|Publication number||US2630619 A|
|Publication date||Mar 10, 1953|
|Filing date||Nov 13, 1950|
|Priority date||Nov 13, 1950|
|Publication number||US 2630619 A, US 2630619A, US-A-2630619, US2630619 A, US2630619A|
|Inventors||Malik John P, Schmidt Arnold W|
|Original Assignee||Borg George W Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (35), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
March 10, 1953 A. w. SCHMIDT ET AL 2,630,619
KNITTED PILE FABRICS AND PROCESS OF MANUFACEURE Filed Nov. 13, 1950 ARNOLD Wv SCHP'HDT JOHN F? MALJK Patented Mar. 10, 1953 KNITTED PILE FABRICS AND PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE Arnold W. Schmidt and John P. Malik, Delavan,
Wis., assignors to The George W. Borg Corporation, Chicago, 111, a corporation of Delaware Application November 13, 1950, Serial No. 195,486
13 Claims. (Cl. 28- 74) ,The present invention relates to a process of manufacturing knitted pile fabrics and the object of the invention is a new and improved process of this character adapted for the manufacture of pile fabrics having a number of desirable features not known heretofore.
A special object of the invention is a new and improved process of manufacturing a knitted pile fabric in which the pile is composed of nylon, Dynel, or similar synthetic fiber, which makes it possible for the first time to utilize the desirable properties of these materials in pile fabrics adapted for the manufacture of wearing apparel.
A further object of the invention is a process such as the foregoing which is adapted for the production of artificial furs having desirable qualities and which in many respects are superior to natural furs.
A further object of the invention is a new and improved artificial fur product.
The process by which the foregoing and other objects are attained will be described in detail in the ensuing specification.
In the manufacture of pile fabrics according to the invention we utilize a' circular knitting machine such as is made by the Wildman Manufacturing Co., of Norristown, Pa., having a 24 inch cylinder, for example, and needles per inch. This machine knits a jersey stitch, and is equipped with a plurality of carding heads which are preferably of the type disclosed in application Ser. No. 150,447, filed March 18, 1950. These carding heads feed the fiber, supplied in the form of a roving or sliver, to the needles of the knitting machine.
The roving or silver is manufactured from synthetic staple fibrous material on a carding machine such as is used for manufacturing sliver from natural wool staple. Various sizes and lengths of staple may be used, depending somewhat on the desired characteristics of the finished pile fabric, but it has been found that for the pile fabrics tobe described herein nylon 2 inch staple, 6 denier, supplied by Dupont, and Dynel 1 inch staple, 6 denier, supplied by Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp., are very satisfactory. Nylon is identified chemically as a polyamide and Dynel as a copolymer of vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile. These staples come in bales comprising partially Wadded and matted, tangled and intertwined crinkly fibers, somewhat resembling wool or cotton staple, and by means of the carding machine may be converted into slivers suitable for feeding to thecarding heads of the knitting machine. A suitable sliver is loose and fluffy, having the fibers 2 combed out somewhat and uniformly distributed, not twisted but overlapping and sufficiently entangled so that the sliver is self-supporting. The sliver is relatively large, about 1 /2 inches in diameter, but due toits loose texture weighs somewhat less than one ounce per yard.
The staple fiber may be in its natural color or may be dyed, depending on the desired color of the finished fabric. The natural color of the nylon staple is white and that of Dynel is light cream. These colors are suitable in some cases, but for other purposes colors such as grey, red, or brown are more desirable.
In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary view of the product of the present invention illustrating portions in elevation and other portions in plan; and
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary elevational view of the product on an enlarged scale.
The operation of the carding head in taking up the sliver and feeding the fibrous material to the knitting machine is known and is described in the said application Ser. No. 150,447, previously referred to. Just before reaching knitting position the needles pass through the feeding card and each needle picks up a bunch of fibers which is folded at the center around the needle with the aid of an air blast and is incorporated in the stitch. Each needle takes up as much fiber as it can hold so that a heavy pile is formed on one side of the knitted base fabric. Using 6 denier nylon, there will be more than forty pile fibers per stitch.
