US 2636480 A
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April'28, 1953 L. J. BECKER REVERSIBLE FLUID MOTOR Filed April 9, 1951 INVENTOR. LE ER E K/ T nliays Patented Apr. 28, 1953 REVERSIBE I FLUID Moron Lester-J- Bccker, Alexandr V Apr ication'Aprit h 1951,
3 @lwimsi Hydrauli'c motors of the type herein deseribed' are useful especiall'y-whenlow speedi high torque driving means are required. An illustration of an apparatus which re gun positioning mechanism 'of the present-day warship. --Guns'on a warship-are through a substantial are so they upon' targets at varying azimuth The-guns are usually heavy and chats; very hightorque is require and they' must be moved'at a speedta the particular azimuth are to be fired, without huntin held positively against rotation." for-rotating*thegun must be on it in either direction without an the *"gun" need= 'r'nove" only throu possible are within the shortest reach' 'its desired azimuth. The" motor of the" present invention is particularly adapted for such requirements, since it furnishes high torque at a relatively low speed-and it i is possible to reverse them'otors direction of rotation without 7 und'ue delay.
It has be fluidi'motors "in which' fluid under pressure is supplied to a plurality of chambers to mo e van s carried'by av rotor and extending intoi hech'ambe'rs,11successively pastleach chamber, H weveh. f injsuchmotors .the fluidunder pressure. addi: tion to providing pistons and their inward pressure to may be trained from the shipi dt'o move-them;
at-which they g; and-there be The apparatus erable to move y' delay; so that h-th'e smallest possible time toassociated, r r. exerted/bah nthe vanes tending, to move themawayj from the wallsof' the fluid chambers. so lthatrtheifiuidj within the' chambers: escaped; around the vanes. To a caused by-this action, supply fluid under. pres the-. vanes, so that the endsiofethe vanes wou ward-force "on. the inn this ;additional featur and practical, but onl tion Thegobjec videizafiuid ,motorwhich is simplersingdesign and les of th reversible directionvwith a zmini and. eff art. I .The eapnaratus .Lherein eludes a 1:110 tor -carrying wanesr-who project into operating chambers to it"was proposed also to, sure to the inner nds of. inward force on the outer ldjbe' balanced by an out-' described in-s see-outer ends Ii 0 fl-uid engines; and"-' d-operated reversible quiressuoh amotor is the i usually movable" cumbersome so relatively slowen previously proposed"'to"provide a torque for movement otthe er ends vof the vanes With e, .the motor waseeffioientxi y for rotation in one direer t of thepresent-invention is ;to tprow sr-expensive inc-costithanv earlier iluidmotorse ,type referred to above'and whichisgalso w mum of delay rmed between 2 a atoirr nd e m stn mova'l B2rCh 'Gf the operating cl la'rnbers and re by the outward-force exer the flu'id from these last bersi In order that this 20' of each of the operating ohambers-mustbe conneoted to the fluid chambers: However; it-is. necessary at the same time to prevent fluid; from-i: passing I through the J flu-id chambers to the endsx; rating chambers: from Which. .fluid: is being" exhausted,-
orderto prevent interference with the' rotary: movement: of .;th'e'.i rotor and d6: 5'
of the ope .c a msasetiqaa n w.-n n a r tence,1v
' Supplyoffiuidtto one 7' of fluid-frei-n-the other endcauses rotation; of the rotor-"i11 one-direction" throughthe torque exerted on the vanes in-that; direction; To rotate the rotor in the opposite dir'ectiona the 'fluid is s-. supplied" to 'the end of-each ot -th'e operatin chambers-- which was previously the exhaust end which was previouslya chambers from--' 'foroing the' vanes "radially 'ine wardly'} the fluid" supplied :to theioperatingtzchame: v bers is "also "transmitted to" fluidchambers which 1 communicate-with the inner.- ends of the Names; Thus, the inward for-oe on-th'e vanes 'isibalanced ted onwthe varies by '-mentioned-. fluid; cham-i balancing. of forces :will i always be -eiitective on the vanes, :no matterv in which direction the rotor is rotating, both :ends
:1 provides a novel valve r antennaticallyg operated :by: the v fluidi fla mates shwst ends 10f e o eventing iluid from passing a he a en e of" the present invert-g ble' to gun-positioning pable of man-yvaried uses. For y be used asthedriving Tomake it "possible to f emet r at h dto allow movement of .mentiherein.
new -oiethein nt en,
Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken along line 2-2 of Fig. l.
