US 2636370 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 28, 1953 G. A. KRAMER ,6
METHOD OF DECORATING CANDLES AND THE PRODUCT THEREOF Filed Dec. 11. 1948 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 GIDEON A. KRAMER Snnentor attorney;
April-28, 1953 e. A. KRAMER 2,635,370
METHOD OF DECORATING CANDLES AND THE PRODUCT THEREOF Filed Dec. 11. 1948 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 GIDEON- A. KRAMER Jmaentor (Ittomeg;
April 28, 1953 G. A. KRAMER 2,636,370
METHOD OF DECORATING CANDLES AND THE PRODUCT THEREOF Filed Dec. 11. 1948 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 AAJLJTF'L GIDEON A. KRAMER IFIG I3 April 28, 1953 e. A. KRAMER 2,636,370 METHOD 0? DECORATING CANDLES AND THE PRODUCT THEREOF Filed bee. 11. 1948 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 GIDEON A KRAMER 3nventor attorneys Patented Apr. 28, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE .ME'EHOD OF DECORATING CANDLES AND THE PRODUCT THEREOF Gideon A. Kramer, Seattle, Wash.
Application December 11, 1948, Serial No. 67,021
Claims (01. 67-225) This-invention relates to a method of decorating candles and the product thereof and, more specifically, to the treatment and ornamentation of candle surfaces by etching and by the surface deposition of waxy material relative such etched areas.
This invention also contemplates the production of novel candles as a result of my method.
- Candles have been treated in a variety of ways to produce ornamental effects and various surface I configurations. have been variously dip ed in contrasting colored In the prior art, candles wax or paint materials; they have been hand painted, stained or dyed; they have been hand or machine engraved or otherwise tooled; and
pre-formed objects have been adhesively applied to the surface. The results have been adhesively applied to the surface. The results have been varied but primarily are marked either by ex- Both methods are objectionable for obvious reasons. .ilttempts have been made to mechanically print or paint candles but little success has been attained because of the disafiinity of the printing inks or paints with the 'waxy'base materials of the candles and because of the great amount of manual labor involved.
Having in mind the foregoing; it is an important object of this invention to provide: a
method of ornamenting and decorating candles with attractive and multi-colored designs; a
method which can be practiced simply and effi'cie'ntly without materially adding to cost of the product; a method that does not require undue amounts of labor and can be performed by relatively unskilled persons; a method that can be rapidly performed with relatively simple equip-- ll'll'lli; and a method that can'be varied so that with a few simple aids a worker can produce a -myriad'of designs in ornamented candles.
' A further object of the invention has been to combine, in such an ornamenting process, an etching, and, at the same time, surface deposition of the candle to produce striking and highly "ornamental effects without undue expense or without requiring highly skilled labor.
Another object of the invention has been the provision of means that are simpleto construct "and use for the simultaneous surface etching and deposition of oandlesto: produce ornamentaleffects, and which means is durablc'and easily operated-by persons ofslight skill'and training and permits multi-color applications with a highde- .greeof register between components of a design.
One other object of the invention has been the provision of a candle that has its surface ornamented with surface-deposited color elevments composing a design subject that has all the characteristics of multi-color printing operations onother media.
The foregoing objects and others ancillary thereto I prefer to accomplish as follows:
, According to a preferred embodiment of my method I employ a candle of either molded or dipped form, and engrave or etch the same with a heated pattern-holder. I can also simultaneously overlay the candle about the etchedarea with a surface deposited. color-contracting waxy material that has an afiinity for the base ma- .terial from which the candle is formed. Specifically, a design pattern-holder is formed of thinedged heat conducting material and disposed so that the upper edges of the pattern-holderlie in a substantially horizontal plane. Heat is supplied to the pattern-holder and when the candle is rolled thereover it will melt into the surface. of
the candle causing the same to be etched where contact is had. The melted wax flows away from the face edges of the design pattern-holder and down the walls thereof. In this way a line design of a snow flake may beproduced, since the design is merely etched into the surface of the candle. In such case, it is preferable to use a candle that has a thin outer skin of a color that contrasts with the body color of the candleso that the latter. is exposed when the patternholder etches through the skin covering. By employing a pattern-holder that is continuousrand outlines the design, a poolof colored melted wax can be contained within the design. Then, when the candle is rolled over the pattern-holder, not
only is the candle heat-engraved or etched, but a thin deposit of the wax from the pool is obtained upon the surface of the candle within the confines of the outlined and. etched design. By this arrangement, a design motif, such as a leaf, an apple, a star,or the like, may be formed. The melted wax from the pool, which will usually be opaque or contrasting to the surface of the candle, films the area within the etching as determined by the design of the pattern-holder, and also fills the etched grooves sot-hat in the final product the wax in the grooves is deeper in color than that forming the film. Thus, I obtain .both a for the practice of my method is quite simple and preferably comprises a metallic base element to which heat can be supplied and on which a securely mounted pattern-holder can be mounted. I usually form the pattern-holder of metallic strips of the nature of printers rules, and I have found it quite satisfactory to solder them in place upon the base element. Such a pattern-holder, of course, can be cast or otherwise produced. Heat is'conducted from the base element upward through the pattern-holder so that it is delivered to the upwardly directed, thin, etching edges of the pattern-holder. When a candle contacts the heated pattern-holder and is allowed to sink slightly, the candle will have a portion etched out. If the pattern-holder is closed, or the design is such that there are no gaps in its periphery and wax is supplied within the pattern-holder, both etching and surface deposition take place. The variety of patterns that can be formed and applied by this method is unlimited, and I have found that high quality work can be produced with relatively unskilled workmen having only a slight degree of previous training.
