US 2629095 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 24, 1953 J. L. KLEINMAN 2,629,095
HELMET Filed Jan. 2, 1948 2 SHEETS--SHEET 2 (4' da, Z3
Patented Feb. 24, 1953 HELMET Jacob L. Kleinman, New York, N. Y.
Application January 2, 1948, Serial No. 304
This invention relates to the construction of helmets in general, and more particularly to a type known as football helmets, and is construct.
ed in a manner wherein the crown section thereof is removably mounted upon the base-unit of the helmet and is provided with means adapted to check the effect of shock caused by a blow upon the helmet, thus minimizing injuries to the wearer.
My novel construction is capable of being utilized in connection with various types of helmets. for example: army helmets, navy helmets, marine helmets, aviation helmets, football helmets, workmens helmets, miners helmets and helmets for various other purposes.
In accordance with my invention, I producea helmet comprising an individual base-unit and an individual crown-unit, or crown-section and wherein such units are each provided with interlocking means adapted to be interlocked with each other thus uniting said units into a completed unitary structure, and wherein such interlocking means is adapted to be unlocked, thereby separating such units from each other, and wherein such units are provided with rebouncing and absorbing means adapted to checker disrupt the ow, motion or movement of shock produced by blows received by such units while in use.
There is, therefore, thus produced, in accordance with my invention, a helmet comprising a base-unit having a removably mounted crownsection, constructed in a manner whereby such crown-section may be removed, replaced, and readjusted and wherein such helmet structure isV provided with shock-absorbing and rebouncing means adapted to check and absorb the shock of a blow 0r knock thereby minimizing injuries to the wearer.
To illustrate the ordinary commercial utility of my helmet in daily life, a helmet constructed in accordance with my invention, of whatever style or type it may be made, could be utilized to great advantage. For the purpose of explaining applicants invention the following may be said; it is a well known fact, that the present type of helmets are of the one-piece type, that is, the base-portion and the crown-section are made integral with each other, they can not be separated from each other, so that if the crown-section of such helmet becomes dented or fractured then such helmet becomes entirely useless, and, even though the base-portion may yet be in a perfectly good condition, yet, such helmet can not be used any more and must be discarded. Such 9 Claims. (Cl. 2 3) a matter became quite annoying to the average player, as it may happen that in the very first game or play, or when the helmet had just begun to be in use, that the crown-section may become defective or damaged, in which case the wearer hardly having had any use of his helmet, is compelled to buy a new helmet, thus undergoing unexpected expense and irritation. It can therefore be seen that it is quite a costly and annoying matter to the average party who wishes to partake in the game of sport where the use of a helmet is required, to go through such irritable experience.
This problem became very vexing indeed to the trade commercially, and thus of great concern to the helmet manufacturers. It reflected greatly upon the industry to an extent whereby many attempts have been made to overcome or correct such problem but without practical success.
Applicants invention, as herein presented, solves such problem in a complete and satisfactory manner. The fact, that a helmet, constructed in accordance with my invention, is provided with means whereby the crown-section may be removed from the base-portion, replaced, or readjusted, eliminates completely all of the above-mentioned faults and defects. As a matter of fact. this novel helmet construction, wherein the base-portion is provided with means adapted to release the crown-section from its position, and become associated with a new crown-section, will reduce, greatly, the cost or expense to the average individual player, thereby increasing the participants in this branch of sports. Such novel helmet will therefore become an indispensable item with the individual player and thus valuable commercially.
