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Publication numberUS2635281 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 21, 1953
Filing dateMar 14, 1950
Priority dateMar 14, 1950
Publication numberUS 2635281 A, US 2635281A, US-A-2635281, US2635281 A, US2635281A
InventorsFeldberg Morris F
Original AssigneeFeldberg Morris F
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Indexing hinge
US 2635281 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 21, 1953 M. F. FELDBERG 2,635,281

INDEXING HINGE Filed March 14, 1950 f I 6 I 7 r 2 r" 0V /%V/W A 7 INVENTOR.

Mam/s E F154 name ATTORNA'KS.

Patented Apr. 21, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,-

Application March 14, 1950, Serial No. 149,489

4 Claims. 1

This invention relates to an improved indexing hinge for pivotally mounting swinging frames from fixed structures and having means forming a part of the hinge mechanism for adjustably retaining the swinging frame in various indexed positions of open adjustment as selectively determined by the user. ,I'he improved indexing hinge constructed in accordance with this invention may be made from a pair of hinge plates each comprising a main section and a head section which is offset from the main section in a manner to avoid interference with the intended swinging movement of the swinging frame and permit tight closing and seating of the swinging frame in the fixed frame. The main section of one of the hinge plates is designed for attachment to the fixed frame, and the main section of the other hinge plate is designed for attachment to the swinging frame. A sturdy pivot stud or bolt extends through aligned holes in the head sections of the hinge plates, the hinge bolt desirably having a threaded section which may be threaded into the bolt receiving hole in the fixed hinge plate with the swinging hinge plate free to pivot on the hinge bolt.

The head section of. the swinging plate has a series of circumferentially spaced socket holes centered about the hinge bolt, each socket hole being designed to receive and contain a bearing ball. The circumferentially arranged socket holes in the swinging head section define a circular tracking area which matches with a corresponding tracking area in the adjacent face of the head section of the fixed hinge plate. The tracking area in the head section of the fixed hinge plate is defined by a series of circumferentially spaced socket cavities of arcuate contour to provide nesting pockets for the bearing balls, the socket cavities arranged to align with the socket holes in the swinging head section when the swinging hinge plate is in indexing registr with the fixed hinge Plate. i

A flatbearing ring has a central aperture by means of which it may be telescoped over the bodyof the hinge bolt to seat against the circumferentially spaced bearing balls in a manner. to bear thereagainst. A compression spring of selected; compression temper likewise telescopes over the bodyof the hinge bolt in a manner to bear against the bearing ring to thereby place ,a predetermined bearing load on the bearing balls seated within the socket holes in the swinging hinge plate. An enclosing cup which ,seq q ss e Marine ri g, and beari b l ha an aperture centered in the base end thereof through which the hinge bolt extends, the hinge bolt having a head portion designed to seat against the outer face of the base portion of the enclosing cup. The inside face of the base portion of the enclosing cup is designed to bear against the compression spring when the hinge bolt is tightenedgin' amanner to apply a predetermined pressure against the compression spring and thereby apply a predetermined pressure load on the bearing balls. e

The lower free edge of the enclosing cup snugly fits against the outer face of the head section of the swinging hinge plate so as to provide a substantially sealed in chamber in which a suitable lubricant may be contained. The lubricant can be conveniently packed in the enclosing cup prior to assembly of the indexing hinge, so that when the indexing hinge has been fully assembled, it is provided with a permanent supply of lubricant which'serves to maintain the moving parts of the hinge structure adequately lubricated, insuring smooth and noiseless operation throughout the durable life thereof.

This improved indexing hinge can be manufactured and assembled from relatively few and simple parts at low cost and may be readily and conveniently applied to swinging frames such as doors and sash frames and their associated fixed frames as made from either wood or metal. The hinge is designed and constructed to insure correctly proportioned pressure to positively and rigidly maintain the swinging frame in the selected indexed position to which it has been adjusted by the user, and yet permits swinging movement of the swinging frame to any selected indexing position by the application of relatively modest force. Since this improved indexing hinge remains permanently lubricated, the moving parts are fully protected against deterioration and corrosion, thereby insuring a long useful life for the hinge structure, permanent uniformity in pressure loading on the bearing balls, and permanent uniformity in the swinging force required to pivot the swinging frame to selected indexing positions. This improved indexing hinge is also constructed to assure positive retention of the swinging frame at a plurality of locations ranging from closed position to a maximum open position which may be as much as one hundred and eighty degrees from closed position. Additionally, this improved indexing hinge is so constructed as to permit tight closing of the swingingframe, and weather stripping of either the swinging frame or the fixed frame,

thereby insuring complete weatherproofness of the framing structure with which it is associated.

