US 2630603 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Marcli 10,1953 M A. FREEDLANDER ETAL 2,630,603
I nus APRON Filed April 11, 1945 s Sheets-Sheet 1 I5 I INVENTORS ABRAHAMLFREEDLANDER, BY HENRY M- BACON,
q W f ATTORNEYS A. L. FREEDLANDER ET AL March 10, 1953 RUB APRON 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 11, 1945 m m w w mm m mm: m w L n A m Patented Mar. 10, 1953 RUB APaoN Abraham; L. Freedlander and Henry M. Bacon, Dayton, Ohio, assignors to The-Dayton-Rubber Company, a corporation of Ohio- Application April 11, 1945, Serial No. 587,780
4 Claims. (Cl. 19-453) This invention relates to textilemachine-units and, in particular, to improved rub aprons for W001 cards and to methods of making the same.
The work performed by the rub apron is that of transforming the textile fibers being treated from a thin flat ribbon of'relatively low density to a compact mass having a substantially circular cross section and of increased density. The fibers, upon leaving the rubbing. operation, are ready to be wound on a spool'or other suitable form for delivery to a spinning operation.
The rubbing operation is accomplished by a pair of endless aprons arranged on parallelrolls and running togetherso as to transfer the fibers therethrough while simultaneously oscillating transversely to set up the rubbing action which transforms the flat ribbon which is fed into the aprons into the circular mass which emerges therefrom.
Originally, rub aprons were made of selected leather but, because of the exceedingly critical nature of the work, there were certain inherent weaknesses in these aprons. For example, the gripping power of leather is low and requires special treatment in order to increase. the coefficient of friction of the surface so. that the fibers may be properly worked. Likewise, leather has a tendency to crack or check and must be frequently oiled in order to keep it flexible to the necessary degree. Leather also has a. tendency to generate and to accumulate static charges which interfere with the free flow of fibers through the aprons and, likewise, creates a certain undesirable fire hazard".
Also, the tendency of leather to absorb moisture from the humid atmosphere of the carding rooms causes aprons of that material to stretch, and become out of adjustment on, the
This stretching is particularly objectionable because of the aforementioned oscillating movement of the rub aprons and supporting rollers upon which they are mounted.
Due to the tendency of aprons to creep or slip on the rolls as the latter are oscillated, it becomes necessary to attach buttonsalong either end of the aprons toengage therolls andthereby to maintain the apron in proper relationship thereto. While the buttons perform satisfactorily the function for which they are intended, there is a tendency for them to be torn, out of the apron, thus creating a hazard for the adjacent moving parts of the machinery.
The various disadvantages of leather as an apron material have been largely overcome by the use of synthetic= rubber-like materials such as neoprene or Perbunan or mixtures of Perbunan with neoprene or Butyl rubber.
Thesemateri'als exhibit resistance to oil and abrasion, are relatively static free, have good strength and long life and may be so .compounded as to=have an excellent drafting surface with: the required fiber gripping characteristics. Of the various synthetics. employed, it has been foundthat' the copolymers of butadiene are themost satisfactory and, of these acrylic nitriles butadiene copolymers give the best results.
While aprons of rubber or synthetic rubberlike: materials are satisfactory in regard to the aforementioned characteristics it, is necessary, in order toebuild the requiredtensile strength into an apron of those materials, to provide a high strength section in the body thereof, usually adjacent the inner surfacethereof. This high strength or tension section may comprise one or more fabric layers and usually includes, as well, alayer of highstrength, low stretch, cords. These aprons are, likewise, usually provided with one or more additional; layers. of fabric along the. edgeslthereof; for. the purpose of protecting thebody of the apron against rubbing or abrasion. The extra. layersof fabric along the edges ofctheraprons are also useful asan anchor strip to which the-buttons are riveted.
The: fabric layer and cord comprising the tension section must be carefully prepared and applied. in order to prevent theapron from, creeping on theroll, and alsoto maintain the apron in adjustment on the rolls.
We have. found that applying the fabric layers. successively and by reversing the fabric for each. successive layer. so as to wind it in the opposite direction, a base is produced which, when built into. an apron, substantially prevents all creeping. on the: supporting rolls.
Weha-ve also found: thatby applying the cords by starting at thecenter of the apron and working outwardly toward: both edges simultaneously or by starting. at both edges and working inwardlyl toward the center simultaneously, a still greater improvement in the running characteristics of the apron is achieved.
