US 2627174 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 3, 1953 w. wEGLlN A CANDLE AND METHOD 0F MAKING Filed 001'.. 28, 1949 INVENTOR. lfer /Vfgf//H/ @Mmmm H VOIP/VFY Patented Feb. 3, 1953 UNITED stars TENT OFFICE 7 Claims.
The present invention relates generallyY to candles and more particularly to an improved candle, and method of making it, adapted to produce polychromatic drippings during burning.
Heretofore attempts have been made to produce candles of enhanced decorative effect by coloring the exterior of an ordinary candle with paint or the like. Such candles have not gone into general commercial use for various reasons; with some the coats of outer coloring are too difcult and expensive to apply. They frequently have a tendency to peel off and usually require the application of varnish or shellac, which emits a most unpleasant odor when the candle is burned. Any decorative appearance that such candles may originally possess tends to be destroyed, rather than enhanced, as the candle burns. Their drippings are generally of only a single natural wax color and these tend to stream down the candle at only one or two random points, accumulating in unsightly clusters as they cool. Colored flame candles are known but they do not improve the decorative effect of the candle body and when the flame is extinguished the candle is of merely ordinary appearance.
The present invention contemplates the provision of a candle, and method of making it, which -produces drippings of many different beautiful hues or colors upon burning. In a preferred embodiment means is provided whereby the drippings may be distributed at desired locations around the exterior of the candle, instead of accumulating in a cluster on merely one side as with the drippings of previous or conventional candles. v
`An object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved candle and method of making.
Another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved candle which is adapted to produce colored drippings when burned.
Another object of the invention is to provide a candle which produces drippings controllably distributed about its exterior when burned.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a candle of relatively simple manufacture which produces polychromatic drippings and distributes them as desired about the candle exterior when burned.
A still further object of the invention is to f Vone skilled in the art upon employment of the invention in practice.
A preferred embodiment of the invention has been chosen for purposes of illustration and description and is shown in the accompanying drawings, forming a part of the specication, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a partially burned candle embodying the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the present candle, partly in section, showing it at an early stage of manufacture;
Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the candle at a later stage of manufacture with color producing material added;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary elevational View of the candle at a still later stage of manufacture, showing a wick arrangement;
Fig. 4a is an enlarged fragmentary view of Fig. 4, illustrating more or less diagrammatically the formation and distribution of drippings;
Fig. 5 is a side elevation of a finished candle before burning;
Figs. 6 and 7 are fragmentary elevational views of slightly modified wick arrangements generally along the lines of that shown in Fig. 4;
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary sectional view of a modified method of making the candle;
Fig. 9 is a sectional view of another form of the invention; and
Fig. 10 is a side elevation illustrating a candle of different exterior conguration into which the present candle may be formed.
In Fig. 1 there is illustrated a candle embodying the present invention which has been partially burned. The drippings I, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 may be of any desired color, for example, brown, gold, green, blue, purple and red, and extend down along the candle body 1. It will be noted that the drippings are distributed about the surface of the candle giving a pleasing artistic effect; they do not conglommerate at one side into a large single unsightly mass. The construction and. method of making the candle of Fig. 1 will now be described.
As shown in Fig. 2 the candle l, formed by dipping, molding or otherwise, has a recess 8 adjacent its upper part. This recess may be provided by a mold or a solidly formed candle may be used and the recess provided by drilling or other suitable means. A wick 9 is shown extending through the center of the candle and lying loosely in the recess 8. The wick 9 is preferably longer than the overall length of the candle body portionso that it may be extended through an opening or aperture I t adjacent the lower part of the recess 8 and subsequently arranged about the candle, as will be later described. After the wick 9 is placed through the opening I0 as shown in Fig. 3, the candle is ready for insertion i of color-producing elements or agents I2 illustrated occupying about the upper third of the candle in Fig. 3. These elements may be of different colors and for convenience of description will be referred to as pellets While the pellets I2 may be composed of any suitable materials and proportions, very satisfactory results have been achieved by utilizing about 30% by weight of stearic acid and about 70% by Weight of paraffin. The paraffin may be heated until it is fluid and then stearic acid, flakes or powder, added in the proper proportions; this is preferably colored while in the fluid state by adding a suitably colored dye, for example an oil dye such as a Baco dye. To form gold or silver colored pellets, bronze or aluminum powder, respectively, is mixed in with the stearic acid and the paraflin. The liquid material may be cast in appropriate molds or may be cooled into sheets and then the pellets i2 punched out of the sheet.
