished by removing the plug from A'the desi-red port, inserting the suction catheter -tube and `applying the suction. Both the oral and nasal ports are supplied with rubber rings -35 sealed to the interiorsurface-of the dome. Each ring provides a leakproof seal between the catheter and the mask so that the catheter may be left in place continuously during anesthesia and aspiration may be accomplished periodically by applying suction to the :catheter by opening a valve to which the catheter is-connectedthrough a rubber tube.
Theclosure plugs used with the ports 'Iland I8 may be of `varied types so long as they provide'an airtight seal when in place and yet .are easilyremovable and easily replaced. In .the construction of-Figure 1 the plugs are solid resilient elements readily vinsertable manually and .friction'ally retained when inserted. .Referring to Figures 4,.5 and 6,'.alternate types of port-closing meanstare illustrated. In the type of Figure 4 a flanged rubber cap 28 is shown. Figure 5 depicts a .threaded port :I6 sealed by an exteriorly threadedplug 29. Figure 6 shows an 'interiorly threaded port |16 closed by a compound plug comprising a anged bushing or sleeve 3| which is both eXteriorly and interiorly threaded and which seats a threaded inner plug 32. Sleeve 3i is threaded into Iport i6 and in turn'seats inner plug 32. In this last embodiment the available port opening is a variable in that the inner plug 32 alone may be vremoved, or both the inner plug 32 with the surrounding bushing 3l.
1n addition to the ports I6 and I8 are the two breathing ports 33 and 34 located `at one side and including laterally extending nipples and which are adapted to seat the ends of rubber conduits connected to the apparatus with which the mask is being used. In a preferred form the nipples are integral with the dome. These ports may be positioned-upon either side of the centerline and the presence of two ports ratherthan one presents a greater transconduction area which appreciably reduces the sense vof resistance to breathing which is sometimes very disturbing .to the patient in the use of ordinary masks.
The mask is securely retained against the face by two straps ht and I5 affixed to the dome .IG by means of pins i3 .positioned in diametrically apposed pairs. The straps may be of rubber or other resilient material. The four pins are positioned along the periphery of the spheroidal dome l at or near the edge Il. The two upper pins are located at the junction ofthe nasal and malar sectors, one each on either side of the longitudinal axis or centerline of the mask. The two lower pins are located at the beginning of the mental sector, one each on either side of the longitudinal axis of the mask. One strap I4 connects an upper pin and a lower pin on opposite sides of the centerline of the mask, the other strap I5 connects the remaining upper and lower pins such that the strap I5 crosses strap I4 in the back, at or below the juncture of the head and neck. The major components of the forces exerted through the retaining straps are thus directednormal to the bridge of thenose and chin.
While the particular device herein shown and described in d'etail is fully capable of attaining the objects and providing the advantages hereinbefore stated, it is to be understood that it is merely illustrative of the presently preferred embodiments of the invention and that no limitations are intended to the details of construction or design herein shown other than as defined in the appended claims.
kivf-claim: H 1. A face mask of the .typefdescrlbedffcompris-" ing a transparent hemispheroidaldome dane peripheral edge o'f lwhich lis "shapedi'to abutiand to conform generally lto the .chin,fcheek, malar :area and'nose cfaA patient, a'softresiIient-'sealing ring sealed to Nlthe peripheral edge of said dome 'and having a face-contacting surface contoured l:to conform generally I to the .same facialcontours Vas saidfdome, said face-contacting surface :extending vperpendicularly to 1the lprojectionrof the adjacent surface of said dome at each point-along its length, -said dome "being provided '-u'rith vertically spaced frontal ports positioned opposite the nasal 'and oral Yareas of `the face in -Iposition to receive aspirating felements directed to those areas of a patient wearing themaskI vand means toretain said'domevin sealed relationship to the face ofthe patient.
2. A face mask of the type-'described comprising'a transparent hemispheroidal dome the peripheral edge of which is shaped to abutand to conformgenerally-to the chin, cheek, malar area andnose of -a patientya soft resilient sealing ring sealed to the peripheral edge of `said dome .and being itself contoured to `conform generally ktothe same facial f'contours'as said dome, said dome l being provided lwith frontal ports positioned on the longitudinal centerline of said maskopposite'fthe nasal andl oral areas of theface in'position to receive aspirating elements directed to thoserareas of a patient wearingthe mask, inlet andoutlet breathing ports VVpositioned at the side Avof .said dome, corrugated nipples Aformed -exteriorly 'on said dome centrally bored and vinteriorly connected to *said ports, and means to retain said dome in-sealed relationship to the fface of `'the patient.
3. Aiace maskofthe type described Acomprising a Jtransparent hemispheroidalr dome y"the peripheral edge of which is shape'dto abutfandto conform generally tothe chin, cheek, malar area and nose'of a patient, a soft resilient sealingring sealed to the peripheral edge of :said dome and being vitself contoured to "conform -generally `to 'the-'same facial `contours -as said dome, said domebeing'providedwith frontal ports positioned opposite the nasal and oral 'areas of the facein rposition to receive aspirating 'elements-directed to those areas -of a'patient wearing the mask, vertically-'spaced lpairs of pins Von opposite sides lof said dome "positioned rearwardly-of a transverse plane 'through theforemost pointsof contact of said ring with 'the 'bridge of "the patients nose and with his chin, and straps the ends of which `are removably connected to said pins encircling the head of the Apatient to vhold saidy dome 'andring against hisface.
f'4. A facemas'k of the type described comprising a transparent hemispheroidal ydome the `Aperipheral ledge loiwhich is 'contoured' to abut `and to conform 'generally tothe chin, cheek, malar area land'nose of apatient, the portion'of said mask adjacent said peripheral edge extending angularly lwith respect tothe remainder of the hemispheroidal Ydonne 'and' perpendicularly `to the adjacent facial surface as to converge, if extended, at a focus spaced from said dome, a soft resilient sealing ring in which the edge of said dome is embedded and which also conforms to said facial areas to seal thereagainst, said dome being provided with frontal ports positioned opposite the nasal and oral areas of the face in position to receive aspirating elements directed to those areas of Ia patient wearing the mask, and
means to retain said dome in sealed relationship to the face of the patient.
