|Publication number||US2625807 A|
|Publication date||Jan 20, 1953|
|Filing date||Oct 31, 1951|
|Priority date||Oct 31, 1951|
|Publication number||US 2625807 A, US 2625807A, US-A-2625807, US2625807 A, US2625807A|
|Inventors||Pierre Eugene St|
|Original Assignee||Hemphill Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 20, 1953 v E. ST. PIERRE 2,625,807
METHOD OF KNITTING Filed Oct. 31, 1951 INVENTWP:
Patented Jan. 20, 1953 METHOD OF KNITTING Eugene St. Pierre, Pawtucket, R. I., assignor to Hemphill Company, Pawtucket, R. I., a corporation of Massachusetts Application October 31, 1951, Serial No. 254,129
This invention relates to the art of knitting hosiery on circular, independent needle, knitting machines. A primary object is to improve upon present methods of producing hosieryin a wide variety of properly proportioned sizes.
It is the custom of manufacturers of hosiery, especially of infants, childrens and misses anklets, to offer the trade a so-called line of stockings varying in sizes from, say, four to eleven, but otherwise identical with respect to character and weight of yarns employed, fineness of fabric, etc.
Uniformity of fabric is obtained by knitting all sizes upon machines having the same number of needles per inch of cylinder circumference. The desired lengths of the various parts of the stockings are obtained by knitting the desired number of courses in each. For slight changes in size, of the order of one or two sizes, no change in circumferential proportions is required as a rule but, for a wider range of sizes, variations in circumferential proportions are essential.
To obtain anything but the most minor alterations in the circumferential dimensions and, at the same time, retain all of the characteristics of the fabric, it has been assumed by the hosiery industry that a change in the diameter of the needle cylinder is required, together with an increase or decrease in the number of needles so that the same number per inch of cylinder circ'umference results and, consequently, the number of loops per inch of fabric remains constant regardless of cylinder size. This belief resulted from or led to the assumption that, to obtain uniform fabric in the various stocking sizes, it was essential that the operative relation between needles and sinkers must be always the same.
As an example of this prior art practice, the following up to date schedule of a representative manufacturer is submitted:
' Number of Cylinder Stockmg Size Needles 1n Diameter Cylinder Inches 45% 2 130 2% 144 2% 160 2% 180 3 200 3% 220 From the machine manufacturers viewpoint,
while all of the machines are similar, many of the parts are in fact different and require different adjustments, since the problems encountered in the operation of a very small size are more numerous and different than those relating to the larger sizes. Also, parts inventories must be much larger.
From the users point of view, experience has shown that, unless he can offer all of the standard sizes of a given line, he can not sell his prodnot. Because of this, he has to gamble upon the business he is likely to receive for the various sizes and proportion his machine purchases accordingly. The demand for different sizes fluctuates periodically so that the user frequently finds himself with too many machines of one size and too few of another with the result that, if he is to meet the market demands, he must purchase additional machines which he may not need a few months later and see some of his machines of other sizes standing idle. In addition, he must carry in stock spare parts for all sizes.
To avoid the complications resulting from so many cylinder sizes is the problem solved by this invention. It was realized that the controlling factors of identity of fabric are identity of yarn and uniformity of loop structure. It was also realized that circumferential dimensions depended upon the number of loops per course. From this, it followed that different sizes would require a different number of needles.
Since a cylinder of one diameter was to be used, if possible, it became evident that the needle spacing would vary with the number of needles employed so that the travel of the needles in relation to the sinkers would have to vary also so as to draw, in all cases, the equal lengths of yarn required for equal loop structure. Thus, the problem was solved. It will be noted that this solution is opposed in almost every respect to prevailing practice and beliefs.
As just stated, if the size of cylinder, the yarn and the loop structure of the stitches are constant throughout, a stocking having more sitches per course than another will be circumferentially larger but, aside from length, which is determined by other factors, will be otherwise identical. This is illustrated in the accompanying drawing, of which:
Fig. 1 is a representation of two anklets scaled to the relative proportions of sizes 11 and 5, respectively; and,
Figs. 2, 3 and 4 are diagrammatic illustrations for the purpose of explaining how equal yarn lengths are drawn by the needles in cylinders of a given diameter in which the needle spacing varies.
In the embodiment which will be described, the invention is practiced upon machinery of 3-inch cylinder diameter. Contrary to present belief, this permits production of a full line of sizes from, say, four to eleven, each having fabric so identical that corresponding portions of stockings of different sizes as they come from the machine cannot be readily distinguished from each other or from other similar commercial lines in this respect.