Other objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent as the disclosure proceeds.

Although the characteristic feature of this invention will be particularly pointed out in the claims, the invention itself, and the manner in which itsmay be carried out, may be better understood by .referringte the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing forming a part hereof, in which:

Fig. 1 shows the improved indexing hinge mounted to swingably support a window sash from a fixed window frame, this view illustrating the various angular positions at which the window sash may be adjustablyxretained .by the .in.

dexing hinge.

Fig. 2 is a perspective view of a fragmentary section of a window sash showing the manner in which the indexing hinges may be secured thereto. Fig. 3-is an enlarged fragmentary cross-sectiona1 view of the indexing hinge as the same would appear when viewed in the direction of the arrows -33 of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 is a face view of the hinge plate which is attached to the swinging frame.

-Fig. 5'is a face view of the hinge plate which is attached to the fixed frame structure.

'Fig. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary crosssectional view of the indexing hinge structure as the same would appear when viewed along line 6-6 of Fig. 3, certain parts being broken 'away'to illustrate additional details; and

Fig.7 is a transverse cross-sectionalviewlof the fixed hinge plateas the same wouldappear'when viewed along line 'I--1 of "Fig. 5.

' Similar reference characters refer to similar parts throughout the'severalv'iews of the drawing and the specification.

-As illustrated in the several views of the drawing, indexing'hinges may be made in accordance with this invention from relatively few and inexpensively shaped parts, comprisingessentially a fixed hinge plate I, a swinging hinge plate 10, a hinge stud or bolt 20,-a plurality of .bearing balls 31!,aibearing ring '35, a compression spring 40 of predetermined compression temper and a cup shaped member 45 enclosing the bearing ring 35.

The fixed hinge plate I as shown 'inFigs. '5 and 7 may be cut 01' stamped from a relatively flat blank of steel,:brass'or other suitable metal which may be coated or plated to protect its surfaces against corrosion. The fixed hinge plate I is shaped'to provide a main attaching section 2 having countersunk screw receiving holes 3therein by means of which it is attached to the fixed frame or casement. The fixed hinge plate I is stamped or formed to provide a head section 4 which extends laterally at a right angle fromthe main section 2 and may be formed as an integral part thereof. The outer edge& of the head section 4 may be given an attractive arcuate contour. The head section d has a threaded hinge bolt receiving hole 6 therein designed to receive the threaded end section 2! of the hinge bolt 2|]. The countersunk face of the fixed hinge plate I has a series of circumferentially arranged socket cavi- 'ties I therein which "together define a tracking area or path 8 which is centered by the axis of-the bolt receiving hole 6 in thehead section thereof. As shown in Fig. 7, each socket cavity I has a 'smalllubricating well 1' therein for the retention 'ofa lubricant. The hinge plate is shown in Fig. '5 as having 'atotal of twelve socket cavities I 4 which are closely arranged and equally spaced in the tracking circle 8, the cavities 1 being separated by raised ridges 8' over which the bearing balls 30 are designed to roll in their passage from one socket cavity or cell I to the other.

The swinging hinge plate IE), as shown more particularly in Fig. 4 may likewise be stamped or formed from a relativel heavy metal blank and may be complementary in shape to the fixed hinge plate I as shown in Fig. 5. The swin'ging hinge plate It] comprises a main attaching section II having a series of countersunk holes I2 arranged in staggered relationship for receiving securing screws by means of which the hinge plate is attached to the swinging frame. The swinging hingeplate It is likewise provided with an offset head section iii-formed to extend at a right angle to the main attaching section II thereof. The head-section I3 of the swinging hinge plate may be complementary in shape to the head section 4 of the fixed hinge plate I, and its 'outer edge I4 may be-given an arcuate contour complementary to the arcuate edge contour-5-of the head-section 4 of the fixed hinge plate I. The head section [.3 of the fixed hinge plate II has a bolt receiving hole I5 therein located to align withthreaded hole 6 in the fixed hinge plate I when the hingeis assembled. The hole 15 has a smooth bore tosnugly receive the body section 2-2 of thehinge house which snugly extends therethrough in 'a manner to permit f-ree swinging movement of the hinge plate Ii! thereon.

