US 2628490 A
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2 SHEETS-SHEET 1 M. KLEIN PUSH-BUTTON COMBINATION LOCK Feb. 17, 1953 Filed Feb. 11, 1947 Feb. 17, 1953 M. KLEIN PUSHBUTTON COMBINATION LOCK 2 Sl'lEETS-SHEET 2 Filed Feb. 11, 1947 JI J 133 13/ J23 INVENTOR /Vd/[(/5 A /m ATTORNEY Patented Feb. 17, 1953 ATENT OFFICE.
PUSH-BUTTON COMBINATION LOCK Markus Klein, Pittsburgh, Ba. ApplicationFebruary 11, 1347, Serial No. 72'7,777
I 11 Claims. 1
My invention relates to locking mechanism and has particular relation to permutation locks.
Patents 359,838, Betti's, and 2,346,513, Sidelinker, are illustrative of prior art locking" mechanisms of which I am aware. Since the locks shown in these patents are typical of the prior art, the diificulty with prior art locks can be conveniently described by considering their structures. In the Bettis lock, vertically mounted tumblers are actuable by pushbuttons. The bolt is released after each of the tumblers has been actuated a predetermined number of times. In the Sideli'nker lock, the tumblers are horizontally mounted and are actuable by operation of the knob.
The Bettis and Sidelinker locks are of. complex structure. In the Bettis lock, each of the tumblers has a complicated ratchet composed of two rows of teeth. The interaction between the push rods and the teeth is such that unless the teeth are accurately dimensioned and positioned, the lock will fail to operate. A burr or irregularity on the ratchet teeth of the Bettis lock will prevent release of the bolt. Since the Bettis tumblers are vertical a spring must be provided to hold them in position. Complex mechanisms are required to relax the springs when the tumblers are to be set in their initial positions or moved. In the Sidelinker lock, a multiplicity of complex levers and springs are interposed between the knob and the tumblers. Each of the levers must be accurately dimensioned and the springs must be accurately' pro-adjusted if the lock is to operate properly. Improper positioning or dimensioning of the Sidelinker lock or an irregularity on one of the levers will prevent release of the bolt. The predicament of a person confronted with a permutation lock of the type disclosed in the patents which refuses to open need not be described in detail.
It is, accordingly, an object of my invention to provide a locking mechanism of simple structure.
Another object of my invention is to provide a locking 'mechanism made up of a small number of parts of simple structure.
A further object of my invention is to provide a permutation lock, the coasting movable parts of which need not be accurately dimensioned and positioned.
Still another object of my invention is to provide a locking mechanism adaptable to a variety of uses; for example, for garage doors, automobile's', luggage and like purposes.
An ancillary object of my invention is to provide a padlock of simple structure.
Another ancillary object of my invention is to provide a doorlock of the knob type of simple structure.
More concisely stated, it is an object of my invention to provide a locking mechanism composed of a few inexpensive and simple parts and particularly adapted for use either in a padlock or in a doorlock' of the knob type.
In accordance with the broader aspects ofmy invention, I provide a locking mechanism primarily made up of a bolt and a plurality of identical sets of three components, each'for: controlling the movement of the bolt. Each set consists of a tumbler, a pawl for actuating the tumbler and a push-rod for moving the pawl. The bolt and the components coact in such manner that when the tumblers have been moved a predeterminednumber of times, the bolt is released.
In accordance with my invention in its more specific aspects, the tumblers are mountedto' move horizontally in the look when they are to be operated to release the bolt and are pushbutton actuated. The horizontal pushbutton actuable tumblers may be included in a padlock or in a knob-operated lock. In a padlock, the tumblers may be mounted in such manner that they are free to fall under gravity into their initial positions' for the unlocking operation when the padlock is turned so that the tumbler mounting is vertical. In a lock of the knob type, the tumblers may be set in their initial positions by operation of a return arm from the outside of the door.