Assuming that a 3" cylinder isto be used throughout, the smaller sizes such, for examp as 4-5 may be produced bymeans of 130 needles, whereas such sizes as -11 /2 or thereabouts may be produced upon the same size cylinder equipped with 200 needles. Since 130 needles equally spaced upon a 3" cylinder will be spaced apart quite a little further than 200 needles and since the same loop structure is required to obtain the same fabric from each, thesame length ofyarn must be drawn by each of the 200 needles as by each of the 130 needles. This means, of course,
that the travel of the needles will be so adjusted that, in the 130 needle case, their downward travel terminates at a higher point with respect to the drawing edge of the sinkers than in the Q needle instance, as shown in Fig. 2 as compared with Fig. 4 which, in an illustrative-sense,
indicates the difference between the'two.
' The objective is the same as the practice which has been followed by the knitting industry; i, e., to obtain the same length of yarn in each loop :regardless of stocking size and thus obtain'substantialidentity of fabric characteristics in all sizes. Howe ver, instead of obtaining this uniformity of loop length by means of uniform needle spacing in cylinders of different sizes and uniform motion of needles with respect to the "sinkers, it isobtained by varying the number of needles in conformity with the desired circumferential proportions of the stocking, spacing these needles evenly apart by corresponding different amounts and obtaining uniformity of loop length and the consequent identity of fabric by varying the motion of the needles in relation to the sinkers so that equal length of yarn perloop will nevertheless be drawn.
' Intermediate sizes between those specifically mentioned above may be obtained in the same way by equipping the cylinder with a suitable number of needles Without changing its size, assumed to be 3", and by manipulating the needles as described above so as to draw the same length of yarn per loop as before and as illustrated, for example, in Fig. 3.
j In fact, if desired,the schedule set forth above may be followed exactly vvith respect to the number ofneedles and the same sizes obtained the only variation being that the cylinder diameter remains const ant as compared with the six different cylinder sizes shown in the schedule.
It will i now be evident that this improved method of producing a widerange of sizes ofhose having uniform fabric reduce the problems of costinvolved in the design, manufacture, and
nse of thenumber of machines, of different cylinder diameters previously considered necessary by. het ad It s mplifiesihe trai ing ar t s and i a s e ls am the nv n o y in i dividual mills. It also per mits hosier y nails to equip themselves with machines which are readily and inexpensively convertible from the manufacture of onesize to another, thereby enabling them to follow production trends without the necessity of purchasing new machines for one size while serviceable machines of another size stand idle.
.In addition to the above advantages, the prescylindermachine having a dial of less than 2%" in; diameter. Consequently,- since it has been thought by the trade that smaller dials were necessary for the smaller sizes of stockings it has been assumed that these sizes could not be made automatically on dial-rib machines; consequently,
they have, been made on plain machines and separately made tops hand transferred thereto by a separate operation.
No such diificulty is encountered with a dial and cylinder machine having a 3" cylinder, for
example; and, by this invention, the size range of such machines ha been materially extended acteristics, microscopic identity is not meant, but
since the so-called complete line can be rnade by following exactly the same procedure disclosed above for all sizes.
The applicant is aware that different numbers of needles have been used before in a cylinder of one diameter but they have never been used for the objectiveof this invention, The purpose has been to change the gauge of the hosiery knit to accommodate auxiliary equipment, such as transfer rings, already in the possession of a customer, To vary the number of needles in cylinders of one diameter and-to obtain a wide ran e of sizes otherwise having identical fabric characteristi-csby adjusting the stitch length so that equal amounts of yarn will be drawn in all instances, is new and directly opposed to heretofore accepted assumptions.
I Wherever the word identical is used in this application with respect to fabric or fabric charonly such similarity as would satisfy average commercial standards.
The expression substantial range of sizes is meant to include not only the range given in the comparative table herein but any fraction of that table which is greater than that which has hitherto been produced with commercial perfection on a given cylinder having a given number of needles.
A method of knitting on circular, independent needle, knitting machinery, a substantial range of hosiery sizes having identical fabric characteristics in different circumferential dimensions,
wherein knitting is effected by means of cylinders of constant diameter using numerically different complements of needle in different cylinders to produce said different circumferences of fabric, wherein the needles of saidnumerically different complements are evenly spaced apart by correspondingly different amounts, and wherein the same amount of yarn per loop is drawn by the needles in corresponding parts of said hosiery of different circumferential dimensions.
EUGENE s'r. PIERRE.
.REFERENCES CITED The following references .are .of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED stares PATE
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1248019 *||May 15, 1915||Nov 27, 1917||Scott & Williams Inc||Method of knitting fine-gage fabrics.|
|US1514499 *||Aug 19, 1921||Nov 4, 1924||James K Lanning||Circular-knitting machine|
|US2217225 *||May 12, 1936||Oct 8, 1940||Hemphill Co||Feeding means for knitting machines|
|US2348313 *||Jan 16, 1942||May 9, 1944||Hemphill Co||Method of producing hosiery|
|GB189604435A *||Title not available|
|International Classification||D04B9/46, D04B9/00, D04B15/14|
|Cooperative Classification||D04B9/46, D04B15/14|
|European Classification||D04B9/46, D04B15/14|