Theheadsection I3 of the swinging hinge plate It presents a tracking area or path 16 which is complementary and adjacent .to the circular tracking area 8in the adjacent face of the companion fixed hinge plate I. The tracking area .or path I6 in the swinging hinge plate I 0 is defined by aseries .of equally spaced socket holesllextending therethrough and arranged in a circle centered about the bolt Jhole I5 therein. The swinging. hinge plate .I 0 is shownin Figs. '3 and 4 as equipped with a total of six socket'holes I! each designedtosnugly receive 'a hard bearing ball 30. The socket holes I! aresized to'retain their individual bearing balls '30 therein, the bearing balls nevertheless being free to roll along the tracking path 8 on adjacent face of the fixed-hinge section I and successively roll into and out of the socket cavities F therein.

The hinge stud or bolt 2E! presents a sturdy bearing section 22 terminating in a threaded end section 2! of sufiicient length'so that it may be threaded through the threaded-holefi in the fixed hinge plate I and receive an enclosed lock nut 23 over the outer end thereof. The smooth bearing section 22 of the hinge bolt I5 provides a bearing in which the swinging hinge plate I I] may snugly pivot. The hinge bolt 29 is provided with a head section 24 which may be given an attractive and decorative contour with means to permit the application of a manipulating wrench thereto.

The bearing ring 35 may be stamped from a flat plate of metal into the form of a ring or washer and has a hole "36 centrally thereof through which the bearing section 22 of the hinge bolt 20 extends. The outer diameter of the bearing ring 35 is such as to overhang the circular tracking area defined by the socket holes I! in the swinging hinge plate ID. The bearing balls 30 seating within socket holes I! are of such size as to extend above the upper face of the head section I3 of the swinging hinge plate II] when the bearing balls nest within the socket cavities I inthe fixed hinge plate I. Thebearing ring 35 is thus designed to have bearing contact against the bearing balls 30 so that the bearing balls support and maintain the bearing ring 35 out of rubbing contact with the adjacent face of the swinging hinge plate III.

A compression spring 40 of predetermined compression temper is telescoped over the bearing section 22 of the hinge bolt 20 with one end 4| of the compression spring snugly seating on and pressed against the bearing ring 35. The compression spring 46 serves to apply a predetermined bearing pressure against the bearing ring 35, which pressure is in turn transmitted to the bearing balls 30 to normally retain the bearin balls indexed in seating position in the socket cavities I of the fixed hinge plate I.

The bearing plate 35, the bearing balls 30, the compression spring 40 and the bearing section 22 of the hinge bolt 26 are contained and enclosed within a cup shaped member 45 which may be stamped from plate metal or molded into cup shaped form from either metallic or plastic materials. The enclosing cup 45 has an attractively rounded bottom portion 46 presenting centrally located hole 41 through which the hinge bolt 20 extends. The head section 24 of the hinge bolt 25 is shaped to snugly seat against the outside face of the bottom portion 46 of the enclosing cup 45 in a manner to close and seal the bolt receiving hole 41 therein. The skirt portion 48 of the enclosing cup extends substantially parallel to the axis of the hinge bolt 26 and is provided with a smooth free edge 49 having snug seating contact with the adjacent smooth face of the head section I3 of the swinging hinge plate l0.

When the enclosing cup 45 is retained in assembled position by the hinge bolt 26, it provides a substantially leakproof compartment with the assembled parts of the hinge structure. Thus a suitable lubricant 50 may be permanently contained in the enclosing cup 45 to insure continuous and long lasting lubrication of the moving parts of the hinge structure. The enclosing cup 45 is also so shaped and formed that the inner face of the bottom portion 46 thereofwill seat againstthe adjacent end 42 of the compression spring so as to exert a predetermined pressure on the spring when the parts of the hinge are assembled.

