Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2633414 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 31, 1953
Filing dateJun 7, 1948
Priority dateJun 16, 1947
Also published asDE821040C
Publication numberUS 2633414 A, US 2633414A, US-A-2633414, US2633414 A, US2633414A
InventorsBoivinet Jean Henri
Original AssigneePechiney Prod Chimiques Sa
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Protective liner for autoclaves
US 2633414 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Mflmh 1953 J. H. BOIVINET PROTECTIVE LINER FOR AUTOCLAVES Filed June 7, 1948 Fiel- INVEN 1 OR ATTORNEY Patented Mar. 31, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE PROTECTIVE LINER FOR AUTOCLAVES ration of France Application June 7, 1948, Serial No. 31,559 In France June 16, 1947 Claims.

Autoclave containers of the type used in the chemical industry are required to possess both mechanical resistance to stresses to which they may be subjected, in use and chemical resistance to the corrosive action of the materials they are to contain.

It is not always practicable to fulfil both the above conditions through the use of a metal or of only one metal. In general, a metal will be sufiiciently resistant mechanically but will not resist corrosion, or, if it does withstand corrosion, it will not show sufficient resistance to mechanical stresses.

Certain substances (such as soft metals, plastics and the like), resist a large number of chemical reactions, but their tensile resistance is very low.

This leads to the idea of using such substances as internal liners for containers the shell of which consists of a metal having a sufficient resistance to mechanical stresses.

In structures of such type, there are certain precautions to be taken and in particular it is necessary that any gases or liquids, entrapped between the liner or coating material and the wall of the stressed shell, be capable of escaping towards the outer atmosphere. In the absence of such a precaution, there would occur, between the liner and the shell, a succession of alternate compressions and expansions which would quickly result in a breakdown of the liner and, as a consequence, the resulting breakdown of the shell of the apparatus, since the chemical agents will then be capable of coming into contact with the latter.

The present invention is concerned with a method of protecting an autoclave by means of an internal liner, which overcomes the above drawbacks.

Said method is characterized in that the protective liner, which is preliminarily prepared separately, is applied to the wall of the container by a pressure which is Very gradually exerted from the interior of the container, with the interposal of a device for venting or draining any gases or liquids from between the wall of the container and the liner.

There will be described hereinafter by way of example, the procedure for internally lining a cylindrical container with a lead liner. It will be obvious that the liner might also be formed of any other suitable material such as tin, silver, various metals and alloys, plastic materials such as vinyl chloride, and so on.

The accompanying drawing illustrates by way of example one embodiment of the invention:

Fig. 1 is a fragmentary view in longitudinal cross section of an autoclave including an internal protective liner embodying the invention.

Fig. 2 is a transverse cross section online .2...,- 2 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 2a is a similar view of a modification, and

Fig. 3 is a view on an enlarged scale oia-por: tion of Fig. 2.

As shown in Fig. 1, the autoclave comprises-a cylindrical shell I made of a metal possessing sufficient resistance to mechanical stresses; said shell is provided at each end thereof with an annular flange 2; the end covers 3 are adapted to be secured to said flanges by means of bolts.

Metal bars 4 are arranged to. extend along the generatrices of the internal surface of the shelll. Said bars preferably have a rounded crosssection, being for instance of the commercially available half roundsection type; the rounded portion of the barsections is directed inwardly,

while the flat portion thereof is slightly grooved throughout its entire length with a shallow and narrow channel 5. Saidchannel is placed in communication with the atmosphere either through small apertures ll, perforated through the shell 5, or through apertures formedbetw'een the flanges 2 of the shell and the covers 3. Between each successive pair of saidbars there is arranged a wire mesh 6 of relatively large mesh size (see Fig. 3).

The barsB and the mesh 6 may be maintained in place by the provision of a few spotwelds, as for instance at S. The mesh 6 or the M1754 might be used alone, depending on the sizes and shapes of the apparatus. v

There is then inserted into the container the cylindrical lead liner it, which is to form the internal coating of the container and which has been formed and welded separately. Said liner should have an external diameter very slightly smaller than the diameter of the circumference which is internally tangent to the longitudinal bars t. There may be preferably formed in the lead liner, which in this case will be formed with a diameter equal to the internal diameter of the apparatus, a fold having very carefully rounded curvatures adapted to facilitate the insertion of the liner into the apparatus (as shown at l2 in Fig. 2a).

The edges 1 of the liner are folded back (see Fig. 1) into the recess provided for that purpose in each of the flanges 2. Said folded edges do not entirely fill said recess, and the sealing of the liner is completed with a wiped plumbing joint. If the liner includes a preliminarily formed fold l2; it should be carefully hammered down at both ends of the cylinder, so as to properly apply the lead liner at both ends thereof against the internal surface of the apparatus and facilitate the folding back of its edges.