The yarn or thread used for knitting the base fabric may be of natural or synthetic textile material. Cotton yarn, size single 8-1, has been used with good results, but somewhat larger or smaller sizes can be used.
The knitting machine turns out a tubular fabric having the pile inside, which may be of any desired length, fifty feet, for example. The tube is slit lengthwise and laid out fiat, forming a piece of material about 72 inches wide, assuming it was made on a 24 inch knitting machine. At this stage of the process the pile fibers range from about 7 inch to more than an inch in length, perhaps longer or shorter depending on the length of the staple from which the sliver was made, and are crinkly and more or less matted or entangled together. They are disposed at an angle to the base fabric and all lay generally in the same direction.
The next step in the process is the application of neoprene and gauze backing. For this purpose the material may be laid out pile side down on a table of suitable width and length having rows of vertical pointed pins projecting from the surface thereof on which the edges of the pile fabric may be pressed down and secured temporarily. There are two side rows and two end rows of these pins and the rows are far enough apart so that the material is stretched about per cent. Too much stretching is objectionable since it reduces the thickness of the pile and the material should therefore be stretched only enough so that the knitted back presents a level surface free from ridges or wrinkles.
The pile fabric H1 having been disposed on the table as described, the knitted back of the fabric is coated with a suitable binder or adhesive i2. Without limitation thereto, we prefer to useplasticized neoprene comprising an'emulsion of neoprene latex in water. The emulsion is spread on in any suitable manner, by means of a scraper or straight edge, for example, so as to apply a uniform coating which fully covers and at least partially impreghate'sthe knitted base yarn and that portion ofthe fibrous'material which is incorporated' in the stitches.
Whiletheneoprene emulsion i2 is still wet a layer'of 'gauze His applied. This gauze'may be an open mesh woven cotton'materia'l known in the trade as tobacco cloth, No. 90 curity, and is applied in the-form of a continuous strip of the proper dimensions to cover the back of the pile fabric l0. After being pressed down thereon,the surface is gone over again with the straight edge so as to squeeze the emulsion through the meshes in the gauze and effect an intimate contact between the gauze' and the back of the pile fabric. The'material is'then allowed to dry before removalfromthe table, or afterpartialdrying has taken place the material maybe removed and run'through a suitable dryer. The gauze is now firmly adhered to the back of. thepile fabric.
The neopren functions as a'binder to firmly attach the gauze to the back of the fabric, to secure the stitches and the fibers of the yarn together, and'to. lock the pile fibers in the stitches. The complete backing including neoprene and gauze preventsistretchingof the pile fabric and thusipromotes dimensional stability.
After the backing has been applied as described, the material'is fed through a shearing machine of known construction, which cuts the pile to the desired height, which may be inch, for example. This shearing operation removes some ofth'e pile butis only partially effective because many of the pile fibers are disposed at an angle to the knitted base fabric or'are kinked and somewhat matted-together.
The next step in the processis a so called dry electrifying operation. In this operation the material is fed through an electrifying machine of known constructiomwhich comprises a heated cylindrical iron having arcuate grooves with serrated'edges which tends to'straighten the pile fibers I-3and raise them to a position in which they are more nearly perpendicular to the base fabric. The temperature of the iron should be well below the meltingpoint of the synthetic pile material and for nylon may be around 400 degrees F. This electrifying operation is conducted at low pressure and does not greatly affect the condition of the pile fibers asregards that portion thereof which is adjacent the base fabric but it does tend to straighten out and raise the more remote portions 14 of the fibers.
After the dry electrifying operation the pile fabric is fed through ,theshearingmachine again to cut off the pile fibers that were straightened out or raised above the desired pile height.
lhe pile fabric is next subjected to a wetting operation, with a softening agent which is adapted to facilitate the next electrifying operation but which will not affect the dye in case a dyed staple has been used for the pile. A solution of alcohol in water has been found to be suitable for this purpose. The softening agent is applied to the pile by means of a machine comprising a roller having a surface of absorbent material such as felt which dips into a trough containing the alcohol and water solution. As the material is fed through the machine it passes over and in light contact with the roller, pile side down, whereby some of the solution is transferred from the roller to the pile. The operation is regulated carefully so that the pile is not saturated but only becomes wet for about /3 to /2 the distance from the surface to the base fabric. The latter and the immediately adjacent portions of the pile fibers are not wet to any substantial degree. The material is now fed through the electrify ing machine again, the pressure between the fabric and the iron being regulated :so that the operation is effective mainly on the. upper 1301 tion of the pile. The wetting to. which this portion has been subjected and theheatof theiron softens the fibers. and substantially. increases the emciency .of. the machine, with the :result that most of thetfibersin thequpper portion of the pile are straightened out.
