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Publication numberUS2634717 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 14, 1953
Filing dateApr 30, 1951
Priority dateApr 30, 1951
Publication numberUS 2634717 A, US 2634717A, US-A-2634717, US2634717 A, US2634717A
InventorsJunkin John L
Original AssigneeJunkin John L
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Valve control mechanism for air guns
US 2634717 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 14, 1953 J. l.. .JUNKIN VALVE CONTROL MECHANISM FOR AIR GUNS Filed April 30 1951 rfv/vzw,

I NVENTOR.

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Patented Apr. 14, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE VALVE CONTROL MECHANISM FOR AIR GUNS 9 claims. l

The present invention relates to pneumatic guns and has for its object to provide a quick firing gun capable of projecting ammunition at high speed. A further object is to provide a gun within which air is continuously maintained under sufcient pressure uninterruptedly to attain such projection velocity, Still another object is to provide a valve control mechanism designed to permit of very rapid ring of the gun.

'These and other objects of the invention together with the many advantageous features thereof will be better understood from the following detailed description and by referring to the accompanying drawing in which a preferred form of the invention is illustrated.

In the drawing:

Fig. l is a side elevational View of an air gun embodying the invention;

Fig. 2 is a View, on a larger scale, of the rear end of the gun and taken substantially through the vertical center thereof, and l Fig. 3 shows a detail of construction taken substantially on line 3-3 of Fig. 2 in the direction of the arrows.

In the form illustrated in the drawings, the device of the invention includes a support bracket, or cradle I which is intermediate its ends mounted for oscillating and rotative movement on a pedestal 2 to enable the person operating the gun to aim the gun in any desired direction. However, since it is the intent and ypurpose of the invention to conne the use thereof to target shooting, the range of movement of the gun is limited by placing adjustable stops 3, 4 on the lower, stationary portion 2a o the pedestal for engagement by a projection 5 of the upper portion 2b which vis seated for rotation on the pedestal 2e. Oscillation in a vvertical plane is similarly limited by means of suitable adjustable stops 1, 8 of the cradle. In such manner, vit is lseen that the range of the gun may be adjusted to suit conditions and to comply with rules governing the use of such devices.

A gun barrel I0 is rigidly vsecured to the cradle and an enlarged cylindrical housing II extends from the rear end of this barrel in axial alinement therewith. This housing is also rigidly secured in position on the cradle to support therein the pressure control mechanism of the gun, as best shown in Fig. 2. The inner end of the passage I Ie, within which the barrel is anchored, is shown recessed to form a seat IIb for the master valve I3 of the gun and this valve is part of a piston I4. This valve is in order to provide a ytight fit shown tted with an O-ring I2' and the seat IIb is set at 'an .angle of about `60" `relative to the axis of the gun barrel and valve axis, further to insure such leak-prooi joint and also better to align the valve with its seat. The farmer is seated for limited sliding movement within a cylinder I5 in the manner and for the y urpose which will now be described.

The cylinder I5 is rigidly secured to a cap I6, which closes the rear end of the housing and is clamped in position thereon in any suitable manner, as by bolts Il. It is important to note that the cylinder is much smaller in diameter than the space within the housing and that, in this manner, an annular chamber I8 is Vformed about the cylinder. Below the housing, within a recess la sunk into the cradle of the gun, is placed a trigger support 20, through which a passage 2I carries air under pressure Yfrom a supply hose 22. The latter is in any conventional manner connected continuously and uninterruptedly to carry pressure fluid Ito 'the chamber I8, while the gun is in use.

A threaded rod 25 is seated in the piston I4 and rigidly clamped in position therein by a nut 2B. This rod extends axially through the cap lIIS into a recess 23 sunk into the rear end thereof of a diameter to receive therein a piston `2l. The purpose of this piston is to control the operation of the master Valve I3. A plate 24 tightly closes the entrance to this recess. `lt is important to note that the rod 25 extends freely into the piston 21 and that a threaded nut 28 at the end of vthe rod engages a shoulder Zie within the piston. A stop collar 30 is placed within a groove Ain the inner wall of the recess 2'3 and it is particularly to be noted that the parts are lso arranged and proportioned that the piston is afforded -very limited `axial movement within the recess between this collar and the shoulder 23a.