Moreover, the end covers will have preliminarily been plumbed with a wiped joint and the surface of the lead which is to engage the flanges 1 is rectified. If tube connections 9 are to be provided, the latter are filled with molten lead and the perforation is made with a drill. The end covers 3 are put into place with the interposal of a lead lining 8 and are carefully bolted in position.

The autoclave is then filled with water, steam or a gas at a suitable temperature allowing for a certain amount of extension in the material constituting the liner and, by means of a test pump, the pressure is very gradually built up to a value in excess of the normal operating pressure. It is essential that said pressure increase should be effected very slowly, thereby enabling the liner I to be applied very uniformly in the first place upon the bars 4, then, by a very gradual and uniform extrusion effect exerted between two edges of adjacent bars 4, against the wire mesh 6. Since, as stated above, the wire mesh is of relatively large mesh size, the plastic lead metal of the liner is eventually extruded through the mesh openings as the internal pressure is built up inside the autoclave, and the extruded metal is applied against the interior surface of the shell. The air entrapped between the lead liner l0 and the inner wall I of the autoclave is thus very gradually forced out through all of the apertures provided to that end.

The above described device furthermore makes it possible to immediately detect the presence of any leakage in the lead liner. The gases or liquids, contained in the autoclave, should by any accident the lead liner be perforated, will follow the path followed by the air in the coating operation. They will then appear at the outlet of any one of the vents and this will be a warning to halt the operation of the apparatus in ample time to prevent the corrosion of the metal forming the shell reaching an excessive value.

The method and protective device described above involving a lead liner are particularly suitable for the construction of apparatus or parts of apparatus to be used in the synthetic manufacture of urea from carbonic acid gas and ammonia.

What I claim is:

1. The method of lining an autoclave shell, subjected in normal operation to mechanical stresses and corrosive action, with a smooth corrosion resisting lining, comprising the steps of: disposing spacing means at intervals on the interior of the shell; introducing into the shell a cylindrical, unitary, deformable, open-ended lining having a diameter smaller than the internal diameter of said shell; securing the cylindrical edges of said lining to both ends of said shell; closing oil both ends of the shell; gradually applying fluid pressure in excess of the normal operating pressure to the interior surface of said lining, whereby the entire unsecured part of said lining is progressively deformed and applied against the spacing means and against a multiplicity of uniformly distributed areas on the interior surface of the shell, and simultaneously expelling to the atmosphere any fluid entrapped between the lining and the shell.

2. An autoclave comprising an outer shell resistant to mechanical stresses, a unitary, smooth, corrosion-resisting deformable inner lining substantially continuous with and coextensive in area with the inner surface of said shell, separate spacing means between said shell and lining uniformly distributed over the entire circumference of said shell, said lining contacting the inner surface of the shell at a multiplicity of areas uniformly distributed over the entire inner surface, and venting means connecting the space between the liner and the shell to the outer atmosphere whereby, in normal operation, the space between the shell and lining is substantially free of fluid.

3. An autoclave according to claim 2, in which the spacing means comprise a wire mesh.

4. An autoclave according to claim 2, in which the spacing means comprise a plurality of bars disposed along the inner circumference of the autoclave and extending parallel to the longitudinal axis of the autoclave.

5. An autoclave according to claim 2 in which the bars comprise shallow grooves communicating with the venting means.


REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 341,435 Russell May 4, 1886 353,731 Bremaker Dec. 7, 1886 390,727 Wagg Oct. 9, 1888 1,651,521 Girardville Dec. 6, 1927 1,892,433 Huif Dec. 27, 1932 1,894,116 Pier Jan. 10, 1933 1,911,608 Davis et a1 May 30, 1933 1,940,277 Stresau Dec. 19, 1933 2,100,895 Austin Nov. 30, 1937 2,329,970 Zimmerman Sept. 21, 1943 2,428,542 Bernhardt Oct. 7, 1947 2,460,820 Hagopian Feb. 8, 1949