Any number of pellets in any variety of colors may be used. A satisfactory embodiment has sixteen pellets arranged in the following sequence, from the top down: light blue, dark blue, purple, gold, yellow, gold, white, brown, gold, white, purple, gold, green, white, red, and maroon. It is considered artistically desirable to intersperse light colors, particularly lwhite pellets, so as to obtain more delicate shadings, hues, and separations. The pellets may be inserted individually linto the top of the recess 8 and forced down. A
space or pocket II is preferably provided at the lower part of the recess to facilitate burning the candle even after the colors have been distribu-ted thereon and this will be further brought out hereinafter. After the pellets have been inserted n a desired arrangement, wax-like material Iza is poured on or placed over the top of the candle, thus sealing the recess 8. The colored pellets are now completely concealed within the candle.
Thereafter, the wick is arranged or wrapped around the exterior of the portion of the candle which contains the colors, as shown in Fig. 4. A groove may be previously provided to receive the wick or it may be arranged again-st the smooth surface of the candle and pressed against it. A tightly braided wick has proven most satisfactory for the purpose. In the preferredv method, the wick is positioned around the candle in an ascending step configuration. It may be spotted to the body of the candle by the application of blobs of wax-like material and then secured permanently in place by dipping the candle into molten wax-like material. The grooves cut into the walls of the candle in advance simplify the problem of positioning the wick and require fewer dippings in order to conceal the wick under a smooth external coating. At the upper part of the candle the Wick is placed centrally of the candle body so that its free end terminates in an end portion I3 at the usual location for a candle. The final operation may comprise repeatedly dipping the candle and allowing it to cool in successive operations until outer wax jacket indicated by the dot-dash line of Fig. 4 has been built up. The finished candle is shown in Fig. 5.
Referring again to Figs. 4 and 4a, it will be seen that as the wick burns, lit follows a step pattern, burning alternately vertically and horizontally along the candle. The wick tends toburn. slowly on the vertical risers and more rapidly on the horizontal portions and drips considerably. Greater melting and dripping of the wax-like materials seems to occur during burning of a horizontal portion and less during burning of a riser. Melting wax from the pellets I2 tends to run down the sides of the candle in channels or grooves created during burning Of a Vertical riser and tends toy do so only at these locations. To illustrate, assume that the flame burns down the Vertical leg I4 of the wick shown in Fig. 4a; as it burns down the leg gravity induces the melted wax to drip along the groove Ida indicated by the dot-dash lines, probably because the top surface of the candle is lowest at the point where it is being burned. When the flame reaches point I5 it burns around a corner of the wick to horizontal leg I 6; during this interval a slight pocket I9 seems to form, as indicated generally by the broken line 20, in the side of the candle underneath and to one side ef point I5. o
As the wick burns along the horizontal portion or leg i6, the melting colored Wax tends to ow toward the pocket I9 and down the channel I4a formed during burning of vertical leg I4. The melted wax or wax-like material seems to be partly sucked down by the stream of wax already dripping along the channel. A preferably tightly braided wick causes the horizontal wick portions to remain so during burning thereof. When the flame reaches vertical leg I1, another channel I'Ia for the drippings is created, as described. These cycles continue until the wick burns down to the bottom of the recess 8. The recess or chamber II then allows the wick to burn the candle oli horizontally to a substantially even condition. Thereafter the wick 9 burns in the conventional manner at the center of the candle and the previously formed colored drippings are gradually remelted andrtend to again flow further down along the candle.
It will be seen that by spacing the steps around the candle, preferably uniformly,y the drippings are distributed around the circumference of the candle and do not tend to run down only one side of the candle. The successive melting of the differently colored wax pellets creates a beautiful ever-changing and continually developing color pattern of blue, green, gold, purple, yellow, brown, red or any other desired colored drippings. As burning continues, some of the colored drippings tend to mingle with others to give a variegated changing pattern. The overall effect produced is exceedingly pleasing to the eye. The number of wick steps and lengths of the vertical and horizontal steps thereof may be varied as desired to obtain various distributions of drippings `around the candle. Either a right hand or left hand winding may be employed for the wick.
As was set forth previously, material such as bronze or aluminum powder may' be mixed with other ingredients to form the gold colored or silver colored pellets. In some instances these powders tend to react unfavorably upon coming into direct contact with a glowing candle wick in that they either may fuse into scales or clinkeis extinguishing the wick, or may burn intensely, emitting great heat so as to melt the entire candle. By locating the Wick adjacent the outer portion of the pellets, as in the preferred embodiment, rather than through their mid portions, these difficulties may be minimized or prevented.
Alternative wick arrangements are shown in i Figs. 6 and 7. In Fig. 6, a sort of reverse Z step has been substituted for the straight step configuration. This alternative method has been found to be quite satisfactory, producing distributed drippings similar to that of Figs. 1 and 4. In Fig. 7 a spiral arrangement or winding is disclosed; this is not quite as desirable as the others aord closer control of the distribution of the drippings.