The second electrifying operation produces-an If 'the m-aterialis fed throughethemachinein thesame direction each time the fibersxiarestraight ened'as described but there is.atendencyto'prm.
duce a lay, that is, the fibers are disposedr-at an angle to the..-knitted;ba'se. .This'maybe desirable in some cases, as in the production ofisome. artificialsfurs, but isnot generally advisable.
At this stage of the'pro-cess the pile fabric is characterized by ia fairly distinct:multilevel pi'le,
the lower level next to'the knitted base being composed of kinkedand crinkly fibers forminga fairly dense layer completely covering the base fabric, while the upper level is composed of straight erect fibers of even hei ht.-
In handling the pile-fabric during the trans-'- fenthereof 'from'one 'ma -chine 'to another it is preferably in the form of a loose roll or bundle and each machine is preferably arranged to de liver the material in this form as it leaves the machine.
The next and final step in'the process 'is an oven treatment, in which the material is subjected to a moderate. temperature for a period which is relatively long'as compared to themementary applications'of heat to the pile during A temperature "of about 225 degrees F. for a period :ofabout onehalf hour h-as'been found to give good results.-
During this treatment the pile fabric is preferably folded or =festooned and 'supported 'on hangins so that adjacent layers are not in contact. The oven treatment eliminates odors and completes the cure of the neoprene binder. It also has a heat setting action on the synthetic pile fibers, causing them to retain their erect position, and gives them resiliency which increases the resistance to deformation by crushing.
The completed pile fabric is essentially a new product, having a distinctive appearance. It is light in weight, but has a very thick dense pile, thicker than most natural furs. The fabric is very flexible and has a characteristic drape and feel which makes it especially suitable for the manufacture of clothing such as womens and childrens coats.
When made up in coats the material is suggestive of fur, but it does not particularly resemble any natural fur. That is, it is not an imitation of any known fur but is an artificial fur having its own distinctive characteristics.
This new product is washable, insect and vermin proof, and although light in weight it makes a very warm garment. This latter feature is attributed to the fact that the pile is not composed of separate tufts of fibers but comprises an upper portion of straight fibers and a lower portion in which the fibers are crinkly and entangled to gether in a loose homogeneous layer which is ideal for the entrapment .of air.
While the product is very desirable as a coat material it may be used for other articles of wearing apparel and for any other purpose where its distinctive properties render it advantageous.
The invention having been described, that which is believed to be new and for which the protection of Letters Patent is desired will be pointed out in the appended claims. a
1. The process for manufacturing a pile fabric which comprises making a sliver from a synthetic fiber staple, knitting a base fabric on a knitting machine, carding said sliver and feeding the same to the needles of said knitting machine during the knitting operation to form a pile on one side of said base fabric, coating the back of said base fabric with an adhesive, applying a layer of gauze on top of said adhesive, manipulating a straight edge over the surface of said gauze to press the same against said base fabric and force surplus adhesive through the meshes of said gauze, drying said adhesive, straightening and erecting at least the surface portion of said pile, and shearing said pile.
2. The process of manufacturing an artificial fur product, which comprises making a sliver of synthetic resinous fibrous material, knitting a base fabric while feeding said sliver to the needles of the knitting machine to incorporate said material in said base fabric as a pile, shearing said pile, straightening and erecting the pile fibers in a part of the pile which extends to the surface thereof by repeatedly feeding the pile fabric through an electrifying machine, wetting the pile prior to at least one of said electrifying operations, shearing said pile after each electrifying operation, and subjecting said pile fabric to a heat treatment to set the pile.