The novel features that I consider characteristic of my invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The invention, itself, however, both as to its organization and its method of operation, together with additional objects and advantages thereof; will best be un-- derstood from the following description of specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which Figure l is a view in perspective with a portion of the Wall broken away of a padlock in accordance with my invention;
Fig. 2 is a view in perspective of the padlock shown in Fig. 1 as viewed from the face opposite to that shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a View in perspective showing the principal components of the padlock shown'in Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a view in side elevation showing how the padlock shown in Fig. 1 is set for the opening operation;
Fig. 5 is a view in front elevation with a portion of the wall broken away of a permuta tion lock of the knob type;
' be cast integral with the section II.
' width of the center side.
Fig. 6 is an exploded view in perspective showing the lock shown in Fig.
Fig. 7 is a View in perspective showing the latch and the bolt of the lock shown in Fig. 5; and
Figs. 8 to 13 are views in perspective showing various tumblers which may be included in looking mechanism in accordance with my invention.
The padlock shown in Figs. 1 to 4 comprises a rectangular container l5 formed by fastening together by means of bolts or rivets two wall sections l1 and I9 having the shape of rectangular dishes. The wall sections H and I9 have substantially congruent edges. In combining them into the container l5, they are placed with their edges coincident and fastened together. The wall sections should preferably be die-cast but they may be sand cast, hugged out or formed in any other convenient manner.
From the internal face of one of the wall sections IT, a plurality of elongated bosses 2| extend at spaced intervals. The bosses 2| may Each boss is made up of a solid lower side 23, a solid end on one side (on the left in Fig. 1) and an upper side which is split into two sections 21 and 29 providing a notch between them. The
' edge of the section 21 is bevelled. Spaced slots 3| are thus defined along the wall section I! between the lower and upper sides 23 and 21-29 of the bosses.
Within each of the slots 3|, 9. tumbler 33 is disposed. Each of the tumblers is composed of a ratchet 35, a body block 31 at right angles to the ratchet 35 and a locking block 39 coextensive with the body block. The body block rests on the inner face of the lower side 23 of the boss and the ratchet 35 extends upward so that one of its teeth is disposed directly below the notch between the upper walls 21 and 29 of the boss. The end wall 25 of the boss presents a limiting position for the tumbler 33. If the container I 5 is held with the side parallel to the end walls 25 of the bosses downward, the tumblers 33 drop to a position in which they engage the side walls.
Each tumbler 33 is actuated by a pawl 4! which is pivotally supported on a pin 43 secured to the long side 44 of a push rod 45. The push rod 45 is in the form of a zig-zag bracket with a long center side 44 and short end sides 46 and 41. The end side 46 extends only for a short distance from the top of the center side but the end side 4! extends throughout the From the short side 41 of the push rod 45, a button 49 extends. When the push rod is mounted in the container I5, the button 49 passes through a circular hole formed between the wall sections I! and I9 of the container on the side adjacent the closed end 25 of the boss. From a point near the upper edge of the short side 46 of each of the push rods 45, a pin 53 extends in a direction away from the long face 44. A compression coil spring 51 is wound on the pin 53.
A vertical plate 59 extends from the wall section I! adjacent the short sides 46 of the push rods 45. The plate 59 may be a boss cast integral with the wall section I! or it may be one side of a right angle bracket, the other side of which is bolted to the wall section. The pin 53 on the face 46 passes through a hole in the plate 59 and the spring 51 rests against the plate 59 and the short side 46 from which the pin is supported. The spring 51 is so wound in' steps.
that it exerts a force urging the button 49 on the other side 41 outward. With the button in the outward position, the tip of the pawl 4| rests against the bevel of the upper wall section 21 of the elongated boss. When the button 49 is pushed inward against the force of the spring 51, the pawl 4|, under gravity, drops into the notch between the upper wall sections 21 and 29 of the boss, engages the ratchet 35 and moves the tumbler 33 one step forward. When the button 49 is released, the push rod 45 returns to its initial position, the pawl 4| disengaging the tumbler 33. On another operation of the pushbutton, the pawl again engages the tumbler and moves it another step forward. Repeated operation of the pushbuttons 49 causes the corresponding tumblers to advance Two or three pushbuttons may be actuated simultaneously.