The engine of the invention has a rotor i mounted on a rotatable shaft 2 concentric with an annular stator 3. Bearing plates 4 and 5 on opposite sides of the stator support the stator and form bearings for the shaft. The shaft terminates at one of its ends within a bearing box 6 on one side of the engine where it is rotatably supported; and at the opposite side of the engine the shaft passes through another bearing box 1 in which it is likewise rotatably supported.
A plurality of radial slots 8 extend axially of the rotor l from the outer periphery of the rotor radially to points adjacent the inner periphery thereof. Within each of these slots a vane or piston 9 of less length than the radial extent of the slots 8 is positioned for radial movement. Each of the vanes 9 is formed of two mating sections Ill and H. Each of'the sections l and H has a slot in its inner surface which forms onehalf of a chamber [2 within the vane. Each of the sections it has a key Ina radially outward of its slot and a keyway lllb radially inward of its slot. Key Illa and keyway lllb of each of the sections In mate with keyway Ha and key I ll) of the corresponding section H, respectively. A spring [3 is mounted within each of the chambers l2 to urge the sections l0 and it away from each other against the opposing faces of the slot 8, for a purpose to be later explained. The springs are each normally of greater diameter than the chambers l2 within which they are positioned. Consequently, in assembly of the engine, the springs must be laterally compressed to permit the pistons to fit within their slots. The spring l3 then exerts a force on each of the mating sections l0 and H of each of the vanes 9 causing the outer sides of each of these sections to be firmly pressed against the adjacent face of the slot 8.
The outer periphery of the rotor l is substantially cylindrical in form, but the inner periphery of the stator is formed with a plurality of axiallyextending surfaces l4 which are spaced from the rotor and separated from each other by axiallyextending surfaces or lands i5 which are nearly contiguous to the rotor. As a result of this configuration of the inner periphery ofthe stator, a plurality of operating chambers it, four in the illustrated embodiment, are provided between the stator and the rotor, the chambers It being bounded at their axial ends by the bearing plates 4 and 5. i
A pair of annular grooves I1 and [1 are formed in the opposite end plates 4 and 5 of the engine. The radially inner surface of each of the grooves I1 and I1 forms a cam surface, l8 and 18', respectively, which is complementary to the inner periphery of the stator. The radial distance between the cam surfaces l8 and I8 and the inner periphery of the stator is the same over the entire 360 of these surfaces. The vanes 9 each have rollers l9 and 19 on their opposite axial ends whichride on these cam surfaces so that the vanes move alternately inwardly and outwardly as they move rotationally with the rotor.
The radial distance between the inner surface of each of the rollers 19 and I9 and the outer end of the corresponding vane 9 is substantially equal to the radial distance between the cam surfaces 18 and I8 and the inner periphery of the stator, so that the outer ends of the vanes 9 are always in contact with the inner periphery of the stator.
It will be apparent that, though the rollers and cam surfaces are preferable, other means, such as springs, could be employed to urge the vanes into contact with the inner periphery of the stator, and it will further be apparent that shoulders formed on the vanes could be used in place of the rollers to ride on the cam surfaces.
At one peripheral end of each of the operating chambers It, a set of spaced passages 20 extends between the operating chamber and an annularly-shaped fluid manifold 2| in the stator. At the other peripheral end of each of the operating chambers, a second set of spaced passages 20 extends between the chamber and a second annularly-shaped fluid manifold 2| in the stator. Each of the sets of passages 21 and 2B is displaced a slight distance from the surface of land IE to which it is adjacent at its place of communication with the operating chamber 16.
Fluid is supplied to or removed from the manlfold 2i through a passage 22 which communicates with the outer side of the stator and is supplied to orremoved from the manifold 2! through a corresponding passage 22' which-also terminates at the outer side of the stator.