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US341435 *Apr 1, 1885May 4, 1886The americanPulp-producing apparatus for paper-making
US353731 *Dec 7, 1886 Paper-pulp digester
US390727 *Mar 21, 1887Oct 9, 1888 Lining for pulp-digesters
US1651521 *Feb 6, 1926Dec 6, 1927Lucas-Girardville Paul NicolasMethod and apparatus for the storage and the transportation of gas
US1892433 *Dec 1, 1930Dec 27, 1932Universal Oil Prod CoProtective lining for vessels
US1894116 *Aug 11, 1928Jan 10, 1933Standard Ig CoApparatus for carrying out the destructive hydrogenation of carbonaceous material
US1911608 *May 30, 1933 Fressttbe vessel lining
US1940277 *Aug 18, 1930Dec 19, 1933Smith Corp A OPressure vessel
US2100895 *Oct 9, 1935Nov 30, 1937Kellogg M W CoLining for vessels
US2329970 *Feb 11, 1942Sep 21, 1943Universal Oil Prod CoReaction vessel
US2428542 *Mar 17, 1944Oct 7, 1947Westinghouse Electric CorpMethod of manufacture of pitotstatic tubes
US2460820 *Mar 18, 1944Feb 8, 1949Vahan HagopianMethod of making containers
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2970042 *Feb 27, 1957Jan 31, 1961Shell Oil CoVessel with replaceable pliable lining
US2993943 *Oct 23, 1958Jul 25, 1961Norman CookeLow frequency electric induction furnaces
US3130015 *Oct 31, 1958Apr 21, 1964Mid Century CorpHigh pressure reactor
US3173196 *Nov 2, 1959Mar 16, 1965Fromson H AMethod of producing a double-walled tube with one of the tubes having integral therewith projecting fin means radially separating the tubes
US3201861 *Mar 31, 1960Aug 24, 1965Fromson H AMethod of making a double-walled tube
US3918919 *Jun 21, 1973Nov 11, 1975Hoechst AgReactor for the preparation of halogenated compounds from hydrocarbons
US4643878 *Oct 18, 1984Feb 17, 1987Waldorf CorporationExtraction cell
US6799632Aug 5, 2002Oct 5, 2004Intelliserv, Inc.Expandable metal liner for downhole components
US6830467Apr 30, 2003Dec 14, 2004Intelliserv, Inc.Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer
US6888473Jul 20, 2000May 3, 2005Intelliserv, Inc.Repeatable reference for positioning sensors and transducers in drill pipe
US6913093May 6, 2003Jul 5, 2005Intelliserv, Inc.Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components
US6929493Oct 2, 2003Aug 16, 2005Intelliserv, Inc.Electrical contact for downhole drilling networks
US6945802Nov 28, 2003Sep 20, 2005Intelliserv, Inc.Seal for coaxial cable in downhole tools
US6968611Nov 5, 2003Nov 29, 2005Intelliserv, Inc.Internal coaxial cable electrical connector for use in downhole tools
US6981546Jun 9, 2003Jan 3, 2006Intelliserv, Inc.Electrical transmission line diametrical retention mechanism
US6982384Sep 25, 2003Jan 3, 2006Intelliserv, Inc.Load-resistant coaxial transmission line
US6991035Sep 2, 2003Jan 31, 2006Intelliserv, Inc.Drilling jar for use in a downhole network
US6992554Nov 29, 2003Jan 31, 2006Intelliserv, Inc.Data transmission element for downhole drilling components
US7017667Oct 31, 2003Mar 28, 2006Intelliserv, Inc.Drill string transmission line
US7040003Mar 27, 2004May 9, 2006Intelliserv, Inc.Inductive coupler for downhole components and method for making same
US7053788Jun 3, 2003May 30, 2006Intelliserv, Inc.Transducer for downhole drilling components
US7064676Aug 19, 2003Jun 20, 2006Intelliserv, Inc.Downhole data transmission system
US7069999Feb 10, 2004Jul 4, 2006Intelliserv, Inc.Apparatus and method for routing a transmission line through a downhole tool
US7098767Mar 25, 2004Aug 29, 2006Intelliserv, Inc.Element for use in an inductive coupler for downhole drilling components
US7098802Dec 10, 2002Aug 29, 2006Intelliserv, Inc.Signal connection for a downhole tool string
US7105098Jun 6, 2002Sep 12, 2006Sandia CorporationMethod to control artifacts of microstructural fabrication
US7190280Jun 17, 2003Mar 13, 2007Intelliserv, Inc.Method and apparatus for transmitting and receiving data to and from a downhole tool
US7200070Aug 2, 2004Apr 3, 2007Intelliserv, Inc.Downhole drilling network using burst modulation techniques
US7224288Jul 2, 2003May 29, 2007Intelliserv, Inc.Link module for a downhole drilling network
US7243717Sep 20, 2004Jul 17, 2007Intelliserv, Inc.Apparatus in a drill string