From the wall section I9 a plurality of pairs of horizontal elongated slotte'dbosses 6| of equal length extend. The bosses 6| of each pair are colinear. The inner ends of the bosses define a vertical channel 63. The inner faces on the lower sides 64 of each pair of bosses 6| are in the same plane as the inner face of the lower side 23 of a corresponding boss on the opposite wall section II. The locking blocks 39 of the tumblers, therefore, ride on the inner lower faces of the bosses 6|.
The bolt 65 is in the form of a right angle bracket. The bolt is mounted so that its vertical side 91 is in the channel 63 formed between the pairs of bosses 6| suspended from the wall section l9. In that edge of the vertical side 61 of the bolt 65 which faces wall section II, notches 69 are provided at spaced intervals. The positioning and spacing of the notches 69 are such that they extend over the locking blocks 39 of the tumblers 33. The tumblers are slidable in the notches. The horizontal portion H of the bolt 65 extends over the upper face of the upper boss 6| on the side of Wall section l9 away from the pushbutton 49. It is provided at its projecting end with a widened portion 13 into which U-shaped groove 15 extends. At the groove 15 the bolt 65 is secured to the shackle 11.
The shackle Ti is of J-form with its long side 19 extending through a circular hole formed on the side of the springs 51 between the wall sections l1 and I9 and the top of its short side 8| extending into a circular hole formed on the opposite side between the wall sections. The long side 19 of the shackle 11 is constricted into a narrow neck below the point where it enters the hole between the sections I? and I9. The bolt 65 engages the shackle at the constricted portion; the U-groove and the construction interlocking. The end of the long side 19 rests on an end bearing (not shown).
In the locked position of the padlock, the notches 69 in the vertical side 61 of the bolt 65 engage the solid portions of the locking blocks 39 of the tumblers 33 and the bolt is prevented from sliding upward. Each of the tumblers 33 is provided with a notch 83 in its locking block 39. The notch 83 is of such dimension that if it coincides with the notch 69 in the bolt 65, the bolt is free to move upward. The notches 83 in the tumblers. 33 are so disposed that if the tumblers are advanced a predetermined number of times from their initial positions, the notches 69 in the bolt 65, and the notches 83 in all the tumblers will coincide. Under such circumstances, the bolt will be released so that it may be moved upward. The bolt 65 is free to move upward a sufiicient distance to enable the tip of the short side M of the shackle to clear the top of the hole formed between the wall sections I1 and I9. The shackle may then be rotated with long side I9 as an axis and the lock opened.
The padlock may be set so that the tumblers 33 are in their initial positions for operation by holding it in such manner that the buttons 49 face downward (Fig. 4). The tumblers then rest against the end walls 2501' the longitudinal bosses. From this position, the operation may be initiated.
In Figs. 5, 6 and 7, a knob-type lock, inaccordance with my invention, is shown. The lock is supported in a'suitable bracket (not shown in detail) mounted in a mortise door '85 at a position such that a pivot 81 may be operated con-r veniently.
The lock comprises a plurality of pushbutton actuable push rods 89. The push rods are mounted so that they extend perpendicular to the large area faces of the door 85 and when their pushbuttons 9| are actuated move longitudinally. At its end away from the outside face of the door 85, each push rod is forked. About the upper finger 93 of the fork, a spring 95 is wound. 'One end of the spring rests against the junction between the fingers 93 and 91 of the fork and the other end restsagainst a fixed portion (not shown) of the lock bracket. The spring 95 urges the push rod 89 outward. (The spring 95 is shown on only one rod 89 but is actually provided on all'rods.)
