|Publication number||US2636007 A|
|Publication date||Apr 21, 1953|
|Filing date||Sep 8, 1948|
|Publication number||US 2636007 A, US 2636007A, US-A-2636007, US2636007 A, US2636007A|
|Inventors||Delbert F. Jurgensen|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (14), Referenced by (6), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 1953 D. F. JURGENSEN, JR, ETAL 2,636,007
DETERGENT PACKAGE AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME Filed Sept. 8. 1948 SUPPLYING DETERGENT MIXING BINDER WITH DETERGENT WRAPPING HEATING TO SET BINDER CUTTING cooLme INVENTOR- DELBERT F. JURGENSEN JR.
JOHN A. ABBOTT JR.
A ORNEY I Patented Apr. 21, 1953 DETERGENT PACKAGE AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME Delbert F. J urgensen,
Jr., Tuckahoe, and John A.
Abbott, J r., Brooklyn, N. Y., assignors to American Machine & Foundr tion of New Jersey y Company, a corpora- Application September 8, 1948, Serial No. 48,233
This invention relates to detergent or soap packages suitable for use in a single washing operation and comprising particles of a suitable detergent enclosed in a wrapper which is readily disintegratable in Water during the washing operation, and also to improvements in the manufacture of such packages.
One of the main objects of this invention is to provide a package of this type wherein the soap or other detergent particles are bonded together to form a coherent mass which can be handled conveniently.
A further object of this invention is to provide a package of this type having open ends from which particles of the soap or other detergent will not sprinkle out.
Another object of the invention is to bond the detergent particles together with a binder which will be readily dispersed in water during the Washing operation, because of its friable nature.
Still another object of the invention is to bond the particles together with a binder distributed throughout the detergent particles in the package whereby upon heating the packages by baking them, or otherwise, the binder will be activated and caused to set. Upon cooling the packages the binder will unite the detergent particles in a firm coherent but friable mass, Wherefore the package can be handled conveniently.
A further objectof the invention is to prevent loosening of the detergent particles adjacent the ends of the packages when the packages are cut from a rod consisting of a tubular wrapper filled with a mixture of the detergent particles and the binder. These and other objects not specifically mentioned may be realized by the package and processes which will be hereinafter described.
In the accompanying drawings which form a part of this specification:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a package embodying our invention; and
Fig. 2 is a flow sheet of a suitable method for making the same.
* Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings, it will be seen that the package P has a tubular wrapper with open ends and a filler F consisting of detergent particles bonded together by a suitable binder. The wrapper T may be formed of any suitable paper or other material which is readily disintegratable in water, such as toilet paper or cigarette paper. It will be noted that the longitudinal edges of the wrapper T are overlapped to form a seam S. A portion of the wrapper T is shown opened up in Fig. 1 to expose the underi e Par ies .01; h l r e a l the mensions of the package are such that a single washing operation may be performed with the amount of material therein.
The package may be formed by any suitable sequence of steps or operations. The sequence of operations indicated by the various legends in Fig. 2 may be used.
Supplying detergent The first operation is indicated in Fig. 2 by the legend Supplying Detergent. Any suitable detergent or detergent mixture such as granulated of Ivory Snow, although any other suitable type of soap such as Ivory Flakes, Oxydo1,Rinso, and Duz may be used. Examples of suitable synthetic detergents ar Nacconal NR (re- Swerl) which consists chiefly of so- Reissue Pat- Dreft, which comprises sodium 1,993,431, 2,046,242, 2,256,877, and 2,264,737. Synthetic detergents are marketed in the bead (spray dried) or flake (drum dried) form. For our purposes the bead form of synthetic detergent it packs more easily and is generally more quickly soluble than the flake form. It may be noted that Dreft, Swerl and Vel are manufactured in the bead form.
