|Publication number||US2634101 A|
|Publication date||Apr 7, 1953|
|Filing date||Jul 8, 1949|
|Priority date||Jul 8, 1949|
|Publication number||US 2634101 A, US 2634101A, US-A-2634101, US2634101 A, US2634101A|
|Original Assignee||Pearl Sloan|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (33), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 7, 1953 2,634,101
J. l. SLOAN APPARATUS FOR ACOELERATING THE REMOVAL OF OUTTTNGs FROM THE BOTTOM OF wELLs Filed .July e, 1949 '\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\Y[Il] l nventor Patented Apr. 7, 1953 APPARATUS FOR ACCELERATING RE-l MOVAL OF CUTTIN GS FROM THE BOTTOM OF WELLS John I. Sloan, Tulsa, Okla.; Pearl Sloan, executrixof said John I. Sloan, deceased, assignor to Pearl Sloan Application July 8, 1949, Serial No. 103,606
l In the drilling of oil wells, particularly by rotary rigs, a continuous stream of mud iS pumped down through the string of drill pipe, out through passages in the drill bit, and thence upwardly and out through the mouth of the Well- This use of drilling mud is essential and iS the lcommon practice. The drilling mud performs variousV wellv known functions such as counteracting pressures exerted by gas or oily carrying off cuttings, sealing off porous strata, etc. But the main functionyof the drilling mud with which the 4present invention is concerned, is carrying oi the cuttings. The flow of' the mud stream is not suiiicient to carry olf the cuttings as they occur, and consequently the cuttings remain at the bottom of the well until they are ground down to such very small particles that they can be carried ofi by the mud stream.
This grinding action of the bit on the cuttings obviously slows down the drilling operation, `and Y further, it causes heavy wear on the bit, and thus much time is lost because of the more frequentv necessity of the long and expensive operation of removing bits.
Also, as the wells get deeper and deeper, back pressure increases inthe drill stem, and to prevent overloading of the pump the volume of the mud fluid forced down into the Well is decreased, although the Volume of the mud uid should be increased as the well becomes deeper. The result of this decrease in volume of the mud uid is that the cuttings must be ground still finer before they are carried away from the bit,4 thereby further slowing the drilling and further increasing the wear on the bit.
One of the objects of the present invention is to provide an apparatus by which the cuttings will be carried off much more rapidly, to thereby increase the speed of the drilling operation and reduce the wear on the drilling bits.
Another object of the invention is to provide Va booster action vadjacent the bottom of the well so that the cuttings churning adjacent the bottom of the well will be caught in this booster action and be carried upwardly'clear of the drilling bit.
' A further `and more specific object of the invention is to provide upwardly directed jet nipples, above the drilling bit. to direct upwardly moving streams of mud fluid, to thereby accelerate the upward iiow of thedrilling mud.
6 Claims. (Cl. Z55-24) 2 A further object of the invention is to provide means for preventing wear on the interior of the drill stem at the points where the course of the mud stream' is changed to cause the booster action.
Various other objects and advantages of the. invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art, from the following detailed description whentaken in connection with the accompanying' drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional View of the lower end portion of the drill steml and associatf ed parts; the drill bit being shown in elevation; Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view'of theY lower end portion ofthe drill stem withparts removed; y Figure 3` isa detail perspective vView of one of the booster jet nipples; and
Figure 4 isa detail perspective View of the nipple support. i
Referring to the drawings -4in more detail, numeral I indicates the lower portion of the bore of a well being drilledby ra rotary rig.A Numeral 2 refers to the lower Asection of drill piping. As is wellknown, the vdrill string consists of numerous hollow sections connected together, the drill string'being rotated by the rotary rig, and carrying at its lower end a drillj bit. The 'drill'bit' is referred to herein by nu` meral 3, and `while the particular' bit illustrated herein is of the cone type, yet it willV be underl stood that any desired type of drill bit 'may be employed.