As above stated, pressure fluid is free to rlow into the lannular chamber I8 to maintain the vmaster valve I3 normally on its seat I2. A trigger `35 is pivotally secured to the rear end of the support 20 in position to push a valve 36 away from its seat and so to open a passage for the pressure fluid through :passages 31, 38 to the bottom vof the recess 23. The uid now entering this recess exerts suiiicient pressure against the piston 21 to move the latter rearwardly ,against the stop collar .30 and, in moving, to push the nut 28 Irearwardly, thereby slightly '.to withdraw the master valve from its seat, against the ytension of a spring 39. The latter is merely power- -ful enough normally to lmaintain the master valve seated.

The air from the pressure chamber lI8 now rushes through the narrow valve opening to encounter the resistance of the atmospheric pressure Within the gun barrel; a resistance which is sucient further to move the valve I3 away from its seat and so fully to open the valve for the free flow of the pressure fluid into the barrel. The effect of this arrangement is momentarily to check the ow of the pressure uid and then to release the uid so suddenly that the instantaneous pressure fluid expansion and rush through the barrel is accompanied by a very loud report, not unlike the report of a gun powder exploded gun. It is important to note that the rod 25 and nut 28 are free to move within the piston 21 during this valve opening movement. Y

In the upper surface of the gun barrel is cut an opening I of a size to admit therethrough a ball 40 which, by the explosive expansion and flow of the pressure fluid is projected through the barrel at an enormous rate of speed to land on the target several rods away from the gun. A ball receptacle or magazine 42 is mounted on the gun barrel, slightly to one side thereof so as to clear the gun sights 43, 44, and means should vbe provided for admitting the balls one by one from this magazine to the barrel. For the sake of simplicity and clearness, this means is in the drawings shown to consist of a cap 45 of a size normally to close the opening Il, and a rod 46 extends from this cap to the rear end of the housing I I for convenient manual operation to load the gun before the trigger is pulled to discharge the ammunition. But, of course, where such cap is used, means must be added to maintain the cap seated on the barrel.

The proportions of the various parts and of the areas and volumes of the spaces within the gun are of great importance and must be held very close limits. It is, for instance, absolutely essential that the diameter of the passage through the gun barrel is a little less than the inner diameter of the cylinder I and the piston I4 seated therein. Also that the diameter of the valve I3, at the point where .the O-ring I2 contacts the valve seat IIb is greater than the inner diameter of the barrel. Had the opposite relations existed, the result would have been to cut down the air resistance within the barrel and to increase the pressure resistance behind the piston suiiciently to ease the now of pressure iluid into the barrel and so to soften the impact of the gun firing. The tension of the springs 29, 39 is also important and should be merely sucient to overbalance the friction of the pistons I4 and 21 within their bearings.

Since, as above explained, the master valve is suddenly projected into fully open position, it is advisable to provide means for arresting this opening movement and this may be done by placing an annular stop member 50 within the cylinder I 5 and to mount a resilient bumper 5I against this member for contact by the piston I4 when the valve reaches fully open position. The opening through this bumper stop should be larger than the nut 26 of the valve rod 25 to permit escape of fluid into the inner space 52 during the opening movement of the valve. It is also to be noted that a passage 53 leads from this space to the recess 23 directly behind the stop collar 30 to relieve the pressure behind the piston 21 While the latter moves to initiate the valve opening movement. A relatively very ne passage 55 leads from the inner chamber 52 through the cap I6 to the atmosphereA to assist in equalizat the entrance to the barrel, a conduit for con- .within the chamber latter being free to move 4 ing the pressure within this chamber and the recess 23 each time the gun has been fired.

It should be clear from the foregoing description that I have produced a pneumatic gun within which air may continuously be maintained under suicient pressure to expel projections at high speed and wherein the valves and valve controlled passages are so proportioned that the area within these passages is greater than the inner area of the gun barrel. But While the device described and illustrated is capable of producing these results, it is not intended thereby to limit the device to the exact arrangements and proportions shown, and modifications thereof may be embodied within the scope of the claims hereto appended.

I claim:

1. In a pneumatic gun having a barrel and an enlarged cylindrical pressure chamber in axial alinement with said barrel, the wall of the chain- 4ber being recessed to form a co-axial valve seat at the entrance to the barrel, a conduit for continuously admitting pressure iiuid to said chamber, a cylinder co-axially mounted within the chamber, a master valve slidable within said cylinder, means urging the valve against said valve seat, there being a cylindrical recess at the rear end of the gun in axial alinement with the cylinder and master valve, a piston slidable within said recess, a co-aXial rod rearwardly projecting from said master valve and freely extending through said piston, a head on the end of said rod contacting the rear surface of the piston, there being a passage from said conduit to the space in front of said piston, a control valve normally closing said passage, and a trigger fer unseating said control valve to admit pressure fluid to the space in front of the piston thereby to force the head of the master valve rod rearwardly Vto open the master valve.