Mixing binder with detergent The next operationis indicated by the legend in Fig. 2 as Mixing Binder with Detergent. For this purpose a small percentage of a suitable low-melting compound or other binding material by mixing it into the de- A fusible material having a melting point between approximately and 400 F. would be desirable as a binder, since the binder temperatures which may be encountered in normal storage (say 125 F.) and must fuse at temperatures below the ,charring point of the various materials present in the package. Suitable binders for this purpose are:
(1) Waxy materials.
(2) Resins.(thermosetting or thermoplastic).
(3) Drying oils.
Any waxy material which can be powdered and has the required melting point can be used provided it is not injurious. Examples of suitable waxy materials are stearic acid, candelilla wax, montan wax, glycerylmonostearate, and Be Square wax made by Bareco Oil Company and powdered by the Industrial Raw Material Company, New York, N. Y., this material being a water dispersible petroleum base wax having a melting point between 190 and 195 F. We pre fer to use stearic acid as a binder, because we have found it to give good results. A 10% concentration of stearic acid lQmesh size) mixed with Ivory Snow produced asatisfactory filler when it was wrapped and the binder was fused, as hereinafter described. A concentration of 5% stearic acid with Ivory Snowi produced a reasonably good filler.
The best results with stearic acid as a binder are obtained by using l mesh size thereof. Thi mesh size produces greater stability. of,,the fillerfenclosed'within the wrapper after thesame has been formed by" fusing the binder subsequent toincorporation thereof in the detergent particles', eliminates thegritty feelon washing, and causes less discoloration or thepaper used forthe wrapping material. However, coarser ,mesh sizes of stearic acid, such as the, 4Q mesh size mentioned above, are suitable for the binder. With a concentration of 2 A2 to,2-0% of .stearic acid as abirideir with lvoryvsnow?v the filler when enclose din the wrapper, will have greater stability and will not disperse too slowly during the washing operation.
stearic acid may, also be used as a binder for other detergents besides,Ivory. Snow including the various granulatedsoaps or synthetic detergents in bead or flake form, which are enumeratedabove, or any other suitable detergent. When stearicacidis used as abinder for Dreft in a concentration of 2 /2 to 20 or in a concentration of 5 to 50% with. .Swerl, the filler after being encased in. the wrapperuand the fusion of the binder will have greaterstability andwil-l not disperse too slowly duringthe washing operation.
Examples of suitablethermosettingresins are Bakelite 2220-148, a phenol-formaldehyde resin manufactured, by the Bakelite Corporation; melamine resin manufactured by the American Cyanamide Company; and Uformite, a urea-formaldehyde resin manufactured-by the Resinous Products andChemical Company. These binders in a concentration with Ivory'Snow produced a product which was not quite as" stable as that produced with stearic acid. A further example of. a suitable thermosettingresin which sets at a relatively 'low temperature and is suitable for use ,as .a binder is Hyten Core Binder manufactured by the Houghten Company. When of this binder in the form of afine'powder was mixed with Ivory Snow" and heated a filler having satisfactory properties wasobtained.
Rosin and Truline Binder (a modified rosin manufactured by Hercules Powder Company are examples of thermoplastic binders which are suitable for use with various detergents.
Any suitable drying oil may be used as a binder. When linseed oil was sprayed on Ivory ,Snow', and the resulting product was dried inan oven at 150 F., 'a filler having increased stability. was obtained,and its washing properties were quite satisfactoryl It will be understood that other drying oils such as tung oil may be used..
If powdered binder material is used it'canbe blended with the detergent particles in any suit- 4 able equipment commonly used for mixing dry, pulverized materials, e. g. a McClellan mixer.
If a waxy or other type of material which cannot be reduced to a powdered form conveniently, such as paraffin, or a liquid or a low-melting compounds, such as stearic acid or a thermoplastic resin, is to be used as a binder for the detergent particles, it may be fused or dissolved in a solvent and sprayed in liquid form on to the detergent particles. In one case Ivory Snow was sprayed with melted parafiin having a melting point of F., using a hand-operated spray gun. When the Ivory Show, was wrapped after spraying, andheated toset the binder, it was found that there was only-a very slight sprinkling from the open ends of the wrapper when the package was dropped on the floor. Moreover, the washing propertie of the Ivory Snow were satisfactory.
