|Publication number||US2635648 A|
|Publication date||Apr 21, 1953|
|Filing date||May 25, 1951|
|Priority date||May 25, 1951|
|Publication number||US 2635648 A, US 2635648A, US-A-2635648, US2635648 A, US2635648A|
|Inventors||Boutwell H Foster|
|Original Assignee||Us Rubber Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (24), Classifications (17)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
A ril 21, 1953 a. H. FOSTER HONEYCOMB FABRIC Filed May 25, 1951 INVEN TOR. 500/12! 1 A. Ffld'ff/P B 5, AM 4,. mm
ATTORNEY Patented Apr. 21, 1953 HONEYCOBIB FABRIC Boutwell H. Foster, Maplewood, N. J., assignor to United States Rubber Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New Jersey Application May 25, 1951, Serial No. 228,283
This invention relates to a waffle-weave or honeycomb fabric, and more particularly to a dimensionally stable honeycomb fabric having deep pockets disposed in rows throughout the fabric.
Honeycomb fabrics have been produced heretofore having uniformly disposed pockets throughout the fabric, and these pockets have been produced by closely interweaving some warp and weft threads and floating to increasing degrees other warp and weft threads, to thereby form square pyramidal pockets throughout the fabric and which are separated by slightly discernible ridges. It has also been proposed heretofore to treat such honeycomb fabric with caustic to shrink the fabric and thereby increase the depth of the pockets.
The present invention contemplates a novel honeycomb fabric having pockets or cells that are exceptionally deep for the size or width of such cells, and the fabric of the present invention also has one face that is soft to the hand, while the other face has a smooth bearing surface that will slide readily upon other surfaces.
The honeycomb fabric contemplated by the present invention is given the exceptionally deep cells compared with the width of such cells by introducing into the fabric while it is being woven several heatshrinkable yarns along each ridge that separates two rows of cells. These heatshrinkable yarns are floated in the fabric to a substantial degree so that they are disposed primarily at one face of the fabric throughout the weave. Such heat-shrinkable yarns are preferably introduced into the fabric as warp and as weft to form ridges extending both longitudinally and transversely of the fabric. However, if a honeycomb fabric that is easier to weave is desired, the heat-shrinkable yarns may be introduced in the warp only of the fabric to cause it to shrink in only one direction. The rows of heat-shrinkable yarns just mentioned preferably are produced by introducing such yarns in the warp and in the weft where the ridges are desired, and each heat-shrinkable yarn is preferably formed of continuous or staple (cut) heatshrinkable filaments that will shrink a substantial amount when heated. Such yarns should be capable of shrinking from 25 to 50% when subjected to a temperature near the boiling point of water or higher, but the temperature used should not be high enough to weaken appreciably the heat-shrinkable yarns, or injure the other yarns of the fabric.
The heat-shrinkable yarns are employed in the fabric of the present invention to perform the following functions: (1) shrink the honeycomb fabric a substantial amount to increase the depth of the pockets, 2) rigidly hold the shrunken fabric in the shrunken condition to thereby provide a dimensionally stable honeycomb fabric, (3) impart to the honeycomb fabric one smooth face over which other fabrics will slide freely.
The heat-shrinkable yarns herein contemplated shrink because they possess what is known as "elastic memory in that filaments of the yarn were stretched a substantial amount during their formation and as a result will return to their previous shorter length when heated. A number of synthetic filament yarns now on the market are heat-shrinkable to some degree, but since yarns that will not shrink when heated are desired for most textile uses, it is common practice to anneal these synthetic filaments to make them heat stable except at high temperatures. A number of the vinyl resin and acrylonitrile types of filaments which have not been annealed may have the above mentioned heat-shrinkable property. It is found that very good results are secured by using Vinyon NOZZ yarn as the heatshrinkable yarn. This is a copolymer of vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile, there being 50 to percent of the first and the rest of the second, and the yarn is not annealed.
When a honeycomb fabric is produced in accordance with the present invention it is woven primarily of warp and weft yarns that are not heat-shrinkable to any appreciable degree, such for example as ordinary cotton yarns. The fabric is made shrinkable by also weaving therein as warp and weft heat-shrinkable arns such as above described along the ridges between the rows of pockets. The depth of these pockets can be increased to a substantial degree by simply heating the fabric to or near the boiling point of water, to thereby cause the heat-shrinkable yarns to contract a substantial amount. This will serve to contract the woven fabric both longitudinally and transversely anywhere from about 20 to 30%, and as the honeycomb fabric contracts the width of the pockets will decrease while the depth will increase, to thereby provide a honeycomb fabric having much deeper pockets than it was practical to produce heretofore. After the yarns are contracted they will hold the fabric contracted to make it dimensionally stable.
