US 263132 A
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T. A. EDISON.
ELEGTRO MAGNETIC RAILWAY.
No. 263,132. Patented Aug. 22,. 1882.
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ELBGTRO MAGNETIC RAILWAY. No. 263,132. Patented Augu22, 1882.
3 Sheets-Sheet 3 (No Model.)
T A EDISON IELEGTRO MAGNETIC RAILWAY. No. 263,132. Patented Aug. 22, 1882.
Unitas dramas Patent r Genres,
THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 263,132, dated August 2-2, 1882.
Application filed August 19, 1880. (No model.) Patented in England September :25, 1880, No. 3,894,- in Canada March 31, 1881, No. 12,563; in IndiaMay 3, 1881, N0. 341; inVictoria May 12, 1881, No. 3,012; in France May 27, 1881, No. 141,752; in New South \Vales June 25, 1881; in Queensland June 30, 1881, and in New Zealand August 2, 1881, No. 542.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, THOMAS A. EDISON, of Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and State of New Jersey, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Electro-Magnetic Railways, (Case No. 329;) and I do hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description of the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings,and to the letters of reference marked thereon.
In my system of electromagnetic railways, where the tracks themselves are used as the conductors, it is desirable to make some provision guarding against cessation of effect of the current at crossings, switches, frogs, &c.,or other places where it may be desirable to cut out a portion of the track from the circuit. In the introduction of a system of electromagnetic motive power upon roads already built and equipped for steam-transportation it may be desirable to make the change from one system to the other gradually, in order that the motive-power plant in use may be utilized to the extentof itslif'e. The accomplishment of these ends is the object of this invention.
Referring to the first object, it is to be noted.
that, as a rule the greatest length of track necessary to be out out of circuit will never exceed the average length of the trains, or even the length of the shortest trains. Hence I prefer to make the electrical connectionsbridging over the cut-out section-upon the train itself.
As explained in a prior application, I use in my system the rails as the conductors, and upon the engine or motor car, or, so to speal:,the locomotive, wheels having their flanges and hubs insulated from each other, and commutator-brushes arranged to form circuits by means of suitable devices connected th the flanges through the motor from one rail to the other. I
I now propose to use such commutatorbrushes with the wheels of several of the cars of a train, one of which cars should always be the last one in the train, all the commutatorbrushes used on either side of the train being connected by a conductor to the appropriate commutator on the engine, the conductor being so arranged on the cars that they may be readily connected. By this arrangement the cut-out section is electrically bridged over on the train itself, instead of by wires attached directly to the portions of the track in circuit.
In effecting the second object, so as to admit of gradualchange, arrangements must be made permitting of the use of both systems. this athird or central rail or conductor placed between the others is used, electrically connected in sections of suitable length, and thoroughly insulated from the bed. To the cars are attached arms carrying rollers or auxiliary wheels, taking upon the third rail, and convey- 'ing the current therefrom through the motor upon the train, the ordinary rails being used as the return-circuit. These arrangements are shown in the drawings, in which Figure l is a perspective of the runnin g-gear of two cars, each provided with means for taking the current from the track, the cars being connected together; Fig. 2, aperspective showing the third or central rail and arrangements of circuits on the cars. Fig. 2 is a perspective showing an extra wheel for use with the third or extra rail; Fig. 3, a side view of an engine and car properly arranged and a crosssection of the three rails with circuit-connections.
In Fig. 1, A and B are two rail-sections, B being an electrically-connected section, while A is cut out from the circuit at a, the section A representing a frog, switch, or other place where it is necessary or desirable to cut out electrically a part of the track. 0 D are the frames of two cars, 0 being the engine or motor car, the wheels of which are constructed as before described-that is,with the hub and flange insulated from each othera frame and huh, I), insulated from the hub of the wheel, being connected to the flange, a commutatorbrush, 0, taking upon b and completing circuit to the engine. tion are used with the earl), which is the last of the train, any number of cars, all or some of which are similarly constructed, being supposed to intervene between G and D. Preferably the frame and hub upon ordinary cars are upon the inside of the wheels, as shown at c Wheels of the same construe-- andf.v Conductors 1 and'2 run the length of the'train, connecting allthe commutators1 upon one side and 2.upon the other. It is apparent, then, that when the engine-car has passed upon thecut-out section there will be no cessation of action thereon, as the current will pass from the conductin g-section B through the wheels and commutators of car D, by conductors 1 2, to the engine. In the ordinary electrically connected sections this arrangement has the advantage of making contact with 'the rails in many places, insuring perfect continuity of circuit, and lessening the spark due to any imperfect contacts consequent upon oxidized spots on the rail.
In Fig. 2,- E E are the rails of an ordinary railroad, which it is desired to gradually change to an electromagnetic system. F is a third rail, laid preferably between the ordinary rails, and laid in chairs which thoroughly insulate it from the ties. From the one pole of the generator at the station or source of electricity a conductor, 5, leads to the central rail, F, while a conductor, 6, from the other pole leads to both the rails E E, as shown in Fig. 3. To the frame of the car, but insulated therefrom, is attached an arm, G, carrying a roller or wheel, g, taking upon the extra rail, F. Gonnected to this arm and wheel is a conductor, 4, which leads to the motor, from which a conductor, '3, completing the circuit therefrom through the iron or metallic parts of the car to the rails E E, which form the return-circuit. In practice g will be an extra wheel, in order to have weight sufficient to always insure good contact even when the extra rail is oxidized, it, by its weight, however, serving to prevent any accumulation of rust, and to keep the surface of the rail bright. In Fig. 2, for convenience of illustration, it is shown as a roller, while in Fig. 2 it is shown in the preferred form, an extra wheel upon an axle mounted in bearings insulated from the other wheels by the wooden frame-work of the car.
It is preferable to use an ordinary or common rail for the extra conductor, inasmuch as they are easy to obtain, and as a large mass of conductor with little resistance is given thereby at less cost than to use a copper conductor or one especially prepared for the service.
By using ordinary rails, F, and ordinary wheels, y, no special appliances need to be prepared while the change is going on, the method shown demanding in its carrying out only the materials usually employed or easy of obtainment and capable of use for their ordinary functions when their use in this connection is no longer needed. This can tralorextra rail should be thoroughly insulated from the other rails.
What I claim is 1. The combinationof a series of insulated wheels and commutator-brushes upon different cars, and circuit-connections through all upon each side of thetrain respectively to the commutator or commutator-brushes of the engine or motor, substantially as set forth.
2. The combination of an extra common or ordinary rail insulated from the others, electrically connected in sections to form one terminal or pole of the source of electricity, and the ordinary or traffic rails, one or both connected in sections to form the other terminal or pole of the source of electricity, substantially as set forth.
This specification signed and witnessed this 14th day of August, 1880.
THOS. A. EDISON.
WM. OARMAN, OTTO A. MosEs.