The relatively few and simply constructed parts which form this improved indexing hinge may be quickly assembled for relatively unskilled laborat low cost. In assembling the parts to form the hinge, the body section of the hinge bolt 20 may be projected through the bolt receiving hole 4! in the enclosing cup 45, the compression spring 45 telescoped over the bearing section 22 of the bolt, and the interior of the enclosing cup 45 filled with lubricant 56, The bearing ring 35 may then be telescoped over the bearing section 22 of the hinge bolt 26, and the bearing section 22 of the hinge bolt 26 projected through the bearing hole I5 in the head section I3 of the swinging hinge plate Ill. The bearing balls 3|] can then be easily placed within the socket holes I1 in the swinging hinge plate I6 to rest against the adjacent face of the bearing ring 35 when the hinge bolt 20 is held in inverted position. The fixed hinge plate I is then applied to the threaded end section 2| of the hinge bolt by whirling the fixed hinge plate I around the threaded end section of the hinge bolt, the fixed hinge plate I being spun down on the hinge bolt until the free edge 49 of the enclosing cup 45 ismaintained in snug bearing contact against 6 the adjacent face of the head section I3 of the swinging hinge plate I0. As a final step in as sembly, the lock nut 23 is applied to the projecting threaded end section 2I of the hinge bolt 20 and tightened or otherwise locked to be securely retained by same in fixed position.

As thus constructed, this improved indexing hinge permits swinging movement of the hinge plate I0 about the smooth bearing section 22 of the hinge bolt as a bearing axis, with the fixed hinge plate I, the hinge bolt 20, the bearing ring 35, the compression spring 40 and the enclosing cup 45 remaining substantially stationary.

Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate the manner in which a pair of these improved indexing hinges may be applied to a swinging frame A and a fixed frame B to adjustably retain the swinging frame in various angular positions and at the same time provide a relatively tight and weatherproof seal around the fixed frame opening when the swinging frame is in closed position. For illustrative purposes only, these indexing hinges are shown in Figs. 1 and 2 as associated with a window sash and a fixed frame or casement, the swinging sash or frame A comprising vertical framing members'GI, a top framing member 52 and a bottom framing member 63 with a pane of glass or like paneling 64 set therein. The fixed frame or casement B as shown in Fig. 1 comprises vertical framing members 65, a top framing member 66 and a bottom framing member 61, each presenting a recessed face 68 and an abutment or jamb face 69.

In the construction shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the main section 2 of the fixed hinge plates I are inset in the recessed face 68 of the vertical frame members 65 to present asubstantially flush surface. Likewise, the main section II of the swinging hinge plates III are inset in the adjacent edge face'of the vertical sash frame members 6|. When the sash is in closed position the side edge faces of the sash frame. A may form a snug fitting joint with the vertical recessed faces 63 of the fixed frame member B. Thus, these improved indexing hinges are so constructed as to permit the attachment of weather stripping 10 to the jamb faces 69 of the fixed frame B as shown in Fig. 1, or if desired weather stripping can be attached to the inside face of the framing members 6|, 62 and 63 of the swinging frame A. It will also be noted that since the head sections 4 and I3 of the hinge plates I and II are offset from the main sections 2 and II thereof as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the head sections in no way interfere with the tight closing of the swinging frame A and further permit swinging movement of the swinging frame A through a are if desired.

Indexing hinges made in accordance with this invention may be associated with fixed and swinging frames made from either wood or metal, and the main sections 2 and II of the hinge plates I and I0 may be given any shape and form indicated by the shape and form 'of the frames to which they are to be attached. Thus;

these improved indexing hinges may be attached to either the vertical or horizontal faces of fixed and swingable frames, and find general utility and application to doors, windows, transoms and other structures where a swinging frame is to be mounted on a fixed frame.

While certain novel features of this invention have been disclosed and are pointed. out in the claims, it will be understood that various omissions, substitutions and changes may be made 7. bythose skilled in the art without departing from thev spirit of this invention.