Theabilityof the apron to stay in adjustment on the roll is. still further enhanced by building into-: an apron adjacent either edge thereof a higher: strength section which may comprise heavier cords or additional fabric strips.
Accordingly, the. principle object of this invention is to provide. a rub apron construction such; that the tendency of the apron to creep 3 or wander on its supporting rolls is substantially eliminated.
Another object is to provide a rub apron which requires a minimum of adjustment to maintain it in proper relationship to its supporting rolls.
Another object is to provide a rub apron so constructed that the buttons usually attached along either edge thereof may be eliminated.
These and other objects and advantages will become more apparent upon reference to the attached drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a view showing an apron constructed according to our invention mounted on a pair of rolls;
Figure 2 is an enlarged diagrammatic perspective showing the construction of the apron in Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a line diagram of the aprons of Figures 1 and 2 showing more clearly the placement of the various portions of the apron;
Figure 4 is a view similar to Figure 1 but showing a somewhat different apron constructed according to this invention;
Figure 5 is a diagrammatic perspective view showing the construction of the apron of Figure 4;
Figure 6 is a line diagram showing more clearly the placement of the various portions of the apron of Figures 4 and 5;
Figure 7 is a diagrammatic perspective View of still another apron constructed according to this invention; and
Figure 8 is a line diagram of the apron of Figure 7 showing more particularly the placement of the various portions thereof.
Referring to the drawings and, in particular, to Figures 1, 2 and 3, IE! indicates a rub apron and 12 the rollers upon which it is mounted. The apron i0 is adapted to run with a second apron and to oscillate relatively thereto in order to transform a fiat ribbon of fibers such as is indicated at 14 into a compact mass having a circular cross section indicated at Hi.
In Figure 2 the apron ID will be seen to comprise a base section which includes a plurality of fabric layers l8 and a layer of cords 20. Superimposed upon the cord layer 20 is a layer of rubber or rubber-like material 22, the upper surface of which forms the drafting surface for the completed unit. The assembly thus built up is vulcanized and the surface thereof ground, buffed or otherwise suitably treated in order to give it the desired fiber gripping characteristics.
The fabric layers at [8 are preferably applied to a suitable mandrel one at a time, and the strip at the end of each successive layer is preferably reversed and wound in the opposite direction. That is, the first layer of fabric is laid around the mandrel, say, in a clockwise direction, the next layer is laid around the mandrel in a counter-clockwise direction, and so on until the required number of layers, preferably an even number, is built up. The reversing of consecutive fabric layers effectively eliminates the effect of any stress in the fabric thereby preventing an imperfect length of fabric from causing the apron to creep on the rolls.
We have found it to be of further advantage if the fabric plies are applied to the mandrel so that the filler yarn of the first .two plies runs spirally from right to left and the filler yarn of the second two plies runs from left to right on an equal bias. This is indicated in Figure 2 by the fabric marks on the plies l8.
The cord layer 20 comprises .the smallcenter cords 24 and the heavier edge cords 26. The center cords 24 are applied so that they spiral either way toward the center line of the apron from the edge portion. This eliminates any tendency of the apron to wander toward either one side or the other from its supporting rolls.
The heavy cords at 26, which are substantially stronger and lower stretch than the cords 24 may be applied straight or spirally as desired. The cords 26 form a zone at either edge of the apron which is less extensible than the portion of the apron therebetween. Thus, the apron is received properly on the rolls with a minimum of adjustment of the latter and runs thereon without any tendency to wander to the right or to the left. It is possible to build an apron in this manner which will run so perfectly that there is no need for the usual aligning buttons along the edges. It will be apparent that this is a distinct advantage, resulting in a more economical apron and one which requires a minimum of adjustment.
The relative location of the various portions of the apron of Figures 1 and 2 is shown in Figure 3. It will be noted in this figure that the cord layer is closely adjacent the upper ply I8 and that the cords 25 are set somewhat in from the edge of the apron.
Referring to Figures 4, 5 and 6, a somewhat different apron construction is illustrated.
In this construction, the base fabric plies and the cord layer are substantially identical with those of the apron of Figures 1, 2 and 3. However, in order to provide an apron suitable for that class of duty wherein there is a possibility that wandering of the apron on the roll cannot be prevented, there is provided the additional fabric plies 28 along the edge which serve to prevent abrading of the edge of the apron as well as an anchor strip for the buttons 30.