5. In a face mask of the type described, a transparent dome hemispheroidal in shape and having a marginal rim inclined upwardly from the surface of the dome, said rim having its peripheral edge shaped to abut and conform generally to the chin, cheek, malar 4area and nose of a patient, a soft resilient sealing ring sealed to the peripheral edge of said dome rim and having a surface contoured to conform generally to the same facial contours as said rim, said dome being provided with frontal ports located as to be positioned opposite the nasal and oral areas of the face of a patient wearing the mask and in position to receive aspirating elements directed to those areas, removable elements to close said frontal ports to effect a gas-impervious seal therewith. and means to retain the dome in sealed relationship with the face of the patient.
6. In a face mask of the type described, a transparent dome hemispheroidal in shape and having a marginal rim inclined inwardly from the hemispheroidal surface, said rim having its peripheral edge contoured to abut and conform generally to the chin, cheek, malar area and nose of a patient, said rim being so inclined relative to the hemispheroidal surface of the dome as to extend perpendicularly at each point along its length to an adjacent facial surface, a soft resilient sealing ring sealed to the peripheral edge of said dome rim and contoured to conform generally to the same facial contours as said rimy said dome being provided with a first frontal port positioned in the plane of the longitudinal centerline of the mask and opposite the nasal area of a wearers face, said port being formed to receive a manually removable aspirator directed to the nostrils of a patient Wearing the mask, a second frontal port positioned in the plane of the longitudinal centerline of the mask adjacent said first frontal port opposite the oral area of a wearers face and formed to receive said manually removable aspirator when directed to the mouth and throat of a patient wearing the mask, means to seal said frontal ports in the absence of said aspirators, and means to retain said dome in sealed relationship to the face of the patient.
7. A face mask of the class described, comprising a transparent hemispheroidal dome symmetrically disposed about angularly arranged axes and having a marginal rim inclined inwardly from the hemispheroidal surface of the dome, said rim having its peripheral edge shaped to abut and conform generally to the chin, cheek, malar area and nose of a patient, said rim being so inclined relative to the hemispheroidal surface of the dome as to extend at each point along its length perpendicularly to an adjacent facial surface of a patient, a soft resilient sealing ring sealed to the peripheral edge of said dome rim and being itself contoured to conform generally to the same facial contours as said rim, said dome being provided with frontal ports positioned opposite the nasal and oral areas of the face, removable plugs to close said frontal ports to effect a gas-impervious seal, and straps to reta-in said dome in sealed relationship to the face of the patient.
8. A face mask of the type described, comprising a transparent hemispheroidal dome symmetrically disposed about mutually perpendicular central axes and having a marginal rim inclined inwardly from its hemispheroidal surface, said rim having its peripheral edge shaped to abut and conform generally to the chin, cheek, malar area and nose of a patient, said rim being so inclined relative to the hemispheroidal surface of the dome as to extend at each point along its length perpendicularly to an adjacent facial surface of a patient, a soft resilient ring sealed to the peripheral edge of said dome rim and being itself contoured to conform generally to the same facial contours as said rim, said dome being provided with a first frontal port positioned in the plane of the longitudinal centerline of the mask and opposite the nasal area of the face being formed to receive a removable aspirator directed to the nostrils of a patient wearing the mask, a second frontal port positioned in said plane, adjacent said first frontal port, and opposite the oral area of the face being formed to receive a manually removable aspirator directed to the mouth and throat of a patient Wearing the mask, means to close each of said frontal ports in the absence of said aspirator, and means to retain said dome in sealed relationship to the face of the patient.
9. In a face mask of the type described, a transparent dome, hemispheroidal in shape and having a marginal rim inclined inwardly from its hemispheroidal surface, said rim having its peripheral edge shaped to abut and conform generally to the chin, cheek, malar area and nose of a patient, said rim being so inclined relative to the hemispheroidal surface of the dome as to extend at each point along its length perpendicularly to an adjacent facial surface, a soft resilient ring sealed to the peripheral edge of said dome rim contoured to conform generally to the same facial contours as said rim, said dome being provided with frontal ports positioned opposite the nasal and oral areas of the face in position selectively to receive an aspirating element directed to said areas of the face of a patient Wearing the mask, means to seal said frontal ports in the absence of said aspirating element, exteriorly corrugated nipples formed integrally on the side of said dome having centrally formed bores extending therethrough and into said dome to conduct inhaled and exhaled air or gas to and from said mask, and means to retain the dome in sealed relationship to the face of the patient.
ARTHUR E. ENGELDER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,506,296 Gaddini May 2, 1950 2,540,567 Bennett Feb. 6, 1951