The novel features that I consider characteristic of my invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its organization and its method of operation, together with additional objects and advantages thereof, will best be understood from the following description of specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which Figure l is a view of a candle in elevation, showing a simple design etched thereon;
Figure 2 is a perspective view of the patternholder employed in etching the candle of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is an elevational view of a candle having an etched and surface-deposited design applied thereto;
Figure 4 is a perspective view of the patternholder for applying the design shown in Figure 3;
Figure 5 is a view in elevation of a candle having a spiral pattern applied thereto by etching and surface deposition with opaque material;
Figure 6 is a perspective view of the patternholder employed in applying the pattern shown in Figure 5;
Figure '7 is a view in elevation showing a candle having a two color spiral ornamentation applied thereto;
Figure 8 is a perspective view of the patternholder for decorating the candle in Figure '7;
Figure 9 is an enlarged diagrammatic crosssectional view through a pattern-holder and candle illustrating the manner of etching and surface deposition I employ in ornamenting the candles;
Figure 10 is an enlarged, fragmentary, sectional view showing in detail the etching of a candle with a heated pattern-holder element;
Figure 11 is a perspective view of another form of candle as ornamented according to my invention;
Figure 12 is a perspective view of the machine useful in the practice of my process of ornamenting candles;
Figure 13 is a vertical, elevational view across the machine of Figure 12 with portions shown in section for convenience of illustration;
Figure 14 is an enlarged, perspective view of a candle-rotating cup of the machine of Figure 12;
Figure 15 is an enlarged, perspective view of a second candle-rotating cup of the machine of Figure 12;
Figure 16 is a perspective view of a level-winding mechanism employed in the machine of Figure 12.
In Figures 1 and 2 I illustrate a simple form of candle ornamentation and means for producing the same. On the candle of Figure 1 I have applied a snowflake design element by means of the simple snow crystal pattern-holder 20 of Figure 2. To the base 22, which is here shown to be cylindrical and preferably is of thin-wall construction from sheet metal, I mount the patternholder 20, which has been formed of small pieces of metal joined together with stems and branches that will impress the crystalline form upon a candle. The base 22 is placed upon a heater such, for example, as a hot-plate and conducts heat upward to the pattern-holder 20. A candle is brought into contact with the upper edges of the pattern-holder and rolled thereover, whereupon the heated metal will melt the candle covering and cause it to be etched out. When a white core candle is used and the surface, let us say, is blue, a white snowflake will appear on the candle surface as shown in Figure 1. Normally, the candles used have a melting point of about F. up to F., and I have found that etching can best be carried on when the patternholder has a temperature slightly above the melting point of the wax. ince the amount of heat applied to the pattern-holder is low relative the wax melting point and is transmitted to the candle in a localized condition, there is no appreciable softening of the core of the candle, and since the proportion of mass to heated pattern-holder is slight, such heat is readily absorbed and the etched or deposited area can be immediately handled without obliteration of detail.
As etching takes place and wax is being removed from the surface of the candle, it flows readily down and away from the contact face of the pattern-holder 20 onto the upper face of base 22. I, therefore, employ a rim 25 around the top of the base which will contain the wax as it accumulates, or the same may be piped away, as will be more fully described hereafter.