2 What is claimed is:

1. An improved indexing hinge construction comprising, a pair of flatfaced hinge plates designed to be arrangedin stacked relationship with :one plate superimposed over the other underlying plate when the hingeis assemblechsaid hinge plates presenting aligned hinge pin receiving holes with fiat faces in :smooth bearing contact and complementary circular tracking areas centered around the hinge pin holes therein, the circular tracking area of the superimposed plate presenting equally spaced socket holes extending therethrough and the circular tracking area of the underlying plate presenting corresponding equally spaced socket cavities therein, a ball bearing fitted within each of the socket holesin the superimposed plate and designed to travel around the circular tracking area of the underlying plate and to selectively seat within the socket cavities therein when saidsocket cavities are in alignment with the socket holes in the superimposed plate, 'a hinge pin extending through the aligned hinge 'holes in said plates, a bearing ring designed to seat against the ball bearings fitted in the socket holes in the adjacent plate, a compression spring telescoped over said hinge pin and having one end thereof seating against said bearing ring, a separable cup shaped member having an end Wall portion seating against the other end of said compression spring and a side wall portion terminating in arim edge seating against the flat face of the adjacent superimposed hinge plate and enclosing said bearing ring, said hinge pin extending through said cup shaped member and having a head portion at one end thereof and adjustable securing means at the other end thereof forretaining the parts in operative assembly.

2. An improved indexing hinge construction comprising a pair of flat faced hinge plates designed to be arranged in stacked relationship with one plate superimposed over the other underlying plate when the hinge is assembled, said hinge platespresenting aligned hinge pin receiving holes with fiat faces in smooth bearing contact and complementary circular tracking areas centered around the hinge pin holes therein, the circular tracking area of the superimposed plate presenting equally spaced socket holes extending therethrough and the circular tracking area of the underlying plate presenting corresponding equally spaced socket cavities therein, a ball bearing fitted within eachof the socket holes in the superimposed plate and designed to travel around the circular tracking area of the underlying plate and to selectively seat within the socket cavities therein when said socket cavities are in alignment with the socket holes in the superimposed plate, a hinge pin extending through the aligned hinge holes in said plates, a bearing ring designed to seat against the ball bearings fitted in the socket holes in the adjacent plate, a compression spring 'telescoped over said hinge pin and having one end thereof seating against said bearing ring, a cup shaped member enclosing said compression spring and bearing ring with the rim edge thereof snugly fitted to the fiat face of the adjacent superimposed plate providing a compartment for lubricant, said hinge pin having means at the ends thereof for separably connecting the parts in operative assembly.

8 3. An improved indexing hinge construction comprising, a pair of relatively flat hinge plates designed to be arranged in stacked relationship with one plate superimposed over the other underlying plate when the hinge is assembled, each of said hinge plateshavinga main attaching section and a flat faced head section offset from the main section, aligned hinge pinreceiving holes in said head sections,-said head sections having flat faces in smoothbearing contact and adjacent circular tracking'areas centered around the hinge pinholes therein, the circulartracking area of the superimposed head section presenting equally spacedsocket holes extending therethrough and the circular tracking area of the underlying head section presenting correspondingly equally spacedsocket cavities therein, a ball bearing fitted within each of the socket holes in the superimposed head section and de signed to travelaround the circular tracking area in the adjacent face of said underlying head section and to selectively seat within the socket cavities therein when said socket cavities are in alignment with the socket holes in the superimposed head section, a hinge .pin extending through the aligned pin holes in said head sections, a bearing ring designed to seat against the ball bearings fitted in the socket holes .in the adjacent head section, a compression spring telescoped over said hinge pin and having-one end thereof seating against said bearing ring, a cup shaped member having an end wall portion seating against the other end of saidcompress'ion spring and a side wall portion having a rimedge seating against the flat face of the adjacent superimposed head section and enclosingsaid bearing ring, said hinge pin extending through said cup shaped member and having a head portion at one end thereof seating against the end wall portion of said cup shaped member and adjustable means at the other end thereof seating against the head section of said underlying hinge plate for retaining the parts in operative assembly.