The deep cell honeycomb fabric of the present invention, which is light in weight, may be used for various purposes. It is extremely well adapted for use as warm underclothing or underwear to be worn next to the skin in cold climates, as the deep pockets form numerous dead air cells that have good insulating properties, while the construction of the weave causes it to absorb moisture readily. It is important when the honeycomb fabric of the present invention is worn as underclothing that the soft cotton face of the fabric be placed next to the skin and that the face of the fabric having the floating heatshrinkable yarns be worn next to the overlying clothing. This is because the heat-shrunken smooth yarns impart to the honeycomb fabric a smooth outer bearing surface over which an overlying garment will slip readily. This will prevent the honeycomb underwear next to the skin from shifting and chafing the skin. The honeycomb fabric of the present invention is also well adapted for use as an inbetween lining for a warm jacket or coat, since it will impart to such garment excellent heat insulating properties to keep the body warm without adding appreciably to the weight of the garment. In addition to the clothing uses just mentioned the fabric of the present invention, due to its ornamental appearance may be used in draperies and in bedspreads, and for other purposes where its unusual appearance makes it desirable.
The above and other features of the present invention will be further understood from the following description when read in connection with the accompanying drawing; wherein Fig. 1 is a plan View of a piece of honeycomb fabric constructed in accordance with the present invention, shown as it comes off the loom.
Fig. 2 shows the fabric of Fig. 1 after it has been heat-shrunken from the dimensions of 1 to that of Fig. 2.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the line 33 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a reproduction of an enlarged photograph of a small portion of the fabric of Fig. 1; and
Fig. 5 is a similar view of the shrunken fabric of Fig. 2.
The waffle or honeycomb fabric contemplated by the present invention, may, for the most part be formed of any preferred yarn, such as. cotton, wool, rayon or the like, but in order to obtain the above mentioned deep pockets it is necessary to provide along the ridges lying between the rows of pockets heat-shrinkable yarns. such as continuous filament yarns or stable yarns having the properties above described. The honeycomb properties shown in Fig. l are imparted to the fabric by so interweaving the non-shrinkable yarns forming the major portion of the fabric as to produce a square weave, such as one up and one down at the bottom of the pockets, and to float the warp and weft yarns to increasing degrees towards the rim of such pockets. This causes the square weave to be displaced laterally in the plane of the fabric to form the bottom of the pockets.
Fig. 1 of the drawing shows the fabric of the present invention as it comes off the loom and in approximately full scale as it looks upon leaving the loom. This fabric which is indicated in its entirety by the numeral H1 is formed by interweaving the non-shrinkable warp yarns II and non-shrinkable weft yarns l2 in the manner just described to form the pockets l3, and by providing along the ridges between the rows of pockets the heat-shrinkable warp yarns M and heatshrinkable weft yarns I5. When it is desired to shrink the fabric ll) of Fig. 1 both longitudi- 4 nally and transversely all that is necessary is to heat it to or nearly to the boiling point of water for less than one minute, to thereby cause it to shrink both longitudinally and transversely some 20 or 30%, as desired, and produce the dimensionally stable waffle fabric of Fig. 2.
The shrunken fabric as will be apparent from Fig. 3, has deep pockets or cells I3 extending inwardly from both faces thereof, but one face of this fabric is quite different from the other. This is because the shrunken yarns i4 and I5 will feel somewhat harsh, while the other face formed entirely of the non-shrunken warp and weft yarns H and I2 will feel relatively soft, as it lies relaxed in the fabric after the fabric has been shrunken some 20% or more. This shrinkage will be apparent from comparing the size of the fabric of Fig. 2 with the size of that shown in Fig. 1. The upper face of the fabric having the ridges thereof formed of the contracted smooth slippery yarns l4 and 15 will provide a smooth surface rim around each deep pocket I3. and this face of the fabric will have a low coeflicient of function.
The construction of the fabric just described will be further understood from the reproduction of the enlarged photographs shown in Figs. 4 and 5. and wherein Fig. 4 shows the we ffie fabric before it is shrunken and Fig. 5 shows the same fabric after it is shrunken to increase the depth of the pockets l3. The fact that the bottom of the pockets l3 appear dark in Fig. 5 of the drawing is due to the depth of these pockets which cause the fabric at the bottom of these pockets to be out of focus of the camera adjusted to show the weave at the upper face of the fabric.
After the honeycomb fabric shown in Figs. 1 and 4 of the drawing has been dipped in hot water having a temperature of from about to about 210 for one minute or less it will be shrunken as shown in Figs. 2. 3 and 5 of the drawing. and will be dimensionally stable in that the heat-shrunken yarns Ill and 15 will hold the fabric in the shrunken condition of Fig. 2 throughout a long period of use, provided the fabric is not again subjected to a temperature about as high or higher than that used to shrink the fabric. The shrunken fabric shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 5 of the drawing may be repeatedly washed provided the water used is not as hot as that used to shrink the fabric, and care should be taken not to expose the fabric at any time to a high temperature, for example, it should not be ironed with a hot iron.
The fabric of the present invention, while light in weight is relatively thick, due to the depth of its pockets shown in Fig. 3, and it does not pack down in use. since if it is compressed it readily returns to its original thickness. It is found that this deep cell honeycomb fabric gives excellent protection from the cold, due partly to the thickness of the fabric but primarily to the deep pockets which form dead air cells, and also to the construction which causes the fabric to breath and absorb body moisture.