In Figures 3 and 4 I have shown a more complex design element, and these views, taken with the showing of Figure 9, will further reveal details of my method and apparatus used in produc ing ornamentation on candles. The patternholder of Figure 4 includes three design elements, such as the body of an apple 26, the leaves 27, and the stem 28, all of which are arranged on base 22 in a natural grouping. The elements 215, 21 and 28 are formed of thin metallic strips that are formed and shaped as desired, and each encloses an area of the design without peripheral gap of any nature. They are soldered in a fluid-tight manner to the base and each can contain a pool of fluid wax which is separated from the others. If no pool of wax is maintained in the design elements, an etching of a candle in outline is obtained but, by filling the apple-shaped element 25 with red wax, the stem element 29 with brown wax, and the leaf elements 2'! with green wax, it is possible to produce multi-colored ornamentation upon a candle as shown in Figure 3. The wax in each of the design elements is sufficient to lie in the plane of the upper etching edges of the elements and may even rise in a meniscus to slightly thereabove. When a candle is rolled over the pattern-holder (elements 26, 21 and 28) it will be etched as previously described and, simultaneously, a surface deposition of wax will be had upon thecandle; producing in thiscase the "appearance of a red apple having a brown stern and green leaves. The use of the words etch and etching is based upon the fact that, according to the process herein, there is an in-let design or pattern element engraved or produced upon the surface of the candle in which the lines of the design are incised into the body material of the candle by means of an action obtained to remove body material through the use of a heated bladelike member which thermally accomplishes the etching or wax removal.
Each part of this design will have at leasttwo densities of color for the reasonthat the etched groove will contain colored wax to a depth'g'reate'r than that of the space within the design'part. i'he reason for this is shown in Figure 11, wherein a candle 30, having a wick 32, is shown being rolled over a design element. A. pool 33 of wax is enclosed. by the wall'3 i. When the candle contacts the heated edge Mi, a groove '52 is etched into the body of candle 3|] and is immediately filled by wax from pool as which, at the same time, is'congealing in a film 44 on the candle within the boundary defined. by the groove 12.
Since the wax in the groove is deeper than the wax film M, a greater depth of color is obtained about the periphery of the design and, in efiect. the latter is outlined. A similar situation arises when a secondary wall M5 is enclosed within the pattern-holder Wall and an intermediate groove 48 is formed and filled with wax from pool 38. In this way. it is possible to not only provide the outline of a leaf but, also, to include the veins of a leaf by arranging vein-like etching blades in the pattern-holder. A person skilled in the art has no difficulty in realizing that this arrangement will permit wide varieties of designs to be produced with substantial amounts of detail in the ornament produced.
Such wax as flows away from the candle when it is etched mingles with the wax of the pool or flows away down the outer sides of the patternholder and may be disposed of as described. Again, since the mass of the candle 3% to the amount of film -that is deposited is great, the film rapidly hardens and is not obliterated even though it may be immediately handled by the operator. r
The candle of Figure 5 is shown decorated with a riband design element that is particularly attractive and quite effective when strong contrast between the color of the riband to the color of the candle body is obtained. This design is produced by the mechanism of Figure 6, including the base 52 formed of bottom wall 50, side walls 5! and top 53, which support the pattern-holder comprising the mid-portion 54 and the ends 55 and 55. Ihe design illustrated in Figure 5 extends from end-to-end of the candle and begins with a waved ribbon-end joined to the elongated, spirally wrapped, intermediate portion and terminates in a second waved ribbon-end. This design results from first impressing the heated design of element 55, by rolling the candle thereover and onto the heated mid-portion 5t, then slowly rotating without materially advancing the candle over the latter at an acute angle thereto to etch the spiral riband from one end of the candle to the other and then terminating the operation by rolling he candle over the'heated element 55 and 01f the pattern-holder.- During this operation the candle'is'etched and has a surface deposition of Wax applied thereto in the manner previously described. By using strong deposition is taking place.
dyes to c'olo'r'th'e within the ele'ir'ients an'ctby insuring that the color ofthe candle-being ornain'nted is not of 'stron'gcolor; wax as flows down into the pools is' not materially diluted, arid uniform color characteristics-ban bemaintained from end-to-end ofthe candleornam'ent. Further, such etching as is carried on at the edges of the design produces a down flow'of wax from the candle body more'onthe outside of the pattern-holder than interiorly, the reason for this being not particularly clear, but the action is particularly noticeable during-the. operation.
In' the device of Figure 6, Is'how a means of supplying melted to the pools of the'pattern-holder from a reservoir 58 through condiiits s9, til and ti. the latter 'twdbmmhing from the main pipe fie a'nd running to the wavy-ended elements of the riband design element. I place melted waxdn'the reservoir "58 and apply a float E2 to the pool in the'reservoir.
Asw'aX is withdrawn from the pools in the design element, the level --in the reservoir must be lowered to compensate-for that needed'to raise the level in the design elements. This compensation is accomplished by increasing the weight of the float as by adding thereto'weight pieces 6%, to the end-that the Weight sinks'in the reservoir and forces "v'v'aX through the conduits and to the pattern-holder. Alternately, it will be readily recognized, the size of the wax pool in the reservoir-may" be substantially larger than the wax volume of the 'pat'tern elements so that there is relatively "constant feed of wax from the former to the latter as surface The base 52 is a tank for containingliquidto receive and-store heat from a suitablesource. A vent is indicated at 49.
There are several Ways in which wax may be supplied to the pattern-holders. Probably the simplest is to merely sift in particles of wax of a desired colorand low melting point so that it will rapidly melt under the influence of heat supplied to the pattern-holder. I have found, also, that it is often convenient to have containers of melted wax properly colored and located near the scene of operation and to transfer such to the pattern-holder by 'me'ans of an eye dropper-or the like.
An example is shown in Figure 8,"which is' the pattern-holder that I employ in producing a multicolored, spirally wrapped design of the 'nature shown in Figure 7. In this case, two spaced apart ribbons are formed on the candle by means of the thin pattern elements Til and '72 that are mounted on base-22, each of which merges with an'enlarged reservoir portion "Ml in which wax is maintained in substantial quantity in melted condition. "As the operator starts the operation with the dev'ice'of Figure 8, he
positions the candle at an acute angle tothe median between elements it and 12 and I rotates the candle, laying on a spiral design from ou'sly turn the candle about its own axis. Rel- "atively little skill is requiredto obtain neatresu-l-ts i and an attractive appearance.
-' Another phase of the operation" arises when etching is applied to a previously produced overlay film forming a part of a design. Let it be assumed that the candle body is white and in a scene a blue sky is shown in which is desired to suggest stars. In such an instance, I form a star-shaped patternholder I8 of Figure 10, and mount the same on a stem 19 that rises above the base 22. When the latter is properly heated, such a blue area may be etched with stars merely by contacting the patternholder I8 and causing a portion of the blue overlay to flow away. Sharp edged detail is easily obtainable and, with a strong contrast in colors, very desirable effects can be had.
In other types of operations, it occasionally is the desire of an operator to produce designs that tend to be more modern and arbitrary. An example is shown in Figure 9 in which I have overlayed round-cornered rectangular shapes so that variations in depth of deposit are obtained as where the elements overlap with two layers of film being applied at the overlap. The film hardens so rapidly that such an operation as this, which is carried on with but a single pattern-holder, can be performed without interruption and without obliteration of the design by the operators handling of the candle as he turns and moves it.
Referring now to Figure 121 et seq., there will be seen upright supports IIU spaced apart from each other and which support and position the rails H2 upon which roll the carriages H4 and H5. These carriages are connected by crossbar I I6 and move forward and backward on the rails II2 to move a candle carried thereby over the pattern-holder, comprising base I22 that is supported above the table or like surface I24 by screw-type leveling legs I26. Variations of adjustment of the legs I26 permit the base and pattern forming elements carried thereby to be altered as to elevation and relative the horizontal.
The pattern-holder base I22 has heat supplied to it, preferably from underneath, by electric heating elements I28, or by comparable means such as gas burners or steam coils, all in the conventional manner. Design elements of the nature previously described are mounted upon the upper surface base I22. Wax gutters I30 along the edges are used.
The carriages H4 and H each include a pair of spaced apart tandem arranged wheels joined by a tie-bar III which is rigid with shaft IIS and tends to prevent the latter from turning about its axis as it moves. Bracket arms I32 are rigidly secured to shaft H6 in spaced apart relation, each being located along one side of the base I22 and support for rotation the candle carrying cups and other means employed in causing the candle to rotate as the carriages are moved from end-to-end of the mechanism.