2. In a pneumatic gun having a barrel and an enlarged cylindrical pressure chamber in axial alinement with said barrel, the wall of the chamber being recessed to form a co-axial valve seat tinuously admitting pressure uid to said chamber, a cylinder co-axially mounted within the chamber, a master valve slidable within said cylinder, means urging the valve against said Valve seat, vthere being a cylindrical recess at the rear end of the gun in axial alinement with the cylinder and master valve, a piston slidable Within said recess, a co-axial rod rearwardly projecting from said master valve and freely extending through said piston, a head on the end of said rod contacting the rear surface of the piston, there being a passage from said conduit to the space in front of said piston, a control valve normally closing said passage, and a trigger for ,unseating said control valve to admit pressure fluid to the space in front of the piston thereby to move the piston rearwardly and in moving to force the head of the master valve rod rearwardly slightly to open the master valve, the pressure completing the opening movement of the master valve, the rod of the rearwardly through the control cylinder piston.

' 3. In a pneumatic gun having a barrel and an enlarged cylindrical pressure chamber in axial alinement with said barrel, the wall of the chamber being recessed to form a co-axial valve seat at the entrance to the barrel, a conduit for continuously admitting pressure fluid to said chamber, a cylinder `co-axially mounted vwithin the chamber, a master valve slidable within said cylinder, means urging the valve against said valve seat, there being av cylindrical recess at the rear end of the gun in axial alinement with the cylinder and valve, a piston slidable vwithin said recess, a co-axial rod rearwardly projecting from said master valve and freely lextending through said piston, a head adjustably xed on the end of said rod and contacting the rear surface of the piston, there being a passage from said conduit to the space in front of said piston, a control valve normally closing said passage, a trigger for unseating said control valve to admit pressure iiuid to the space in front of the piston thereby to move the piston rearwardly and in moving to force the head of the master valve rod rearwardly to open the master valve, and a buffer within the master valve cylinder limiting opening movement of the master valve.

4. In a pneumatic gun having a barrel and an enlarged cylindrical pre'ss'urechamber in axial alinement with said barrel, the wall of the chamber being recessed to form an inclined co-axial valve seat at the entrance to the barrel, a conduit for continuously admitting pressure fluid to said chamber, a cylinder co-axially mounted within the chamber, a master valve slidable within said cylinder, means urging the valve against said valve seat, there being a cylindrical recess at the rear end of the gun in axial alinement with the cylinder and valve, a piston slidable within said recess, a co-axial rod rearwardly projecting from said master valve and freely extending through said piston, a head on the end of said rod contacting the rear surface of the piston, means urging the piston against the head of the rod, there being a passage from said conduit to the space in front of said piston, a control valve normally closing said passage, and a trigger for unseating said control valve to admit pressure iiuid from said conduit to the space in front of the piston thereby to move the piston rearwardly and in moving to force the head of the master valve rod rearwardly to open the master valve.

5. In a pneumatic gun having a barrel and an enlarged cylindrical pressure chamber in axial alinement with said barrel. the wall of the chamber being recessed to form a co-axial valve seat at the entrance to the barrel, a conduit for continuously admitting pressure fluid to said chamber, a cylinder co-axially mounted within the chamber, a master valve slidable within said cylinder, means urging the valve against said valve seat, the diameter of the valve at the point of contact with its seat being greater than the inner diameter of the barrel, there being a cylindrical recess at the rear end of the gun in axial alinement with the cylinder and valve, a piston slidable within said recess, a co-axial rod rearwardly projecting from said master valve and freely extending through said piston, a head on the end of said rod contacting the rear surface of the piston, there being a passage from said conduit to the space in front of said piston, a control valve normally closing said passage, and a trigger for unseating said control valve to admit pressure uid to the space in front of the piston thereby to move the piston rearwardly and in moving to force the head of the master valve rod rearwardly to open the master valve.