The pushbuttons 9| extend through the outside wall of the lock bracket in two rows; a lower row of three and an upper row of two. The lower buttons are secured directly to the push rods; the upper buttons are secured to short arms 91 extending upward at right angles from the main bodies of the push rods. The
. main bodies of all push rods are at the same level. A pawl 99 is pivotally suspended from a pin IIII on the main body of each of the push rods 89. The pawls are at the same level. When the push rods are in the unactuated position, the
pawls 99 rest on the bevelled edge I03 of the slot I05 in a slotted cover plate IN. A person adjacent the door 85 on its outside can cause the push rods 89 to move inward by pressing the corresponding pushbuttons 9|. When a rod 89 is actuated, the corresponding pawl 99 drops into the slot I05 and engages the ratchet I09 on a tumbler III, below thecover plate advancing the tumbler one step. Repeated actuation of the push rods 89 causes the corresponding tumblers to be advanced repeatedly in steps.
The bolt N3 of the lock is in the form of a hollow elongated box from the top of which a plurality of hollow projections of U-cross-section extend. The projection II5 extending" from the end of the bolt adjacent the edge of the door is longer than the other projections H1. The latter are of equal length. One side face of the bolt II3 has a long slot H8 which extends from the end away from the edge of the door to the transverse center of the face. The projections II5 and IE1 are spaced and define slots II9 of thickness which is somewhat greater than the thickness of the tumblers III. Each of the tumblers is slidably disposed in a corresponding slot. When the lock is in the locked position, a
solid portion of-the locking block IZI of at least one or the tumblers is disposed in itscorresponding slot H9. The locking blocks I2! of the tumblers I II have notches [23 of a width'slig'htly greater than the width of the slots H9 of=the U projections II5---H I'. The bolt is released when the notches I23 of all of the tumblers I I I coincide with the slots I I9. To release the-bolt H3, each of the tumblers III must beactuated a predetermined number of times;
The latch or the lock comprises a-rectangular rod I25 on one end of which the latching wedge I21 is disposed. The dimensions of the rod-H5 are'such that-it is freely'slidable inthe rectangular tube of the bolt. Near the free end oi' the rod I25 onone of its vertical faces, a leaf spring I29 is'secured. The spring isof hook'iorm and when compressed its free end is movable into a slot I3I transverse to the rod. when the rod is inserted in the bolt, the'spring I29 is compressed. When the rod I25 is thrust intothe bolt to the properv distance; the spring projects through the longitudinal'slot I I'a'and restsagainst its inner edge I33. Whenthe bolt/I13 isreleased. it is capable of sliding horizontally in a direction parallel to the large faces of the door and away from that edge of the door'which is moved when the door is opened.
The longitudinal slot II'8 extendsirom the center of a side 'or'the bolt to the edge'away-from the latching wedge :21. From'the-oppositeside of the bolt near the end away from the locking wedge a rectangular projection I35 extends. A cam I31 on the shaft I39 of the outside knob 81 of the door engages the vertical face of'this projection. When the bolt I'I3 isreleasedyrm tation of the knob 81 will cause the-bolt'to' move away from the junction between the door and the door frame (not shown). The bolt carries the latch with it retracting the latching wedge-I21 and permitting the door to open. The knob (not shown) 'on the inside face of the door is provided with a corresponding cam which-engages the leaf spring I29 through the longitudinal slot I I8. Operation of this knob causes'retraction of the latching wedge independently of the" locking bolt H9. When the dooris locked, the latching wedge I21 is held in engagement with its cooperative opening in the do r frame-by the force of a spring MI which encircles the latch rod I 25. At one end the spring is secured to the rod I25, at the other it rests'asainst a wall'ofthe bracket in which the lock is mounted. The force of the spring urges'the latching wedge outward.