The same is true with respect to the rebouncing and shock-absorbing means hereinabove mentioned. It is a known fact that the present type of helmets consists of a skull made of a hard material, such as ber, Bakelite, plastic or metal, and is provided with an integral base-portion wherein the inner face thereof is provided with a padding, such padding is adapted to t snugly around the face and around the lower rear portion of the wearers head, the strap which is positioned under the wearers chin draws the `side portions of such padded bottom portion snugly against the-face of the wearer, the inner upper portion 0f the skull is provided with an element adapted to cushion the top portion ofthe wearers-head `against blows which maybe received by the upper portion ofthe skull. Such 3 helmet structure has been designed for the purpose of protecting the wearers head against injuries, but, in reality such helmet structure does not fully accomplish its purpose, because, although the upper section of such helmet is kept away, by the said element, from direct contact with the upper portion of the wearers head, yet, because the shock of the blow received by the skull of the helmet is transferred into the portions tting snugly against the face and the lower rear portion of the wearers head, such shock through such transfer affects the wearers head to a great extent. So that while the extreme upper portion of the wearers head may,`
to some extent, be protected against a direct hit or blow, yet the head as a wholeis-not at all protected against the eifect of sucha hit or blow, which may prove fatal to the wearer, or of serious injuries as a result thereof.
Applicants structure completely eliminates such hazardous occurrences, the fact that the lower portionof appliants `crown-section is not in direct contact with the base-unit, but is secured thereto by pliablememberscauses the travelv of shock, which may be lcaused by a blow upon thev crown-section,to.be checked or discontinued at the end portionof such,section. Furthermore, the -pliable members provide a sort of a springcushioning effect, so that when the |crown-section, or the side-portion of such crown-section, would receive a-blow orv knocksuch crown section would vibrateforA afew` seconds thereby absorbing the shock of such blow; so that a shock from a blow received by any part of applicants crown-section, will-be ,checked bysuch-pliable members at the end portion of such crown-section and be discontinued at suchpoint, and thus not be transferredl to-,the base-unit thereby not affecting the wearerfs Y head.
Furthermore, the outer face of applicants crown section is provided with a cushioning member and with a pliable element covering such cushioning, member. .Such structure is arranged in Such amanner whereby` air compartments are provided-,for the purpose of cushioning and rebouncingthe effect gf a blow, sothat when a blow is delivered againstsuoh pliable element, such air compartments would rebounce and greatly weaken'the effect of such blowand absorb the shock of same, t-herebycurtailing the leffect of such shock before it; couldreach the base-unit of the helmet, thus actually, eliminating possibilities of injuries to `the wearer.
In addition thereto,` such .air compartments will also serve-to cushion the shockof an accidental hit or knock with such helmet against a party playenduring the course of play, thereby minimizing possible injuries to such party player.
.The vsame is valso vtrue with respect-,to applicantsbase-unit -whichis provided with an air cushioning'compartment, the pliable member of such compartment will rebounce -and greatly weakenfthe effect of ablow or knock.
v:Thesame is likewise true with respect to applicants removable.spring-cushioning means of the ear-laps, such protective means willvg-reatlyV minimize f the* possibilities of f injuries to the wearers ear drums, thereby protecting the wearer against possible deafness.
There is, therefore, thus produced, in accordance with my invention, aihelmet thatis fully shockproof and, therefore, reduces the possibilivide satisfaction, safety and comfort to the user, and will become an indispensable item with the average player and thus prove valuable commercially.
The variety of possible application of my novel construction in connection with different types of helmets, as hereinabove indicated, is so prolific that for the purpose of illustrating the invention ne specific embodiment of my invention in its application to a helmet exhibiting the greatest difnculties has been selected. Such a helmet is one which necessarily must conform most rigidly to the contours of the head and face of the wearer and one which has the field of greatest possible commercial use. For this purpose I have selected for illustration of my novel construction, ahelmet of the type constituting a football helmet, so that the principles of construction may best be illustrated in a head protective structure known as helmets.
'ljhe objects of the present invention are attained by a novel construction which will be hereinafter described and illustrated in the drawing in connection with a specific embodiment of the invention.
In the accompanyingdrawing in which such specific embodiment of my invention is illustrated, l
Fig. l is a side view of a helmet, constructed in vaccordance with my invention, showing the parts interlocked with each other in a manner forming a unitary structure.
Fig. 2 is a perspective cross-sectional view taken along the line .2--2 of Fig. l partly broken away, showing the base-unit and the skull of the crown-section, the pliable shock-absorbing members, the pliable cover and the air cushioning compartments therebetween.
Fig. 3 is a-perspective View of a portion of the pliable shock absorbing-member in its normal position.
Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view of a portion of the crown structure, showing the position of the pliable shock absorbing member when receiving a blow and-in readiness to rebounce the effect of the same.
Fig. 5 is a perspective View of a portion of a modified pliable shock .absorbing member, showing that such member may be provided with integrally formed air compartments.
Fig. `6 is a perspective view of a portion of a pliable shock-absorbing member, showing that such member may be provided with'individuallyyieldable projections for the purpose of rebouncing the effect of a blow received by the pliable cover of the crown-section.
Fig? is a cross-sectional view taken along the line l-.l `of Fig...6 showing that both faces of such member may be provided with the yieldable projections.
Fig. 8 is a cross-sectional view showing the manner of securingthe rebouncing means to a Bakelite molded helmet or to a metal helmet.
Fig. 9 is a perspective View partly in crosssection taken along the line 9-9 of Fig. 1 showing the spring-cushioning structure of the helmets ear laps.
Fig. V10 is a perspectivecross-sectional view taken-alongthe line Ill-lil offFig. 1 showing the fastening means connecting the crown-sect.on
base- 5 in which similar reference characters identify similar parts in the several views in my novel helmet:
Arrow A indicates a completely finished helmet, in assembled form, made in accordance with my invention. Such helmet may be made of any desirable material, and be shaped, pressed, molded or formed into any suitable style, in a manner as may be deemed advisable by those skilledin the art of making such helmets, or as may be required by the commercial demand of the industry.
Arrow B indicates the base-unit and arrow C indicates the crown-section.
The crown-section C comprises a pliant outer section Ca (see Fig. 2) and a rigid inner section or frame Cb.
Between the section Ca and the section Cb is positioned a cushioning element 23. Such element 23 comprises a body portion having two side faces and may be made of any suitable material, and in any desirable manner, but preferably of a molded rubber material, one face of the said two side faces provided with rib portions or extensions 23a, adapted to be positioned against the inner face of the member Ca, and the other face of the said two side faces is provided with rib portions or projections 23h adapted to be positicned against the outer face of the frame or skull Cb, thereby providing air compartments 24.
The inner section of the frame Cb is provided with a suitable net, made, for example, of strips l l. The end portions l of such net, or strips Il, are secured to the end portion of the frame Cb in a manner whereby the pad i2 of such net is .".f
located at a distance away from the top portion of such frame Cb.
The base-unit B comprises a rigid element I6 shaped in any desirable manner, but preferably in a channel-shaped style cross-sectionally thereof (see Figs. 2 and l0). Such channel-shaped element l is provided with flange portions 1". A pliable cover l5 is secured to such liange portions l" by suitable means, for example, stitchings 'l and la, thereby providing an air compartment a between the cover Iii and the channelshaped element i6. So that when a blow or hit will be launched against the base-portion, the pliable cover l5 will be cushioned by the air compartment l 5a and absorb the shock of such blow and rebounce the effect thereof.
A cushioning member Il, made of any suitable material, but preferably of soft rubber, is secured by suitable means, for example, glue, to the rear outer face of the element i6. The lower end portion of such member il is secured to the lower end portion of the cover I5, by means of stitching lb, thereby providing the base-unit B with a finished bottom section.
The upper end portion 5 of the base-unit B, and the lower end portion 6 of the crown-section C, are each provided with interlocking means adapted to be interlocked with each other in a manner, for example, as indicated by arrow A', thereby securing the crown-section C to the baseunit B. |The interlocking means herein shown are of the zipper type, which may be secured to the upper end portions of the base-unit and to the lower end portion 6 of the crown-section by stitchings 'l and l', but, it is understood, that various other suitable means may be utilized for the purpose of securing the crown-section C to the base-unit B.