4. An improved indexing hinge construction comprising, apair of relatively flat hinge plates designed to be arranged in stacked relationship with one plate superimposed over the other underlying plate when the hinge is assembled, each of said hinge plates having a main attaching section and a flat faced head section offset from the main section, aligned hinge pin receiving holes in said head sections, said head sections having fiat faces in smooth bearing contact and adjacent circular tracking areas centered around the hinge pin holes therein, the circular tracking area of the superimposed head section presenting equally spaced socket holes extending therethrough and the circular tracking area of the underlying head section presenting corresponding equally spaced socket cavities therein, a ball bearing fitted within each of the socket holes in the superimposed head section and designed to travel around the circular tracking area in the adjacent face of saidunderlying head section and to selectively seat within the socket cavities therein when said socket cavities are in alignment with the socket holes in the superimposed head section, a hinge pin extending through the aligned hinge pin holes in said head sections, a bearing ring designed to seat against the ball bearings fitted in the socket holes in the adjacent head section, a compression spring telescoped over said hinge pin and having one end thereof seating against said bearing ring, acup shaped 'memberenclosing said compression spring and bearing ring with the rim edge there- Number Name Date of snugly fitted to the back surface of the adja- 1,046,486 Norton et a1 Dec. 10, 1912 cent head section opposite its said fiat bearing 1,057,570 McQuilian Apr. 1, 1913 face and providing a compartment for lubri- 1,159,529 Parizek Nov. 9, 1915 cant, said hinge pin having means at one end 5 1,274,490 Wyatt Aug. 6, 1918 thereof engaging said cup shaped member and 2,255,529 May Sept. 9, 1941 adjustable means at the other end thereof engaging the underlying hinge plate for retaining FOREIGN PATENTS the parts in operative assembly. Number Country Date MORRIS F. FELDBERG. 10 104,100 Sweden Mar. 24, 1942 References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 15 1,005,136 Banker Oct. 10, 1911

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US1274490 *Apr 3, 1917Aug 6, 1918Donald J WyattCar-door hanger.
US2255599 *Mar 17, 1938Sep 9, 1941Olmsted Russell CExpansion joint for roadways
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2960717 *Sep 3, 1957Nov 22, 1960Aerol Co IncCaster swivel control device
US4377020 *Mar 23, 1981Mar 22, 1983Compagnie Industrielle De MecanismesBi-rotational hinge
US4718127 *Jun 10, 1986Jan 12, 1988Snap-On Tools CorporationHelmet visor with locking hinge assemble
US4829633 *Sep 9, 1987May 16, 1989Lunke & Sohn GmbhVehicle door hinge
US5008976 *Mar 3, 1989Apr 23, 1991Dell Corporate Services CorporationDigital apparatus having a display section adjusted by a hinge assembly with rolling resistance
US6125507 *May 12, 1998Oct 3, 2000Katoh Electrical Machinery Co., Ltd.Closing device for covering member
US6195839Sep 9, 1997Mar 6, 2001Ericsson Inc.Hinged detent
US6282752 *May 14, 1997Sep 4, 2001ED. SCHARWäCHTER GMBH & CO. KGDoor hinge assembly with integrated door lock for a motor vehicle door
US6532627 *Mar 28, 2001Mar 18, 2003Gammastamp SpaHinge for vehicle doors with integrated doorstop device
US6684455 *Jan 12, 2000Feb 3, 2004Ise Industries GmbhArticulated joint, in particular a door hinge, having a device for fastening a first movement element
US7240397 *Apr 8, 2004Jul 10, 2007Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Refrigerator
US7735537 *Jun 4, 2008Jun 15, 2010Hardt Ii John CPortable wall-partition
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US8438703 *Jun 10, 2011May 14, 2013Amesbury Group, Inc.Positionable hinge
US8453403Jun 28, 2007Jun 4, 2013Flex-Ability Concepts, L.L.C.Apparatus and methods of forming a curved structure
US20100127514 *Mar 7, 2008May 27, 2010Rickard NilssonDoor Locking Device, in Particular for Insulating Glass Doors of Cold Rooms, Refrigeration Cabinets and Domestic Refrigerators
EP0266490A1 *Jul 10, 1987May 11, 1988Lunke & Sohn AktiengesellschaftDoor hinge for a vehicle door
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Classifications
U.S. Classification16/276, 16/329, 16/274
International ClassificationE05D11/10, E05D11/00
Cooperative ClassificationE05D11/1078
European ClassificationE05D11/10E4