3. The process of manufacturing an artificial fur product, which comprises knitting a base fabric while feeding a sliver of synthetic fibrous material to the needles of the knitting machine to incorporate said fibrous material in said base fabric as a pile, applying a coating of adhesive to the back of said base fabric, attaching a backing of woven material to said base fabric by means of said adhesive, shearing said pile, subjecting said pile to the action of an electrifying machine a plurality of times to straighten and raise the fibers in an upper layer of said pile which extends to the surface thereof, wetting the pile in said layer with a softening agent prior to at least one electrifying operation, shearing said pile after each electrifying operation, and subjecting said pile fabric to a heat treatment to set the pile.
4. The process of manufacturing an artificial fur product, which comprises making a sliver from a synthetic fiber staple, knitting a base fabric, on a knitting machine, carding said sliver and feeding the same to the needles of said knitting machine during the knitting operation to form a pile on one side of said base fabric, coating and impregnating said base fabric with an emulsion of which the essential component is a synthetic rubber latex, applying a backing of woven material to said base fabric while said emulsion is wet, drying said emulsion to form a flexible binder, subjecting the upper portion of said pile to the action of an electrifying machine to straighten and raise the fibers, shearing said pile, and subjecting said product to a heat treatment to set the pile and complete the cure of said binder.
5. An artificial fur product comprising a knitted base fabric, a pile comprising synthetic organic fibers incorporated in the stitches of said base fabric and projecting from one side thereof, said pile having a level surface and the fibers composing the same being substantially straight and erect for at least a part of the distance from the surf-ace inward toward the base fabric, a backing of open mesh woven material, and a flexible binder securing said backing to said base fabric.
6. An artificial fur product as claimed in claim 5, wherein the pile is composed of fibers selected from the class of synthetic fibrous staples.
7. An artificial fur product as claimed in claim 5, wherein the backing is a woven gauze and the binder is a, synthetic rubber.
8. An artificial fur product as claimed in claim 7, wherein the binder is cured and penetrates into and between the stitches of the base fabric.
9. An artificial fur product comprising a knitted base fabric, a pile comprising synthetic organic fibers locked in the stitches of said base fabric and projecting from one side thereof, said pile comprising a surface layer in which the fibers are substantially straight and erect and a layer next to the base fabric in which the fibers are crinkly and intermingled to form a continuous covering for said base fabric, a backing of light open mesh woven material, and a binder securing said backing to said base fabric and impregnating the yarn of which said base fabric is composed.
10. An artificial fur product comprising a knitted base fabric, a pile composed of synthetic fibers incorporated in the stitches of said base fabric and projecting from one side thereof, said pile having a level surface and the fibers composing the same being substantially straight and erect for a substantial part of the distance from the surface inward toward the base fabric and crinkled and intermingled for the remainder of said distance, and a flexible backing comprising a continuous coating of a synthetic rubber compound, said coating covering said base fabric and including a portion which penetrates between and around the individual fibers of said base fabric.
11. An artificial fur product as claimed in claim 10, wherein the pile is Dynel.
12'. An artificia'i fur product asclaim'edinclaim REFERENCES- CITED wherem b p l n o The following references are" of reoord'inthe- 13. An artificial fur product compnsmg a-knitfire of this patent: ted base fabric, a pile comprising. synthetic fibers f incorporated. in the stitches of saidbase' fabric 5 UNITED STATES PATENTS and projecting from one sidethereof, a flexible Number Name Date 4 v coating composed of a synthetic rubber com-' 1,894,596 Moore Jaz1'.1 7, 1933' pound covering the other side of said base' f'abric, $155,385 Amidon Apr. 25 1939 said coating including an integrally formed por- 2,255,078 Moore Sept. 9, 19:41 tion which impregnates the knitted base-fabric, 2528183 Schmidt Oct. 31, 1950 andsaid pile comprising a layer next'to'the'ba'se" fabric in whichflthe fibers are" crinkled and -s'0me'--- P v what entangledand an upper-layer'havingaievel Number- QPnQfyf D Q I surface and: in which the majority of'thefib'ers: L1 7 switzerland n-fisn-iiApr. 17-,1'922 are substantially straight and perpendicularto: 15
said surfacev ARNOLD- JOHN P.
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|U.S. Classification||428/95, 66/191, 28/162, 428/97|