With respect to the ear-laps, arrow D, the following may be said: The ordinary type of ear laps, in the present type of helmets, are, structural, just a continuation of such helmet structure. Such ear laps are provided with cupshaped sections adapted to cover the wearers ears, and in such a manner to protect same while playing. But in reality, such ear laps do not provide adequate protection to the wearer; that is because, while a blow, or hit, against such ear laps does not directly Contact the wearers ear, yet, the shock of such hit or blow effects such ear to a great extent, in many instances, seriously injuring the ear drum, occasionally resulting in deafness. It can therefore be seen, that such ear laps, while they appear to offer protection to the wearers ears, do not provide the necessary protection essential to the safety of the wearer, for this reason it has been found to be quite dangerous for a player to become entangled with other players during the course of play.
But applicants ear laps eliminates completely the above-mentioned dangerous and therefore objectionable features. The structure of applioants ear laps are of such a type that it provides complete protection to the wearers ear during the course of play, so that the player may pay full attention to the game Without the usual worry of being careful.
Applicants ear laps are constructed in the following manner: The ear lap section, arrow D, comprises the rigid element It and the cushioning member il which are a part of the baseportion B, but the cover l5 is provided with a pliant auxiliary member 2l. Such auxiliary member 2l is secured to the cover l5 by interlocking means 22, such interlocking means being secured to the auxiliary member 2l by stitching "le and to the cover I5 by stitching d. (See Fig. l.) Such auxiliary member 2l is provided with a rigid element l". A spring 25 is positioned between the element l and the element IG". Such spring 25 may be secured to the rigid element I5 at a point indicated by the numeral 26 and rest against the rigid element I5 as shown by the numeral 26", thus securing such spring 2s in desired position.
The cushioning member ll and the rigid element I6, as well as the rigid element It and the auxiliary member 2l, and the spring 2S, are Y all provided with through openings 33, for the purpose of providing sound passage to the wearers ears.
It will thus be seen, that when a blow or knock is received by the ear lap D, the spring 26 will cushion the auxiliary member 2l, absorb the shock of such a blow and rebounce the effect of same, thereby protecting the wearers ears and eliminating the above-mentioned. objectionable and dangerous features.
The lower end portions of the ear lap D, are provided with elements 2S, adapted to support the locking means 29, for the purpose of securing the helmet A in desired position upon the wearers head.
The auxiliary member 2i is provided with an extension e adapted to be positioned within a pocket e of the base-unit B thereby minimizing wind resistance while playing. Such auxiliary member 2| may be'removed or replaced by merely pulling the lever 22 of the lock 22 in the desired direction. The same is true with respect to the crown-section. Such crown-section may be removed or replaced by pulling the lever 5 of the lock 8 in desired direction.
From the above it will be evident, that when applicants helment A is p-laced upon the wearers head, iand-itheflocking -means placed under the Wearerschin, -for the purposeof .securing such helment in desired p osition upon the wearerls head, ,then,;such helment A will, because of its novel form. of structure, providethe maximum degree. of protectionpossible to be obtained bya helmet. The cushioning means of the crown structureand ofthe b asefunit, and also of the ear zlapstructure, will absorb the shock of a blow or knock, in a manner ashereinabove.. explained, thus protecting the wearers head and minimizing,possibilities of fatal injuries to the wearer.
i-If desiredzthe spring ZBandthe rigid element ISUmayibeeliminated and asuitable cushioningmembermay-be substituted and placedbetweenthe rigidelement t6 and the auxiliary member ,52 l. ,'Or, if `so desired, the ear lapseD may be constructed 1 in the same manner as is the crown-.section C,thatfis, a portion of the cushioning element 23 may be placed between the rigid element 'i6 `and the coverl l5, in a manner, for example, as indicated rby the numeral :21. As .a-matteroffact, the entire base-unit, with or withoutthe vear laps D, may be so constructed, that is, comprising a rigid element l5 and an outer pliant cover l5 and acushioningelement positioned therebetween, in a manner as taught by the crown structure in Fig. 2 or, if desired, the` entire helmet Vmay be made of a rigid material and -be provided with an outer coverage in amanner-as taught by the crown-structure in Fig.-2,-for. example, as Shown in Fig. 8, wherein the rigid element i8 and the cushioning member I1 are `fastened to each other by suitable means, :1'
for .example glue, thereby Vforming a unitary structure. Such structure may be provided with openings il', :formed in a ina-nner whereby a screw-threaded element Il -may be positioned through such opening Il' and engage, or interlock, within a screw-threaded opening located at the-lower end, orbottom portion, of a rigid helmet-frame J ,in a-mannerwhereby the head section .ofsuch screw-threaded element l1 may secure the rigid element I6 `tightly to the end portionof the helmet J. The pliant cover I5 andthe cushioning element 23 may then vbe placed over such rigid-helmet frame J and the lower end portions of same may be secured to thevlower end portions of the unitary structure by means of stitching lb. Thus the entire helmet frame J Vmay be provided with the cushioning means adapted to protect the wearer and also other participants in the game.