There is shown in Fig. 8 an alternative method of making the candle. A recess I8 is cut or formed at one side of the candle 'l and the col ored wax pellets 12b are inserted directly into the side of the candle body as illustrated. The recess is then sealed by the application of wax and the successive operations are similar to those described heretofore.
A modified candle construction is shown in Fig. 9. The wick |3c extends straight through the central part of the candle, including the colored pellets I2c. This embodiment lacks the same controlled drippings of the embodiment with the generally spiralled wick and as stated heretofore, diiculty is sometimes encountered with this vertical wick in burning through the bronze powder used in a gold colored pellet; sometimes a clinker tends to form and extinguish the wick or the powder tends to ignite and burn so intensely as to melt the entire candle.
While any suitable wax or wax-like materials may be used to make the body portions of the candles, as distinguished from the colored pellets, excellent results have been achieved by using about 60% by weight of stearic acid and about 40% by weight parafn. Beeswax may be added to these materials if the candles are to be used for religious purposes.
The invention and methods disclosed herein are equally adaptable to use in novelty candles of varying shapes and designs, such as candles made in the form of Christmas trees as in Fig. 10.
It will be seen that the present invention provides a new and improved candle, and method of making it, which produces a very pleasing effect during burning. The colored drippings or streams are controllable in that they may be distributed at desired locations around the candle so that the candle during and after burning exhibits a plurality of different colored zones or areas. Any of numerous color combinations may be employed and the colors may be concealed within the candle so that the latter presents the appearance of an ordinary or conventional candle. If desired, the differently colored layers or zones may be exposed to View instead of being concealed within the body of the candle.
During burning, the melting color streams present an ever-changing color combination. When colored zones at the upper part of a candle have been entirely melted through, additional burning of the candle remelts the color streams distributed around the candle and they run further down the candle to provide additional variegated color combinations. Metallic colors may be provided, as described, by utilizing bronze powder, aluminum powder or the like for certain of the colored zones; excellent results are obtained with such materials due to the sparkling or alive eiects produced thereby and clinkering or burning of the metallic powder is minimized by locating the wick adjacent the outer portions of such colors, rather than through their mid portions.
As various changes may be made in the form, construction and arrangement of the parts herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention and without sacrificing any of its advantages, it is to be understood that all matter herein is to be interpreted as illustra tive and not in a limiting sense.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. A combustible candle comprising a lower portion having a wick extending centrally thereof, an upper portion including a plurality of layers of material adapted to form colored drippngs, and a wick extending generally spirally about said layers of material.
2. A candle as claimed in claim l, in which a chamber is located beneath a lowermost of said layers of material for facilitating melting of the candle to an even condition subsequent to molting of the layers of material.
3. In a candle, a plurality of centrally disposed zones of material along a portion of said candle adapted to form colored drippings, and wick means extending generally lengthwise of and in a step-likespiral about outwardly disposed portions of said zones of material, said step-like spiral including upwardly extending portions that are inclined away from the Vertical.
4. In a combustible candle, a plurality of centrally disposed zones of material along a portion of said candle adapted to form colored drippings, and wick means extending generally lengthwise of and in a stepped spiral around said zones of material.
5. A candle, wick means extending generally lengthwise of the candle, a plurality of different color Zones of wax-like meltable material disposed in superposed relationship lengthwise of the longitudinal axis of the candle along at least a portion thereof, a peripherally disposed layer of material overlying said zones of material, said wick means extending along the length of said candle and said plurality of zones of meltable material and being adapted to successively form colored drippings and drippings from said peripheral layer, said colored drippings from the superposed different color zones and drippings from said peripheral layer running successively down during burning of the candle and providing areas colored generally in accordance with that of the particular zone adjacent a burning end of the wick zone.
6. The method of making a candle of the class described which comprises forming a candle body and providing adjacent an upper centrally disposed portion thereof a recess with an upwardly opening end, inserting into the recess through said upwardly opening end, and pressing down into the recess a plurality of portions of differently colored material, and arranging a wick generally lengthwise of and spirally about said portions of differently colored material.
7. A candle as claimed in claim 5, in which said plurality of color zones of material is located adjacent an upper portion of the candle, and the Wick means at said zones of material has a plurality of portions spaced vertically from each other and extending generally circumferentially of the candle.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,428,940 Brinker et al Sept. 12, 1922 1,596,017 Harmsen Aug. 17, 1926 2,464,361 Wilson Mar. l5, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 5,902 Great Britain 1897 i ll