The tumblers III are set in their initial positions by operation of 'a 'return device I43. The device comprises-a bar I'45' jat right angles to the tumblers and it engages the tumblersat their edges. The bar I45 is 'rnovable'lnto and out of engagement with the tumblers by a 'rod- H1 secured at right angles to it which extends through the door to the outside. To set the tumblers in their initial positions; the rod HT is pulled outward. When the rod reachesits extreme outward position, it is retractedand the pushbuttons Eli are actuated.
In Figs. 8 to 13, tumblers or various structures which are used in the practice of my invention, are shown. The tumbler I'49'sl'iown inof a structure similar to that included in'the lock Shownin s. 5 to 7. Its ratchet and body and locking block's I 5| I53 and I55, respectively are in one plane. Inth'e tumbler I51 shown in l ig. 9, the locking block I59 is rin aplane at right angles to the body-block'yitl' and ratchet I53.
--of any structure. I89 of the bolt may be omitted. The H -section a 7 The tumbler 165 shown in Fig. 11, the locking block I61 and the ratchet I69 are in parallel planes perpendicular to the body block l"! I. Both the locking block and the ratchet extend upward ..-from the body block. In the tumbler I13 shown in Fig. 12, the locking block I and the ratchet I l'i-are-- inparallel planes perpendicular to the plane of the body block-I I9 but the locking block extends downward. In the tumbler I8! shown in Fig. 13, the locking block I83 and the ratchet I 85 are adjacent and extend upward from the body block I87.
The reference to a knob-type lock in this specification is intended to comprehend within its My invention The bolt H3 shown as a tube may be a guide For example the lower face projections on the top of the bolt H3 may be solid blocks.
A locking mechanism according to my invention may b adapted to a wide variety of uses.
7 For each use tumblers of the proper structure (Figs. 8 to 13) must be selected and the mechanism must be properly mounted. 1 Although I have shown and described certain specific embodiments of my invention, I am fully aware that many modifications thereof are pos- .sible. V My invention, therefore, is not to be restricted except insofar as is necessitated by theprior art and by the spirit of the appended claims,
I claim as my invention: 1. A locking mechanism comprising a looking bolt; a support for said bolt, said bolt being mounted movable relative to said support to pawl, mounted on said support, each pawl being mounted on its corresponding push rod in such manner as to be urged into engagement with its corresponding tumbler by gravity; a slotted cover interposed between each pawl and each 'tumblerfor limiting the portion of the range of movement of said pawl over which it engages said tumbler; and a push button for actuating each push rod to actuate correspondingly each by their corresponding pushbuttons; said tumblers, after each has been moved a predetermined number of times, releasing said bolt.
2. A locking mechanism comprising a locking bolt; a support for said bolt, said bolt being mounted movable. relative to said support to lockedand unlocked positions; a plurality of tumblers each mounted on said support to move relative to said support in a horizontal plane when said mechanism is disposed in a position for operation, said tumblers engaging said bolt in such manner that, when said bolt is in said locked position said tumblers are movable but prevent thqmoyement, of said bolt; a pawl for moving repeatedly each of said tumblers independently of the others; a push rod associated with each pawl mounted on said support, each pawl being mounted on its corresponding push rod in such manner as to be urged into engagement with its corresponding tumbler by gravity; a slotted cover interposed between each pawl and each tumbler for limiting the portion of the range of movement of said pawl over which it engages said tumbler, said cover being bevelled on one of those sides of said slot which are perpendicular to the direction of movement of said pawls and the tips of said pawls resting on the bevel of said bevelled side in the unactuated position of said pawls; and a push button for actuating each push rod to actuate correspondingly each of said pawls; said pawls being actuated solely by their corresponding push buttons; said tumblers, after each has been moved a predetermined number of times, releasing said bolt.