The other portions of the apron of Figures 4, 5 and 6 are numbered correspondingly to the similar parts of the apron of Figures 1, 2 and 3 but with the addition of the subscript a.
The relative location of the various portions of the apron will be best seen in Figure 6 wherein it will be noted that the construction is substantially identical to the construction shown in Figure 3 but with the addition of the edge plies 28 and the buttons 30 riveted thereto.
Referring now to Figures '7 and 8, there is illustrated still another form of apron embodying this invention.
In these figures the fabric plies on the base of the apron indicated at 48- are applied in the same manner as the plies is in Figure 2. The cord layer at 42, superimposed on the fabric plies, comprises a layer of relatively heavy cords spun on right and left toward the center of the apron from the edge.
Superimposed upon the cord layer $2 at the edges of the apron are a pair of fabric strips 44 which serve to strengthen the edge portions of the apron and also provide anchor means for buttons 46.
The apron is completed by the addition of a vulcanizable layer 48 which is applied over the cord layer 42 and fabric strips 44.
Referring to Figure 8, the arrangement and proportions of the apron of Figure 7 are more clearly shown. In this figure it will be noted that the cord layer is spun right and left toward the center and that the edge portion of the apron is substantially strengthened by the addition of the fabric strips 44.
In the construction of aprons according to this invention, the various fabric and cord layers are applied to a mandrel as hereinbefore stated and then the rubber-like surface layer is applied. The apron is then wrapped and vulcanized into a cured unit. Thereafter the surface of the unit may be suitably machined by grinding or buffing to produce the desired fiber working characteristics.
While it will be apparent that this invention is applicable to an apron having a vulcanizable surface of any material, we prefer to use a synthetic rubber-like composition such as Butyl rubber compounded with Perbunan or with Perbunan and neoprene. We have also found that Perbunan when compounded with the proper fillers and other ingredients to give it the desired surface, is satisfactory.
It will also be apparent that the fabrics and cord employed in constructing the tension section of the apron and the edge sections thereof may include any of several well known substances. For example, fabrics of rayon and nylon are eminently satisfactory, having the desired strength and flexibility. The cords may include the well known cotton fabrics but may also be formed of glass, nylon or rayon fibers and may. in certain cases, be formed of spun wire.
It will be understood that while certain embodiments of the present invention have been described herein, it is not intended thereby to have this invention limited to or circumscribed by the specific details of construction, arrangement of parts, procedures, or proportions herein described or illustrated in the annexed drawing in view of the fact that this invention is susceptible to modifications according to individual preference and conditions without departing from the spirit of this disclosure and the scope of the appended claims.
1. A rubbing apron for textile machines having a decreased tendency to slip or creep during rotation of supporting rollers upon which it is mounted, which comprises a fabric base layer, a synthetic rubber upper layer, and a layer of longitudinally extending cords positioned between said base and upper layers, said cord layer consisting of a zone of relatively low extensibility adjacent each edge of the apron formed by a plurality of cords of said layer of relatively low extensibility positioned adjacent each edge forming edge portions of relatively low extensibility, and a zone of relatively greater extensibility extending between the edge zones formed by cords of said cord layer which are of greater extensibility than those forming the edge portions of said layer.
2. An apron according to claim 1 wherein a plurality of superimposed longitudinally extending layers of relatively narrow fabric are positioned between each edge of the apron and the less extensible cords.
3. A rub apron for textile machines comprising a stress-free fabric base layer, a synthetic rubber upper layer, a cord layer between the upper and base layers consisting of a central portion of relatively small cords extending spirally right and left to the center of said apron from points spaced from the edges thereof, a band of heavier cords at either edge of said central section of cords, a plurality of layers of relatively narrow fabric adjacent said heavier cords at the edges of said apron, and spaced buttons affixed. to the under surface of said apron along either edge thereof by rivets which extend through the layers of relatively narrow fabric.
4. An apron according to claim 1 wherein the cords forming the edge portions of the cord layer are of relatively greater diameter than the cords forming the central section of said layer.
ABRAHAM L. FREEDLANDER. HENRY M. BACON.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,461,527 Hunter et al July 10, 1923 1,676,845 Teisher July 10, 1928 2,112,525 Foster Mar. 29, 1938 2,135,057 Slayter et al Nov. 1, 1938 2,233,985 Knowland et al Mar. 4, 1941 2,288,391 Carman June 30, 1942 2,402,356 Bacon et al June 18, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 147,279 Great Britain July 16, 1920