The cushioning element;23, comprises a flatshapedfbody structure kprovided at each of its two .side faces with spaced-apart .rib yportions, projections or extensions aland y23b,ffor example, `as show-nin Fig. 3. Such element23, which maybe-made of `anyfsuitable material, is pliable, and whentplacediin desired position, 'is quite iirmyand resistable against outer pressure, so that when an element would strike a blow against the outer face S of the pliant cover, or section Ca, such cushicning ,element would assume a contracted, or compressed'position, for example, kas shown in Fig. Il. The body 23 would become stretched and exed, each of the rib portions 23a and 23o would push its rear wall into itsfrespective air compartment-24 and force such wallportionto `assume a curved position in a manner, for example, as shown at 23', bringing the depressed cover portion arrow L closer to the'underlying rigid section arrow K. VSuch action would cause thecover 23arto cushion the blow and the air compartmentsto absorb vand tocurtail the shock of suchfblow. But such action of the body 23 would last only for a few seconds, such body 23 would then instantly straighten itselfr out, intonormal position, thereby=producing aspring-like effect and immediately rebounce theieffect of such shock.
zIf desired, the ribportions 23h andi23a of the element 23 may be eliminated, and such element mayrbe made in a manner as shown in'Fig. 5, wherein the body 2.4 is provided with integrally formed air compartments '24', for the purpose of cushioning and absorbing theshock of a blow. Furthermore, if desired, -certain of the wall portions-'may be providedwith `slits .24 and with lip sections 24a, thus facilitating the compression action and the expansion action of the rwall portioni 2 4b.
=Variousrformsl or'shapes, of structure maybe resortedto for the purpose of obtaining the desiredresult. For example, the rib portions or extensions A23a and .2319, which are shown in Fig. Bfas being made in a bar-style, may be made in a form, orstyle, of small individual projectionsi-in a manner as shown iniFigs. 6 and 7 wherein the body 25.is at its two side faces provided with apluralityof small individualteatlike projections '25 and 25". vSuch structure will operate in the same manner and produce the same results as that of the structure shown iniFig. 3.
If desired, the'locking means A' may be eliminated, and the pliable cover i5 may be extended upwardly and be secured, by the stitching l', to the lower endportionv of the crown-section arrow C (seejFig. 311) in a manner vwhereby such lower end portion 6 will be spaced apartifrom the upperend portion v5 of the base-Lmit-arrow'B, thereby providing a pliant section adapted to hold the crown-section spaced away from the base-unit in -a-mannergfor example, as indicated by arrow 3|. So that,'if a'blow or hit will'belaunched against the, crown-section C,- such pliant section 3l ,will vibrate 'for a few seconds, causing the shock of such blowto` be subdued upon reaching suchyibrati-ng,` motion 0I"y the sectionv 3 I, thus such shock will be .discontinued before reaching the basevunit B.
Such pliant; section arrow 13| may be provided,
if so, desiredwith ,a facing auxiliarymember- I-yla (Fig. 2), such member i-'ia issecured to the inner side vfaces ofthefbase-unit and of the crown-sectionbysuitable means, forexample,l cement, or by thel stitchings 'Il and in a manner covering the ,upper end-portion of the base-unit B and the -while colliding 4with an object, ora party player,
during ,the cou-rse ofplay.