6. In a pneumatic gun having a barrel and an enlarged cylindrical pressure chamber in axial alinement with said barrel, the wall of the cham- 'ber being 'recessed -to form an inclined l:5o-aerial valve seat at the entrance to the barrel, a cons duit for continuously admitting pressure fluid to said chamber, a cylinder co-axialiy mounted within the chamber, a master valve slidable within said cylinder, said valve having -a gasket -fo'r contact vwith said seat, means urging the valve gasket against the said valve seat, there being a cylindrical recess at the vrear end of theY gun in axial alinement with the cylinder and valve, a piston slidable within 'said'recesa the space behind the piston communicating with the space within the rnaster valve cylinder, a co-axialrod rearwardly 'projecting from said master valve and freely extending through said piston, ahead on the end of said rod contacting the rear surface of the piston, there being a passage from v'said conduit to the space in front of said piston, a control valve normally closing sai-d passage, and a vtrigger vfor unseating said control valve vto admit pressure uid to the space within the cylinder infront of the piston thereby to move the' piston rearwardly and in moving to force the head of the master valve rod rearwardly to open the master valve.

'7. In -a pneumatic gun having a barrel and an enlarged cylindrical pressure chamber in axial alinement with said barrel, the wall of the chamber being recessed to form a co-axial valve seat at the entrance to the barrel, a conduit for continuously admitting pressure iiuid to said chamber, a cylinder axially mounted within the chamber, a master valve slidable within said cylinder, means urging the valve against the said valve seat, there being a cylindrical recess at the rear end of the gun in axial alinement with the cylinder and v-alve, a piston slidable within said recess, a co-axial rod rearwardly projecting from said master valve and freely extending through said piston, a head on the end of said rod contacting the rear surface of the piston, there being a passage from said conduit to the space within the cylinder in front of said piston, a control valve normally closing said passage, a trigger for unseating said control valve to admit pressure fluid to the space in front of the piston thereby to move the piston rearwardly and in moving to force the head of the master valve rod rearwardly to open the master valve. and means limiting rearward movement of the piston.

8. In a pneumatic gun including a cradle, a housing rigidly mounted on said cradle and having an enlarged cylindrical pressure chamber therein, -a barrel seated in said housing in axial alinement with said chamber, the wall of the chamber being recessed to form a co-axial valve seat at the entrance to the barrel, a conduit within the cradle for continuously admitting pressure fluid to said chamber, a cylinder axially mounted within the chamber, a master valve slidable within said cylinder, means urging the valve ag-ainst said valve seat, there being a cylindrical recess at the rear end of the gun in axial alinement with the cylinder and valve, a piston slidable within said recess, a co-axial rod rear wardly projecting from said master valve and freely extending through said piston, a head on the end of said rod normally contacting the rear surface piston, there being a passage from said conduit to the space in front of said piston, a control valve within the cradle normally closing said passage, and a trigger at the rear end of the cradle operable to unseat said control valve to admit pressure fluid to the space in front of the piston thereby to move the piston rearwardly and Ain moving to force the head of the master valve rod'rearwardly to open the master valve.

9. In a pneumatic gun including a cradle, a housing rigidly mounted on said cradle, said housing having an enlarged cylindrical pressure chamber therein, ya barrel seated in said housing in axial alinement with said chamber, the wall of the chamber being recessed to form a oo axial valve seat at Ythe entrance to the barrel, a conduit Within the cradle for continuously admitting pressure uid to said chamber, a cylinder .co-axially mounted Within the chamber, a master valve slidable within said cylinder, means urging the vvalve against said valve seat, there being a cylindrical recess at the rear end of the'gun in axial alinement with the cylinder and valve, a piston slidable within said recess, there being a Aspace Within the recess in front of and behind the pistonl a co-axial rod rearwardly projecting vfrom said master valve and freely extending through said piston, a head on the end of said rod normally contacting the rear surface ofthe References cited in the me of this pai-.entv

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 353,430 Reynolds Nov. 30, 1886 1,299,901 Blair Apr. 8, 1919 1,486,215 Zerbee Mar. l1, 1924 2,525,082 Sherman Oct. 10, 1950 2,581,758 Galliano et al Jan. 8, 1952

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Referenced by
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US2780213 *Dec 8, 1953Feb 5, 1957Charles E CollingPneumatic gun mechanism
US2998810 *Mar 4, 1960Sep 5, 1961Anastasia Harry GAir gun
US3018769 *Jul 2, 1959Jan 30, 1962Parsoneault Frank LBaseball pitching and fielding practice device
US3048159 *Jun 27, 1958Aug 7, 1962Richard M KlineCompressed fluid-operated small arms weapons
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Classifications
U.S. Classification124/75, 124/50, 446/180
International ClassificationF41B11/00, F41B11/32, F41B11/02
Cooperative ClassificationF41B11/72, F41B11/52
European ClassificationF41B11/72, F41B11/52