US7261154Aug 13, 2004Aug 28, 2007Intelliserv, Inc.Conformable apparatus in a drill string
US7291303Dec 31, 2003Nov 6, 2007Intelliserv, Inc.Method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool
US7852232Feb 4, 2003Dec 14, 2010Intelliserv, Inc.Downhole tool adapted for telemetry
US8316905Feb 18, 2004Nov 27, 2012Avure Technologies AbPress and a method for manufacturing a press
US20040104797 *Aug 19, 2003Jun 3, 2004Hall David R.Downhole data transmission system
US20040113808 *Dec 10, 2002Jun 17, 2004Hall David R.Signal connection for a downhole tool string
US20040145492 *Nov 29, 2003Jul 29, 2004Hall David R.Data Transmission Element for Downhole Drilling Components
US20040150532 *Jun 17, 2003Aug 5, 2004Hall David R.Method and apparatus for transmitting and receiving data to and from a downhole tool
US20040150533 *Feb 4, 2003Aug 5, 2004Hall David R.Downhole tool adapted for telemetry
US20040164833 *Mar 27, 2004Aug 26, 2004Hall David R.Inductive Coupler for Downhole Components and Method for Making Same
US20040164838 *Mar 25, 2004Aug 26, 2004Hall David R.Element for Use in an Inductive Coupler for Downhole Drilling Components
US20040219831 *Apr 30, 2003Nov 4, 2004Hall David R.Data transmission system for a downhole component
US20040221995 *May 6, 2003Nov 11, 2004Hall David R.Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components
US20040244964 *Jun 9, 2003Dec 9, 2004Hall David R.Electrical transmission line diametrical retention mechanism
US20040246142 *Jun 3, 2003Dec 9, 2004Hall David R.Transducer for downhole drilling components
US20050001735 *Jul 2, 2003Jan 6, 2005Hall David R.Link module for a downhole drilling network
US20050001736 *Jul 2, 2003Jan 6, 2005Hall David R.Clamp to retain an electrical transmission line in a passageway
US20050001738 *Jul 2, 2003Jan 6, 2005Hall David R.Transmission element for downhole drilling components
US20050039912 *Aug 13, 2004Feb 24, 2005Hall David R.Conformable Apparatus in a Drill String
US20050045339 *Sep 2, 2003Mar 3, 2005Hall David R.Drilling jar for use in a downhole network
US20050046590 *Sep 2, 2003Mar 3, 2005Hall David R.Polished downhole transducer having improved signal coupling
US20050067159 *Sep 25, 2003Mar 31, 2005Hall David R.Load-Resistant Coaxial Transmission Line
US20050074988 *Oct 2, 2003Apr 7, 2005Hall David R.Improved electrical contact for downhole drilling networks
US20050074998 *Oct 2, 2003Apr 7, 2005Hall David R.Tool Joints Adapted for Electrical Transmission
US20050082092 *Sep 20, 2004Apr 21, 2005Hall David R.Apparatus in a Drill String
US20050092499 *Oct 31, 2003May 5, 2005Hall David R.Improved drill string transmission line
US20050093296 *Oct 31, 2003May 5, 2005Hall David R.An Upset Downhole Component
US20050095827 *Nov 5, 2003May 5, 2005Hall David R.An internal coaxial cable electrical connector for use in downhole tools
US20050115717 *Nov 29, 2003Jun 2, 2005Hall David R.Improved Downhole Tool Liner
US20050118848 *Nov 28, 2003Jun 2, 2005Hall David R.Seal for coaxial cable in downhole tools
US20050173128 *Feb 10, 2004Aug 11, 2005Hall David R.Apparatus and Method for Routing a Transmission Line through a Downhole Tool
US20050212530 *Mar 24, 2004Sep 29, 2005Hall David RMethod and Apparatus for Testing Electromagnetic Connectivity in a Drill String
US20050285751 *Aug 2, 2004Dec 29, 2005Hall David RDownhole Drilling Network Using Burst Modulation Techniques
US20070169929 *Dec 31, 2003Jul 26, 2007Hall David RApparatus and method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool
EP0015620A1 *Feb 29, 1980Sep 17, 1980B.V. Koninklijke Maatschappij "De Schelde"A method for producing a composite tube for a cracking plant
EP0015621A1 *Feb 29, 1980Sep 17, 1980B.V. Koninklijke Maatschappij "De Schelde"A tube for a cracking plant
WO2004013462A1Aug 4, 2003Feb 12, 2004Intelliserv IncAn expandable metal liner for downhole components
U.S. Classification422/241, 29/523, 196/133, 422/242, 220/917
International ClassificationB21D51/24, B01J3/00, B01J3/04, F16L58/08, B21C37/15, B29C49/24, C07C273/04
Cooperative ClassificationY10S220/917, B29C49/24, C07C273/04, B01J3/048, B21C37/154, F16L58/08, B01J3/002, B21D51/24
European ClassificationB29C49/24, B21D51/24, B01J3/00B, C07C273/04, B21C37/15D, B01J3/04R, F16L58/08