3. A padlock comprising a support having holes near the opposite ends of one of the edges thereof;
a bolt in the form of a right angle bracket mounted in said support with one of its right angle sides parallel to said edge, said one side having shackle engaging means at the end thereof and said bolt being mounted with said shackle-engaging means aligned with one of said holes of said edge, said other side of said bolt having a plurality of longitudinally spaced notches therein extending transversely thereof; a U-shaped shackle having a long side and a short side mounted with said long side extending through said one hole and engaging said shackle-engaging means and said short side engaging said other hole; a tumbler extending into each of said notches slidable relative to said notches, each of said tumblers having a notch adapted to engage said other side to permit movement thereof and any one of said tumblers blocking movement of said bolt when the notch of said one tumbler'is out of register with the corresponding notch of said one side and means for selectively moving said tumblers independently of each other a predetermined distance.
4. A padlock comprising a shackle; means 00- operative with said shackle for holding it in locked and unlocked positions, said means including an arm secured to said shackle and extending vertically when said padlock is in a position for operation and having a plurality of notches along the length thereof and a tumbler engaging each of said notches and movable in a direction substantially perpendicular to said arm which while in the locked position prevents said arm from moving in a direction perpendicular of said pawls, said pawls being actuated solely to said tumblers, each said tumbler including a ratchet having teeth; a pawl mounted so as to engage each said ratchet under force of gravity when said padlock is disposed in a position for operation and means for actuating said pawls to actuate said tumblers when said padlock is so disposed.
5. A padlock comprising a shackle; means cooperative with said shackle for holding it in locked and unlocked positions, said means including an arm secured to said shackle and extending vertically when said padlock is in a position for operation and having a plurality of notches along the length thereof and a tumbler engaging each of said notches and movable in a direction substantially perpendicular to said arm which while in the locked position prevents said arm from moving in a direction perpendicular to said tumblers, each said tumbler including a ratchet having teeth; a pawl mounted so as to engage each said ratchet under force of gravity when said padlock is disposed in a position for operation; means for actuating said pawls to actuate said tumblers when said padlock is so disposed and means independent of said pawls and ratchets for limiting the movement of each pawl to the distance of one tooth of its corresponding ratchet on each actuation of said pawl.
6. A locking mechanism according to claim 1 characterized by a latch movable with the bolt.
7. A locking mechanism according to claim 1 characterized by a latch movable with the bolt and by a return device for setting the tumblers in a predetermined initial position at the start of an unlocking operation.
8. A locking mechanism according to claim 1 characterized by a latching mechanism in the form of a rod having a protruding portion over a relatively small portion of the length thereof, by the bolt having a slot along a portion of the length thereof, said rod being thrust onto said bolt in such manner that said protruding portion engages the edge of said bolt, by a mechanism, for causing said bolt to move said rod, on the side of said bolt away from said slot and by another mechanism for moving said rod independently of said bolt by engaging it through said slot.
9. A locking mechanism according to claim 1 characterized by the bolt being movable in a horizontal plane at right angles to the plane of movement of the tumblers and by a latch movable 3.)
with said bolt.
10. A lock according to claim 9 in which the latch is a rod and the bolt a tube into which said rod is thrust, said rod and tube being provided with cooperative parts restricting the movement of the rod unless the tube is moved.
11. A locking mechanism according to claim 1 characterized by the bolt being movable in a horizontal plane at right angles to the plane of movement of the tumblers, by a latch movable with said bolt and by a return device for moving said tumblers relative to said bolt to set said tumblers in a predetermined initial position at the start of an unlocking operation.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 502,307 Lowrie Aug. 1, 1893 534,534 Wagner Feb. 19, 1895 599,565 Kintner Feb. 22, 1898 651,347 Eyster June 12, 1900 1,173,343 Gornicec Feb. 29, 1916 1,276,633 Forbes Aug. 20, 1918 1,387,750 Appleton Aug. 16, 1921 1,686,632 Mayer Oct. 9, 1928 1,792,949 Weissenboeck Feb. 17, 1931 2,132,201 Allman Oct. 4, 1938 2,346,513 Sidelinker Apr. 11, 1944 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 876,339 France Nov. 3, 1942