As is also well'known, drilling mud is forced down through the dril1'stem,out through passages in the bit, and then upwardly between 'Still another object of the invention is to provide meansby which the volume ,flow of the mud stream can be increased aslhe Well be- .comes deeper. K
the drill steml and the'wall ofthe well, to the surfacep-This issuch'common practice that il' lustration is deemed unnecessary, except that the usual passages or channels, in the bit,'for the discharge -of the drilling mud are shown Iand are referred to by numeral 4.
During the drilling operation, the action ofV the bit and the mud passing through the passages '4 and'onto the cones of the bit, create a churning action of the 'mud and cuttings, but the volume l'and pressure'of'the drilling mud isnotv sufcient to carry off the cuttings until by repeated grinding action by .the -bit the cuttings- Iare nely reduced in size and weight. As pre-- viously mentioned, this slows the drilling process and causes heavy wear on the bit.
`'I'he present invention increases the volume of the mud flow and `lprovides a booster action, by which the lcuttings are more quickly carried awayfrom the bit, thereby speeding up the drill-Kl ing operation, and decreasing the bit wear, as Will now be described. And while only one form of the invention is shown and described, yet it will be understood that the highly desirable results can be obtained with various forms of the invention.
By reference to Figure 2 it will be noted that the lower portion of the drill stem section which carries the bit has its interior diameter increased somewhat to provide an annular pocket having an annular shoulder 5 at its upper end. It will also be noted that this portion of the drill stem section, between the shoulder and the bit, is provided with upwardly inclined holes 6, and that anY annular shoulder 1 is provided in the wall of each hole.
Numeral 8 refers to booster jet nipples, a detail perspective view of vone of which is shown in Figure 3. Two of these nipples are shown in operative position in Figure 1, and they make a snug nt in the previously described holes B in the lower portion Vof the drill stem section which carries the bit. While the drawings show two of these holes and conseouently two nipples, and show these holes as di'erently spaced above the bit, yet of course the number of holes and their positions, and consequently the number of booster jet nipples and their positions, may be varied as desired.
These nipples are shown as made of rubber or rubber-like flexible material, though of course the nipples may be made of other material, such as metal. A passage 9 extends through the nipples, and the nipples when in position incline upwardly and their outer ends turn upwardly, so that the stream of drilling mud passing therethrough will be directed vertically upward. The nipples are of course removable and replaceable, and they are provided with passages of different sizes, so that as Vthe well gets deeper and deeper nipples with passages of largerv diameter may be substituted, for a purpose which will appear hereinafter.
In the specc embodiment illustrated, the nipples have an annular shoulder Ill adjacent their inner ends. and at their inner ends a flange II is provided. The nipples are inserted in position in the holes 6 through the interior of the drill stem section and the annular shoulder I0 on the nipple will abut against the annular shoulder I in the holes 6, and the flange I I of the nipples will abut against the interior face of thedrill stem wall. The pressure of the drilling mud against the nipples is, of course, outwardly, and this pressure will hold the shoulder on the nipple tightly against the shoulder in the hole and likewise tightly hold the ange of the nipple tightly against the interior face of the drill stem wall.
Of course the invention is not limited to the specific form of nipple shown or to the particular manner in which the nipples are mounted in the drill stem section. Obviouslyr wide variation is possible and, for example, if metal nipples are used they could be screwed or otherwise suitably mounted in the drill stem.
To support and shield the booster jet nipples 8. there is preferably provided a protecting shield l2 which is shaped transversely to receive and support that portion of the nipple which is exterior of the drill stem section. This protectingshield may be made of any suitable metal and preferably is welded to the drill stem. As additional support for the shield I2 Vtwo rods I3 may be provided; these rods having their 19W?? ends welded to the upper end of the shield, and the upper ends of the rods being welded to the drill stem section. It will be apparent from the drawings that the jet nipples and the shields are considerably spaced from the wall of the well, as determined by the diameter of the drill bit, so that there is little danger of them striking the wall of the well.