Each of the surfaces or lands l5 of the stator has an axially-extending preferably trapezoidalshaped slot 23, within which a deformable bar or rod 24 of rubber or other appropriate material is positioned. When fluid under pressure enters one side of the slot 23, it exerts a transverse pressure on the bar or rod 24 which causes it to flatten out so that one of its sides is in fluid-tight contact with the inner side of the slot and the opposite side of the bar or rod is in fluid-tight contact with the outer periphery of the rotor; Consequently, the fluid cannot pass from one chamber IE to another along the periphery of the rotor, even if the vanes 9 do not make good contact with the inner periphery of the stator.
To prevent fluid from passing from the operating chambers and the manifolds inward along the axial ends of the pistons a pair of sealing rings 25 and 25 are positioned between grooves in the end walls 4 and 5, respectively, and the adjacent surface of therotor.
An axially-extending fluid chamber 26 is formed between the inner end of each of the slots 8 and the inner end of the corresponding vane 9 when the vane is in any position except its most inward position. All of the fluid chambers 25 communicate. at one end with an annular chamber 21 and at the opposite end with a second annular chamber 21. A surge chamber 28, com-' municating with the chamber 21, is provided in the end plate 4 to allow for expansion of fluid in the chambers 26, 26 and '21.
The annular chamber 21 is connected by a passage 29 with a valve apparatus, generally indicated at 30, which comprises a fluid cylinder 3| within which a piston valve 32 of less length than the cylinder is positioned. One end'33 ofthe cylinder 3| is connected to the manifold 2|, while the other end 33' thereof is connected/to the manifold 2!. A pair of spaced passages 34 and 34' communicate at one end with the fluid cylinder 3! and at their other ends with the fluid passage 29.
The springs l3 above referred to exert forces on the mating sections 10 and II of each of the vanes 9 so that the outer sides of each of the vanes are in contact with the adjacent inner sides of the slots 8. Consequently, fluid cannot pass radially inward from the operating chambers l6 between the vanes and the slots, even if the mating sections of the vanes are not of the exact correctidimensions..: Further more, theimatinglater-c ally-extending surfaces 1 or: ther-keyways. lllb and I l a and the keys lllaand 1 Ibare contiguous and prevent. passage of. fluid between the sections ID... the sections are pressed and. of the vanes when apart bythe springs 13.
In the operationtion, fluidunderpressure, preferably 'oi1,.is'supplied through the passage 22to the manifold 2L the pistonvalve 32 to, the end 33 the passage: 3%; and thepassage" chamber 2?, from .whichit;
remainder of the'fluid in the manifold 2|. passes: into the operating chambers Hi where it exertsa torque'on the .vanes- 9-, forcing the vanes and the rotor which carriesthem in the clockwise direction..- When a vane:
through. the. passages.
9 1s movingthrough one of bersl 5, it is in its most outward position with itsouter-end in contact with a surface H! of the stator. However, as the vane approaches one of thelands I 5 between the operating chambers, it is.
moved inwardly until, when it is opposite the land [5, it is in its most inward position. 'As' each of the vanes 3 is'inturn'passed throughan operat-" exerted chambers 26, so that no unbalanced radial force is exerted on the vanes. This is particularly important should the cam surfaces not be of exactly theproper configuration them inwardly and allow fluid to escape around theouterends'of the vanes. ply offluid under pressure furnishesan outward pressure. for, the vanes to balance the inward pressure and permit the cam surfaces and the centrifugal force of the rotorto keep the outer surfaces of the vanes against the inner periphery of the stator.
When the rotor and the shaft are to be rotated in the counter-clockwise direction, fluid under pressure is supplied through the passage 22' to the manifold 2|. A portion of the fluid in the manifold 2i enters the end 33' of the fluid cylinder 3| and moves the piston valve 32 to the end 33 of the cylinder. From the cylinder the fluid passes through the passage 34' and the conduit 29 to the fluid chambers 21, 26 and 21, as before, where it again exerts an outward force on the vanes.
The remainder of the fluid in the manifold l9 enters the operating chambers l6 through the of this preferred embodiment of the invention as:a motor, to cause rotation"; of the rotor and the shaft in the clockwisedirecof-the cylinderr The fluid then passes fromthe cylinderxthrough. 29120 :the fluidv passages 29 and there exerts a counter-clockwise torque on the vanes 9, causing the vanes and the rotor to rotate in a counter-clockwise direction. Fluid ahead of the vanes is exhausted from the operating chambers l6 through the passages 20 to the manifold 2| from which it passes through the passage 22 to an external collector.