In two other cases two different grades of paraffin having melting points of 140 F. and 156 F., respectively, weregsprayed on to. Ivory Snow in a tumbling conicalmixer of the general type shown in the co-pending. application. of Jack Sandler, Serial No. 642,382, now. Patent- No. 2,477,009. issued July. 26, 1949; and. commonly known as a Hungerford Plasti-maker. This type of mixer has a spray nozzleextendinginto-the center of the barrel througha hollow bearing shaft, and the spray is turnedonintermittently while the material to becoated is tumbled-in the barrel. The material so. sprayed waspacked-in a tubular wrapper in the manner hereinafter described. The filler in the packages soproduced tended to sprinkle. onlyvery: slightly throughthe open package ends, and dispersed verywell during washing following heating to set the binder.
W rrtppin g A third step in the sequence of operationsjs indicated v in Fig. 2 by the legend Wrapping." This operation may be performed bymanually packing the mixtureof detergent and binder with a round rod into a preformedtubewhich maybe formed of cigarette paper, or oth er suitable mas terial whichis readily. disintegratablein water during the washing operation, until the tube is filled.
n ow s eeri a idi used as a b nder with Ivory Snowf or ,Dr eft itisup fcferredto pack the mixture of detergent and binder into the tube until a density of 0.25- -0. l5 gram ,per cubic centimeter is. obtained. With thisrange of densities thefiller will notadi spersetooslowr lyduring the washing operation. The, same is true if a density of 0.1Q -0.3Q gram per cubiecenti; meter is provided when powderedstearie acid is used as a binder for SwerLf Heating to set binder The filled tube may ,be, heated, inan,.oven,:. or in any othersuitablemanner, to,a temperature at which the particular binder materiaL-used'will beset sufiiciently to unite the detergent particles into a firm. coherent. but friablemasa;
When a concentrationpf 15 powderedstearic acid was used as ,abinderwithf ivory Show; Ve1, Dreft,? or Swerl as ,afiller. fon the. package, suflicientisctting ,of. the binder. was .ob.-, tained by heating in an oven at'ZQOPF. for, approximately four minutes.,, Moreover, when hot air We s mu ated. a a emperature s 9? through the oven the binder in an Iv ry Snow: stearic acid mixture was properly set in 45 sec,- onds. Temperatures much above 30 091 should preferably not be used to set the'stearic acid binder because the filler would tend to shrink away from the wrapper. The packages so formed with Ivory Snow and "Dreft were quite stable and it was possible to drop them on the fioor repeatedly without damaging them.
Powdered rosin (-100 mesh in 5% and concentrations was used with various detergents. The same procedure was used in making packages with a rosin binder. The filled tubes were heated at 250 F. in an oven,since rosin melts at approximately 200 F., for approximately four minutes. The packages made were entirely satisfactory even when as little as 5% rosin was used as a binder.
If desired, only the ends of the detergentbinder filler need be heated to form a seal. For this purpose, the ends of a tube filled with a Dreft-stearic acid filler were heated by pressing against a fiat surface heated to a temperature of 212 F. A satisfactory sealing of the ends of the package was thereby obtained.
If desired, the binder may be omitted in the filler of the tube and packages of a predetermined length may be cut therefrom by a hot knife, or by applying a flat hot surface to the ends of the packages to fuse the filler in the ends thereof, or by exposure thereof to infra-red heat, to thereby form a heat sealed film. Packages containing Dreft and "Swerl were sealed satisfactorily in this manner.
Cutting It is preferred to cut packages P of a predetermined length suitable for a single washing operation with a hot knife from a tube formed of toilet paper, cigarette paper or other suitable wrapping material, and filled with the detergentbinder mixture while hot after the baking operation. It has been found that when the cutting operation is performed at this time sprinkling of the detergent particles from the ends of the package is minimized. It appears that if the package is out while the filler is cold that the granules in the ends thereof are loosened. The packages may be severed with a cold knife while the filler is still hot to minimize the tendency to sprinkle out of the ends.
However, equally good results may be obtained if the cold packages are cut to the required length by a heated knife, although the filler is unheated. Moreover, when a thermoplastic binder is used, the mixture of detergent and binder particles may be heated to fuse the binder before enclosing the filler in the wrapper and the step of baking the filled tube may be omitted. The packages may be severed from the tube so formed while the filler is still hot whereby losening of the granules in the package ends will be avoided and sprinkling from the package ends will be minimized. By heating the detergent-binder mixture before enclosing it in the wrapper a further advantage results in that the paper tube will be less permeated with molten binder which would cause a fiecked appearance of the tube.
Cooling After a package P of a predetermined length suitable for a single washing operation has been cut from a tube filled with a hot detergentthermoplastic binder mixture whose binder has been fused, it is cooled to room temperature to solidfy the binder. Thus the detergent particles will be held together by the binder in a firm coherent mass which will not disintegrate upon handling.
When used for washing the hands the detergent package P is moistened with water while held in the user's palms. The package is then quite friable and the wrapper T and the binder disintegrate rapidly under the influence of water and pressure, releasing the detergent particles for the washing operation.
It will be understood that various changes can be made in the construction of the package described above and the methods described for manufacturing the same within the scope of the appended claims. It is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawing shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense except to the extent such limitations are imposed by the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
l. A. detergent package which is suitable for a single washing operation and comprises 'a tubular Wrapper which has open endsand is readily disintegratable in water during washing, a quantity of detergent particles filling said wrapper, and a fused binder mixed with said detergent particles and retaining them in a firm coherent mass the proportion of binder to soap being such that sprinkling of the detergent particles from the open ends of the Wrapper will be prevented and the wrapper and said coherent mass of detergent binder particles will be readily disintegrated in water to release the detergent particles during Washing.
2. A detergent package which is suitable for a single washing operation and comprises a tubular wrapper which has open ends and is readily disintegratable in water, a quantity of detergent particles filling said wrapper, and a quantity of powdered thermo-setting resin dispersed throughout said detergent particles, the proportion of said resin to said detergent particles being sufficient when fused therewith to form. a firm friable mass readily disintegratable in water, the resin particles being set to retain the detergent particles in a firm quickly friable mass whereby the wrapper and the thermo-setting resin will be disintegrated to release the detergent particles during the washing operation.
3. A detergent package which is suitable for a single washing operation and comprises a tubular wrapper which has open ends and is readily disintegratable in water during washing, a quantity of detergent particles filling said wrapper, and a quantity of thermoplastic resin particles dispersed throughout said detergent particles, the resin particles being set to retain the detergent particles in a firm quickly friable mass which'will be disintegrated to release the detergent particles during the washing operation.
4. A detergent package which is suitable for a single washing operation and comprises a tubular wrapper which has open ends and is: readily disintegratable in water during washing, a quantity of detergent particles filling said wrapper, and a quantity of powdered rosin dispersed throughout said detergent particles, the rosin being set to retain the detergent particles in a firm quickly friable mass which will be disintegrated to release the detergent particles during the washing operation.
5. A detergent package which is suitable for a single washing operation and comprises a tubular paper wrapper which has open ends and is readily disintegratable in Water during washing, a quantity of detergent particles filling said wrapper, and a quantity of resin particles dis- .7. persedthrough the detergentparticles andv set to retainthe-detergent partiolesin-a firm quickly friable mass which will be readily disintegrated to. release. the detergent particles during the washing operation.
6. A detergent package whichissuitablefora single washing. operation and comprisesa tubular paper wrapper which has open ends and i is readily disintegratablev in water, a quantity of detergent particles fillingv said wrapper, and-a quantity of drying oil. sprayed on the detergent particles and, suificientlypolymerized to retain the. same in. a firm quickly friable mass which will be, readily disintegrated to. releasesthe detergentipartioles during the; washing; operation.
7. The process of manufacturing detergent packages suitable for a single washing operation comprising for-minga package. comprising a tubular: wrapper whichhas, open ends, and a mixture of detergent: particles and a. sufficient fusibl'e binder toyform a. coherent friable mass with said detergent particles when fused enclosed within said wrapper, heating said package adjacent the ends thereof only to fuse the binder therein. at thepackage ends whereby upon cooling of the packages the detergent particles will be sealedat. thespackage. ends;
8. Thefprocess of. manufacturing detergent packages comprising mixing sufficient fusible binder to forma coherent friable mass with said detergent particles when fused with a supply of detergent particles; heating the mixture so formed. to, fuse the binder; enclosing the heated mixture in a tubular wrapper, which is readily disintegrataole during washing, to form a rod; and severing detergent packages of a predetermined-length fromsaidrod while said mixture is still hot whereby, uponoooling of said packages the; detergentparticlestherein will be united in a firm coherent mass which will be readily disintegrated to release the detergent particles during washing.
9. The process of manufacturing detergent packages having: an opening therein comprising forming packages comprising a water friable wrapper a mixture, of detergent particles and sufiicient binderto. form a coherent friable mass with said detergent particles when fused, and heating said, packages to set the binder therein to unite the detergent. particles in a firmv ooherent and friable mass.
10. The processv of manufacturing detergent packages comprising forming a rod comprising a tubular wrapper with a mixture therein of detergent particles and sufficient binder to form a coherent friable mass with said detergent particles when fused, cutting sections of predetermined length from said rod, and heating said sections to set the binder therein whereby upon cooling of said sections the detergentpar-ticles will be united in a firm coherent friable mass which can be conveniently handled.
11. The process of manufacturing detergent packages which comprises packing in a wrapper having at least one opening therein a mixture of detergent particles and sufficient binder to form'a coherent friable mass with saiddetergent particles when fused, which is readily disintegratable during washing, until they density of the mixtureepacked in the tubular wrapper isbetween approximately 0.25-0.45 gram per cubic centimeter,- and heating the package so formed to set the binder whereby upon cooling of said mixture the same will-form a firm coherent mass which will be readily disintegrated during the washing operation to release-the detergent .particles.
12. A detergent package having an opening therein which is suitable for a single washing operation and is readily disintegratable in water, comprising a mixture of detergent particles and a. fused binder within a water friable wrapper, the proportion of binder to detergent particles being sufficient to form 'with said'detergent particles a coherent friable mass within said wrapper, whereby same may be conveniently handled and sprinkling of the detergent particles from said wrapper will be prevented.
DELBERT T. JURGENSEN, JR.
JOHN A. ABBOTT, JR.
References. Cited in the file' of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 270,998 Taylor -Jan. 23,1883 1,077,835- Kelly Nov. 4,. 1913 1,436,928 Zink Nov. 28, 1922 1,746,984 Bausch i Feb. 11,. 1930 1,948,570 Ferenci .Feb. 27,1934 2,251,080 Taber July29 1941 2,291,079 I-Ioflerbert July 28, 1942 2,3295% Bod-man Sept. 21 19 .3 2,389,736 Muise Nov. 27, 1945 2,456,437 Miles Dec. 14, 1948 2,539,395 Banks Jan. '30, 1951 2,553,513 Denison l\/Iay15, 1951 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 290,221 Great-Britain Sept. 13, .1928 576,100
Great Britain Mar. 19, 1946
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|U.S. Classification||510/140, 206/524.7, 156/218, 156/155, 156/215, 220/DIG.300, 156/251, 156/279, 510/439|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S220/30, C11D17/00|