As stated hereinbefore, when drilling mud is being pumped down the drill stem the pressure on the nipples is outwardly, but when the drill stem is being withdrawn the pressure of the drilling mud or other substances in the well bore, might tend to push the nipples back in the drill stem, and the same is true if the nipples should strike some obstacle. To prevent possible inward movement of the nipples while the drill stem is being pulled out of the well bore, I may provide a removable lock pin I4, which passes through holes in the sides of the shield and is seated in a groove I5 in the bottom of the nipple. Obviously other suitable means could be provided, if desired, to prevent unintentional inward movement of the nipples.
In order that a portion of the drilling mud owing down the drill stem may be ejected through the nipples, it is necessary that part of the mud stream change its course, and this change of course adjacent the openings where the nipples are provided, might cause considerable wear on the drill stem. For this reason and to otherwise prevent wear of the drill stem. there is also preferably provided a cylindrical sleeve I6 which is preferably, though not necessarily made of rubber or rubber-like exible material. This sleeve makes a neat t in the annular pocket formed by the enlargement of the inner diameter of the lower portion of the drill stem section. And the upper end of the sleeve abuts against the annular shoulder 5 in the drill stem section, while the lower end of the sleeve abuts against the top of the stem of the drill bit when it is screwed into position, so that the sleeve is firmly held in place. The sleeve is provided with the proper number of openings l'I, properly positioned, according to the number and position of the booster jet nipples. The sleeve is usually mounted in position rst, and then the jet nipples are placed in position through the interior of the drill stem section, either by hand or by an appropriate tool, and these openings il permit the sleeve I6 to make a neat t about the periphery of the flanges II on the nipples.
The operation will no doubt be clearly understood from what has been said hereinbefore. One of the functions of drilling mud is to carry away the cuttings. But heretofore the mud being pumped down the drill stem has been discharged only through the drilling bit. There are usually three or four holes in a bit for discharging the mud from the drill stern to the cones, and the size of these holes is necessarily limited; the largest being three quarters of an inch in diameter. I'hus the volume fiow of the mud stream is limited, and the cuttings must be ground very fine before this stream can carry them off. This grinding by the bit slows the drilling operation and subjects the bit to heavy wear.
And as the well is drilled deeper and deeper the pressure builds up in the drill stem, thereby overloading the pump, so that it is necessary to pump less mud down the well when it gets deeper, while in fact it is desirable that more mud should be pumped down as the well gets deeper.
In accordance with the apparatus of the present invention, the mud being pumped down the well is discharged not only through the drilling bit but also through appropriate discharge openings above the drill bit. Thus it is apparent that the volume and velocity of flow of the mud stream is increased, and this increase of course accelerates the carrying away of the cuttings in the region ofthe drilling bit. In other words, the mud stream', increased in volume and velocity, will carry away cuttings of much larger size and weight, and thus speed up the drilling operation and decrease the wear on the bit.
Further, the supplemental discharges above the bit, are directed upwardly by the nipples, and
, these upwardly discharged streams provide a booster action to pick up the cuttings which are swirling about near the bottom of the well and force them upwardly away from the bit. This booster action is, broadly speaking, in the nature of an injector action. Obviously the eifect of these upwardly moving booster streams is to greatly accelerate the movement of the cuttings away from the drilling bit.
Also, these booster jet nipples are provided with discharge passages of different sizes, for example, varying from one quarter inch diameter to one half inch diameter. 'I'hus as the well gets deeper nipples with larger discharge passages will be substituted, thereby preventing the building up of pressure in the drill stem resulting in overloading of the pumps.