In Figure 14 I have shown in enlarged detail the candle-carrying cup I34 that receives an end of the candle-in this instance, the lower end and impales the same by means of pins I35. A shaft I36 is journaled in arm I32 for rotation and is rigidly coupled to the cup I34. Shaft I36 i threaded and receives the nut I38 or arm I39 which are secured to guide shaft I43 that passes through arm I32 and carries inboard of that arm and below the cup I34 a notched level winder head I42, the details of which are illustrated in Figure 16. As cup !34 rotates during longitudinal movement, shaft I36 rotates within nut I38 and causes it to move toward or away from arm I32, the rotation of arm I39 being restrained by pin I43 which passes through a suitable hole in arm I32. Such action causes the head I42 to also move toward and away from arm I32, depending upon the direction of movement of the carriage II4. A wire I44, anchored at its ends to supports II 0, passes around a drum I31 two turns and is intermediately anchored to the latter. Wire I44 passes through and is lead by the notches of head I42, and is caused to be Wound in a helical manner on the drum as the latter rotates. It will be recognized that this mechanism comprises a timed drive for the cup I34 and, consequently, for a candle that may be positioned therein.
The opposite end of such a candle is attached to the mechanism of Figure 15 that similarly comprises arm I34 that journals threaded shaft I48 and supports the level winding mechanism comprising nut I38, arm I39 shaft I40 and head I42, as has been described.
Shaft I48 is hollow and slidingly receives on its inboard end the shaft 549 that carries cup I53. Shaft I49 extends to a point in shaft I48 near its outboard end where it has slots I if, through which extend the arms of cross-pin I52 that permit manual longitudinal movement of the shaft I49 relative shaft I48. These shafts rotate together. A drum I 54, carried by shaft I48, is wrapped by wire I36 in the manner and for the purpose previously described. A spring I58 between cup and drum I54 urge them apart. By insuring that the cups I59 and I34 are similarly wrapped by wires 56 and I44 respectively, these two cups and a candle mounted therein will rotate synchronously as the carriages are moved forward or backward on the rails I I 2.
The attachment of wires I44 and IE6 to the supports is accomplished by screws I51 which permit their adjustment in timing rotation of the two cups.
In the pattern-holder of Figure 12, I have shown etching and printing elements I60, overprinting elements I62, and simple etching elements I64 which will etch a previously printed area as a candle is rotated thereover. It will be understood that the various printing areas I 60, and over-printing areas I 62, will be of the type described more simply in connection with Figure 4, and that as a candle is rolled over the pattern-holder with slight surface contact with the upper edges of the design elements it will be etched and printed as set forth above. One ad ditional operation upon the candle is illustrated in Figure 12 in that the design elements I64, which are simple etching members, will remove portions of a previously printed design area for highlighting or similar purposes.
As before, the wax that is etched from the candle surface runs down the outer edges of the design elements and, in the case of Figure 12, gravitates to the edges and into the gutters for disposal.
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that, while I have described the use of equipment and processes in connection with cylindrical and tapered candles, it is obvious that such is readily usable to ornament conical and oval shaped candles and the like.
Having thus described the invention, I claim:
1. The process of decorating candles formed of thermoplastic wax material with a surface layer of thermoplastic overlay material, comprising: thermally forming on the surface of a candle an endless groove outlining a design element, and simultaneously applying within said grooved outline and said groove a different colored thermoplastic Wax overlay material.
2. A decorative candle formed of thermoplastic combustible wax body having an ornamental pattern element partially overlying its surface, said pattern element being of thermoplastic wax material fused to the face of the candle, said candle body being grooved along the periphery of the pattern element, said groove having a portion of the overlying pattern element material reposing therein.
3. A candle according to claim 2 in which there is a groove in the surface of the candle within the pattern element and said groove is substantially filled with the overlay material.
4. A candle according to claim 2 in which the pattern element has a groove within its periphery, said groove being deeper than the overlay material and exposing the body of the candle.
5. A candle according to claim 2 in which the pattern element is a riband which extends in 10 spiral form between the ends of the candle and there are peripheral grooves partially filled with the overlay material along the edges of the riband pattern element.
GIDEON A. KRAMER.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 88,779 Field et a1 Apr. 13, 1869 398,995 Atterbury Mar. 5, 1889 472,945 Forster Apr. 12, 1892 1,552,907 Binmore Sept. 8, 1925 ,576,205 Mertens Mar. 9, 1926 1,874,427 Billings Aug. 30, 1932 2,030,042 Austin Feb. 11, 1936 2,331,983 Kaiser Oct. 19, 194
FOREIGN PATENTS 20 Number Country Date 151 Great Britain Feb. 11, 1893