The various features of the fabric of the present invention will be further understood from the following table analyzing an all cotton waffle fabric. as constructed heretofore and a cotton Vinyon waffle fabric constructed in accordance with the present invention, each fabric being analyzed before and after the hot water treatment. It will be understood that the all cotton fabric will shrink slightly when exposed to hot water but much less than the fabric of the present invention.
Treatment None(ff-thel.ooml Hot Water i Cotion/ Cotton/ 0110i) Vinym I Cotton vinyon i Wt, ozJsq. yd.. .7 5. F5 0. 25 7.07 ii. f0 Percent Shrinkage in Area 20. 4 41. 3 'll'iickness, inches .072 047 .ll5 I25 Percent Inc-reuse in Thickncss l o 59 ll l Percent compressibility a. 5H. 4 45.1 H0 5 53, i Percent Recovery after Removal of (lomprcssi ing Load 30. 3 34. ii 41.2 i i. 5 Air Permeability i 31v 25v- 351 20s Contains 4 Vinyon NOZZ yarns in ridges.
b Measured under pressure of 0.l lit/sq. in.
c X X100 when X is thiljkllioS under load ci'ill llr/sq. in. and
Y is thickness under load of 2.0 lbJsq. in.
Cubic feet per square foot per minute measured at 0.5 inch of water pressure.
It will be seen from lines 3 and 4 of the table that the heat shrinking operation serves to more than double the thickness of the cotton/Vinyon fabric. This greatly increases the depth of the pockets and forms deep dead air cells so as to impart to the fabric excellent heat insulating properties, and since the fabric of the table is formed primarily of cotton yarn it will have good moisture absorbing properties and sufficient porosity to cause the body moisture to diffuse through the fabric and quickly evaporate. A highly desirable feature of the fabric is its climensional stability whereby an under garment made of this material will keep its shape so long as it is not heated to the temperature at which the fabric was shrunken. Another desirable feature resides in the low coefficient of friction of one face whereby an outer garment will slide freely over the honeycomb fabric.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to protect by Letters Patent is:
l. A dimensionally stable honeycomb fabric havin relatively deep pockets, said fabric being formed primarily of warp and weft yarns that are heat stable and which are inter-woven and floated to different degrees to produce longitudinal and transverse rows of pockets with ridges between them at one face of the fabric, and having interwoven along such longitudinal and transverse ridges vinyl resin yarns that are heatshrunken after they are woven in the fabric and serve in their shrunken condition to hold the fabric contracted both longitudinally and transversely to form deep pockets in a non-stretchable fabric and also to impart a low coefficient of friction to one face of the fabric.
2. A dimensionally stable honeycomb fabric having relatively deep pockets, said fabric being formed primarily of warp and weft yarns that are heat stable and which are interwoven and floated to different degrees to produce longitudinal and transverse rows of pockets with ridges between them at one face of the fabric, and having interwoven along said ridges heat-shrinkable resinous yarns capable of shrinking over 25 percent and that are heat-shrunken after they are woven in the fabric and serve in their shrunken condition to hold the fabric contracted both longitudinally and transversely to form deep pockets in a non-stretchable fabric and also to impart a low coefficient of friction to one face of the fabric.
3. .A dimensionally stable honeycomb fabric having relatively deep pockets, said fabric being formed primarily of warp and weft yarns that, are heat stable and which are interwoven and floated to different degrees to produce longitudinal and transverse rows of pockets with ridges between them at one face of the fabric, and having interwoven along said ridges heat-shrinkable resinous yarns capable of shrinking over 25 percent and that are heat-shrunken after they are woven in the fabric and serve in their shrunken condition to hold the fabric contracted both longitudinally and transversely to form a shrunken fabric that has one face that is soft and an other face that has a low coefficient of friction, and thereby provide a fabric which is dimensionally stable and has deep pockets.
4. A dimensionally stable honeycomb fabric having relatively deep pockets, said fabric being formed primarily of warp and weft yarns that are heat stable and which are interwoven and floated to different degrees to produce longitudinal and transverse rows of pockets with ridges between them at one face of the fabric, and havinginterwoven along said ridges so that they float at the face of the fabric heat-shrinkable resinous yarns capable of shrinking over 25 percent and that are heat-shrunken after they are woven in the fabric and serve in their shrunken condition to hold the fabric contracted both longitudinally and transversely to form deep pockets in a dimensionally stable shrunken fabric and cause the fabric to have a lower coefficient of friction at its face provided with the heat-shrinkable yarns than at its opposite face.
BOUTWELL H. FOSTER.
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|U.S. Classification||428/175, 428/187, 28/163, D05/53, 428/116|
|International Classification||D06Q1/02, D03D15/00|
|Cooperative Classification||D10B2501/04, D03D15/04, D03D15/00, D10B2201/02, D10B2501/02, D03D2700/0144, D06Q1/02|
|European Classification||D03D15/00, D03D15/04, D06Q1/02|