Having fully described the invention, what I claim is:
1. Apparatus for the rotary drilling of oil wells, including the combination of avrotary drill stem, a drill bit carried by the drill stem, said drill bit having downwardly directed passages for discharging drilling mud downwardly from the drill stem through the drill bit, said drill stem having upwardly directed passages for upwardly discharging drilling mud from the drill stem above the drill bit, said upwardly directed passages in the drill lstem arranged close enough to the bit to accelerate the removal of cuttings from the bit, and an annular sleeve tted in said drill stem adjacent said upwardly directed passages.
2. Apparatus for the rotary drilling of oil wells, including the combination of a rotary drill stem, a drill bit `carried by the drill stem, said drill bit having downwardly directed passages for discharging drilling mud downwardly from the drill stern through the drill bit, said drill stem having a lateral opening therein, an upwardly directed nipple of rubber or rubber-like material mounted 'in the `opening in the drill stem above the drill bit and having a passage therethrough for discharging an upwardly directed booster stream of drilling mud from the drill stem, and a shield mounted on the drill stem to support the nipple exterior of the drill stem.
3. Apparatus for the rotary drilling of oil wells, including the combination of a rotary drill stem, a drill bit carried by the drill stem, said drill bit having downwardly directed passages for discharging drilling mud downwardly from the drill stem through the drill bit, said drill stem having a lateral opening therein, an upwardly directed nipple of rubber or rubber-like material mounted in the opening in the drill stem above the drill bit and having a passage therethrough for discharging an upwardly directed booster stream of drilling mud from the drill stem, and a sleeve of rubber or rubber-like material mounted in the drill stem adjacent the nipple, said sleeve having an opening in its wall to permit the sleeve to t snugly about the nipple.
4. Apparatus for the rotary drilling of oil wells, including a section of a rotary drill stem adapted to carry a drill bit, said drill stem section having a lateral opening in the Wall thereof, an annular shoulder in said opening, a, nipple mounted in said opening through the interior'of the drill stem sec-,
tion, an annular shoulder on the nipple abuttingr against the annular shoulder in said opening, and said nipple having an upwardly directed passage therethrough for discharging an upwardly directed booster stream of drilling mud from the drill stem.
5. Apparatus for the rotary drilling of oil wells, including a section of a rotary drill stem adapted to carry a drill bit, said drill stem section having a lateral opening in the wall thereof, a nipple oli rubber or rubber-like material mounted in said opening through the interior of the drill stem section, said nipple having an upwardly directed lmassage therethrough for discharging an upwardly directed booster stream of drilling mud from the drill stem, a ilange on the inner end of said nipple abutting against the interior face of the drill stem section, and a sleeve of rubber or rubber-like material mounted in the drill stem section, said sleeve having an opening in the wall thereof to t neatly about said flange.
6. Apparatus for the rotary drilling of oil wells. including a section of a rotary drill stem adapted to carry a drill bit, said drill stem section having a lateral opening in the wall thereof, a nipple oi rubber or rubber-like material mounted in said opening, said nipple having an upwardly directed passage therethrough for discharging an upwardly directed booster stream of drilling mud from the drill stem, a shield mounted on the exterior of the drill stem section for supporting and protecting said nipple, and means cooperating with said shield and nipple for preventing accidental inward movement of the nipple.
JOHN I. SLOAN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 762,808 Cushing et al June 14, 1904 1,182,134 Bignell May 9, 1916 1,338,460 Morrison Apr. 27, 1920 1,853,379 Rotinoff Apr. 12, 1932 1,990,007 Sperry Feb. 5, 1935 2,017,834 Hummel Oct. 15, 1935 2,085,941 Arnold July 6, 1937 2,307,658 Appleby Jan. 5, 1943 2,485,098 Johnson Oct. 18, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 58,849 Switzerland Nov. 1, 1911 201,368 Germany Sept. 8, 1908 541,192 Great Britain Nov. 17, 1941
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|U.S. Classification||175/324, 175/340|
|International Classification||E21B21/00, E21B41/00|
|Cooperative Classification||E21B41/0078, E21B21/00|
|European Classification||E21B21/00, E21B41/00P|