.Therear-portion of the cushioning memberll may, ifso desired; be provided with the extensions 23a,y or withfthoseextensions shown in the Figs.
l6 and-7, thus providing air cushioning pockets for the purpose ofgsofteningrthe touch of suchmember whenbringingfsame close to the-face and head of the wearer.
Itiwill beseenff'rom theabcvathat when applicants helmetD isplaced upon the wearer-s secured-toltheinner and outer faces of said baseunit and said v crown-sectionholding said 4crownsection spaced away from Y the said base-unit, forming a tubular joint circling around. thesaid helmet along a horizontal linewith respect to the height of the helmet, resilient means located within said tubular joint for holding `said crownsection in desired upright position with respect to the said base-portion, and meansI for holding the said helmet in desired position upon the wearers head.
7. In a helmet structure, a .base unit having a separate crown-section secured thereto by pliable means, said base unit provided with an upper end portionand. the said crown-section provided .with
a lower end portion, said pliable means forming inner and `outer sidewall members secured vto the inner and outer side wall'fa'cespf'the saidbaseunit and of the saidcrown-section along,hori zontal lines circling around and covering, the length of A.the said'end portions `thereby forming a unitary structureiof 'the said crown-section and ofthe said base-portion, said unitary structure adapted tobe positionedfupon the wearers head,
the said side wall members adapted'to holdthe said-end portions spaced apart from eachother thereby providingia tubular chamber between the said pliable side walls` and the said endportions, the said tubular chamber situated along a hori- Zontal line extending,V around the said helmet, the said' pliable side walls providing cushioning means for the said crown-section, and means for securing the said structure in desired position upon Vthe said wearers head;
S. A helmet adapted to be positioned upon the wearershead,said'helnet'comprising a base-unit and a separate crown-section, said base-unit provided with an upperend. portion and the said crown-section provided-'with a lower end portion, innerand. outer pliablesidr-i` Wall members securing the saidA crown-section to the said baseportion, the said pliable side wall members secured to the inner and outer. side wallaces of the said base-unitandof the said crown-section by meansiof lines of'stitching` positioned along the length of the said end portions in a manner circling-the-A saidn helmet at a horizontal plane-With respect to theheightof such helmet, said pliable side walls holdingv such end portions spaced apart from eachother-thereby providing a'tubular chamberf between thesaid pliable. side1 walls and the said endY portions, the saidV pliable side walls vforming reboundingmeans for the said crown-section, said tubular chambercircling-the said helmet along the said horizontal planein a manner adapted to facilitate the rebounding movement ofthe. saidv pliable side walls,. and
. means for holding the said helmet in desired position upon. the wearers head.
9. A helmet adapted to be positioned upon the Wearers head, said helmet comprising a baseunit having an upper end portion anda crownsection having a lower end portion, said end portions being disposed-horizontally with respect to the height ofthe helmet, a pliablemember secured to the outer faces of said-crown-section and of said base-unit along the said horizontal v line extending around the said helmet in a manner holding said crown-section spaced away from said base-unit, an inner pliable element covering the inner faces of the end portions of said crownsection and saidbase-unit ralong the same horizontalline as thatof said-pliable member, said pliable member and pliable element vadapted to yield, Vtofacilitate the movements-of saidcrownsection for cushioning the shockI of a blow and to rebounce' the effect of such blow, said inner 'elementpreventing direct contact between the said endportions -and the wearers head during said movement of said crown-section, and means for securingsaid helmet in desired position upon the wearer-s head.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number` A Name Date 694,986 Piercev Mar. 11, 1902 1,348,950A Kaminski Aug. 10, 1920 1,646,272 Bates Oct. 18, 1927 1,833,708 Ford Y YN0V. 24,. 1931 1,997,187 Taylor Apr. 9, 1935 2,184,043 Heilstedt et al. Dec. 19, 1939 2,296,335 Brady. Sept. 22, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 254,900 Italy Sept. 26, 1927 449,905 Great Britain July 6, 1936 464,551 France Mar. 25, 1914 566,178 Germany Apr. 19, 1933 704,725 France Feb. 24,v 1931