If the engine is to be used as a pump, the shaft is rotated and fluid supplied through the passages: 20 or. the.- passages to; ,the': operating chambers. i 6, depending upon whetherrthe shaft:
is. being rotated clockwise or:counters-clockwise;-
Thevanesfl will force the the passages ahead; of
fluid. between them and. them in. .theeioperatingz;
rotor is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise:
direction, and. transmittedto. the. location x at. which the fluid is'to xberused-aorto appropriate;
As stated above, 'it 'is contemplated irthataa-s motorof theaty-pe lized to drive the .wheels of a-land vehicle."
permit steering of. 1 the through It. will wheel of the appropriate mechanism. H be apparent that a engine has been described fluid-operated rotary" which is relatively simple and inexpensive to operate and which can beeasily. reversed in its direction of rotation.
The scope of'the invention to which this de-" scription refers is defined in the following claims.
1. A fluid. engine comprising a shaft, a rotor" mounted on said shaft prevent communication passage means and between said second said valve chamber when second passageway system tion between said second said passage means and fluid is supplied to said to allow communicapassageway system and prevent communication between said first passageway system and said passage means, whereby the inward pressure of the fluid in said operating chambers on said vanes is counter-balance sure of the fluid from th vanes.
d by the outward prese fluid chamber on said "2. A fluid engine comprising a shaft, a rotor mounted on said shaft and having a plurality of slots extending inwardly from the outer periphery of the rotor, each of said slots having a vane slidable therein, a stator surrounding said rotor and having its inner periphery including surfaces spaced from the rotor and from each other and lands substantially contiguous to the rotor and separating said surfaces from each other to provide a plurality of operating chambers between the stator and the rotor, means for continuously urging the outer ends of said vanes into contact with the inner periphery of the stator, a first set of fluid passages, one passage of said first set of fluid passages communicating with one peripheral end of each of said operating chambers, a second set of fluid passages, one passage of said second set of fluid passages communicating with the other peripheral end of each of said operating chambers, means adapted selectively to supply fluid to and remove fluid from said first set of fluid passages, means adapted selectively to remove fluid from and supply fluid to said second set of fluid passages, whereby supply of fluid to said first set of fluid passages and removal of fluid from said second set of fluid passages causes rotation of said rotor in one direction and supply of fluid to said second set of fluid passages and removal of fluid from said first set of fluid passages causes rotation of said rotor in the opposite direction, means including a fluid chamber in said stator for conducting fluid to the inner ends of said vanes, a fluid cylinder in said stator, a, fluid passage connecting said first set of fluid passages to one end of said fluid cylinder, 2. second fluid passage connecting said second set of fluid passages to the other end of said fluid cylinder, a piston valve in said fluid cylinder movable by fluid under pressure to said other end of said valve chamber when fluid is supplied to said first passageway system and movable by fluid under pressure to said one end of said valve chamber when fluid is supplied to said second passageway system, and means for conducting fluid from said fluid cylinder to said fluid chamber in both positions of said piston valve, said fluid conducting means being isolated fromsaid first set of fluid passages and connected with said second set of fluid passages when said piston valve is at said one end of said fluid cylinder and being isolated from said second set of fluid passages and connected with said first set of fluid passages when said piston valve is at said other end of said fluid cylinder, whereby the inward pressure of the fluid in said chambers on said vanes is counter-balanced by the outward pressure of the fluid from the fluid chamber on said vanes.
3. A fluid engine as defined in claim 2 in which each of said lands has an axially-extending slot therein, and a deformable bar in each of said land slots of smaller size than the slot, each of said slots in the lands being of such shape that fluid passing from an operating chamber between the periphery of the rotor and the land enters the slot and exerts pressure on said deformable bar causing the inner portion of said deformable bar to move radially inward and contact the outer periphery of the rotor and the outer portion of said deformable bar to contact the inner side of the slot in the land, so that the deformable bar seals the space between the periphery of the rotor and the inner side-of the slot, said means for urging the outer ends of the vanes into contact with the inner periphery of the stator comprising a cam surface complementary with the inner periphery of the stator and having all points thereon substantially equi-distant from corresponding radial points on the inner periphery of the stator, and a roller carried by each of said vanes and riding on said cam surface.
LESTER J. BECKER.
- References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS