US 2637320 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 5, 1953 E. M. GREENBERG OBSTETRICAL FORCEPS Filed July 22, 1950 A m m W.
fMA/VUEL M. (imam/@526 Patented May 5, 1953 UNITED STATES PTET 2,63L3Zt FFIQE Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in surgical instruments and more particularly to improvements in obstetrical forceps.
It is an object of the instant invention to provide obstetrical forceps that will minimize injury to mother and child.
Another object is to so design the improvements for the forceps that existing equipment can be readily converted to the improved design.
Other objects of the instant invention will become apaprent in the course of the following specification.
In the attainment of these objectives, the improved obstetrical forceps are made in four embodiments. In the first embodiment, the blades of known forceps are coated with a layer of any suitable material such as liquid latex, sponge or foam rubber, or any type of rubber applied by dipping, adhesion with cement, or plating with the anode process. After the blades are coated and the coat dried, air in introduced between the coat and the steel of the blades to inflate either or both blades at the will of the obstetrician. In the second embodiment, an inflatable rubber sleeve is removably fitted over the steel skeleton of each blade, the open neck of each sleeve over the shank of the blade being removably closed by a sealing ring slidable on the shank. An elongated tube with one end fastened in the neck of the sleeve is extended rearwardly through the sealing ring and hollow handle of each blade to a compressed air source. The third embodiment is like the second except that the shank of each blade is hollow formed to provide a continuous passageway for compressed air through the hollow handle to outlets between the hollow of the shank and the inside of the sleeve.
The fourth embodiment is also like the second except that the rim of the sleeve around the blade is provided with a plurality of unit air cells interconnected to a compressed air source, the cells providing a degree of controlled inflation preventing bizarre ballooning.
The invention will appear more clearly When considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings showing by way of example the preferred embodiments of the inventive idea.
In the drawings:
Figures 1, 2, and 3 show the first embodiment of the improved obstetrical forceps constructed with an inflatable rubber layer around the steel skeleton of each blade in accordance with the principles of this invention, and. in which:
Figure 1 is a top view of the improved forceps;
Figure 2 is a side view of the forceps shown in Figure l; and
Figure 3 is a top view of the mechanism for introducing air between the steel skeleton and rubber layer of the forcep blades shown in Figure 1.
Figures 4 and 5 show the second embodiment of the improved forceps constructed with a removable rubber sleeve over the steel skeleton of each blade and having an attached air tube for inflating or deflating the sleeve and in which:
Figure 4 is a fragmentary side view of one blade of the improved forceps; and
Figure 5 is a sectional view along 55 of Figure 4 but on an enlarged scale.
Figures 6 and '7 show the third embodiment of the improved forceps constructed with hollow shanks for the introduction of air into a rubber sleeve removably fitted over each blade and shank and in which:
Figure 6 is a fragmentary side View of one blade of the improved forceps; and
Figure 7 is a sectional view along 1! of Figure 6, enlarged.
Figures 8 and 9 show the fourth embodiment of the improved forceps in which the removable rubber sleeve is characterized by being formed of a plurality of unit cells disposed around the periphery of each blade, and in which:
Figure 8 is a fragmentary side View of one blade of the improved forceps; and
Figure 9 is a sectional View along 99 of Figure 8.
Referring now in greater detail to the first embodiment of the improved forceps shown in Figures 1, 2, and 3, where like reference numerals indicate like parts, reference numeral l0 indicates the steel skeleton of known forceps, and II the inflatable rubber layer or cover over the blades of the forceps.
The steel skeleton [0 of the forceps is of the usual type having the fenestrated or closed blades 12 and E3, the blades being interlocking at I l. The blade [2 is actuated by the integrally formed handle member l5 and the blade l3 by the handle member it. Usually, the handle members are hollow formed.
Through the hollow handle member Iii, a tube ii is inserted and is brought out of the end of the handle through an opening I la formed therein and thence over the top of the shank of the blade i3, and through a seal 22 to terminate under the later described rubber layer H. A similar tube 23 is inserted through the other hollow handle [5 in a like manner but, of course, the tube 23 will be on the opposite side of the forceps from the previously mentioned tube H. The tubes are made of any suitable material and 3 are so placed that there is no interference with the looking or unlocking or opening or closing of the blades.
With the tubes positioned in the manner described, the blades as well as the shanks, well down over the ends of the tubes, are treated with a known fixation solution and then dipped in or treated with rubber in a liquid state which will adhere to the treated surfaces of the blades. When the rubber layer is set, a seal 22 of any suitable material is placed around the end of the rubber layer intermediate the interlocking means I4 and the end of the tube, on each blade and over the tube.
The ends l8 and 24 of the tubes l1 and 23, respectively, protruding from the opposite end of the handle, are then attached to two branches 2| and 2c of the Y-member 25 (Fig. 3) and the bulb 28 to the other branch. With the valve 21 in the bulb in the open position, by actuating the bulb air will be forced through the tubes H and 23 and between the rubber layers superposed on the steel skeletons. The air pressure, aided by picking up, or pinching, if necessary, will cause the rubber layers or film to separate from the treated seal except around the seal and expand as the air pressure is increased. As the air pressure is relieved, the rubber layers will again contract to form an envelope completely enclosing the skeleton of the forceps. In Figure 1, the rubber layer around the blade I2 is shown in the contracted position and around the blade l3 in the expanded position.
In operation, the obstetrician has with subject device a tool with cushioned surfaces on both the maternal and fetal sides, which will decrease the hazards of vinjury to both mother and child. On the other hand, in those situations where required, the obstetrician can inflate either one or the other blade. The magnitude of inflation is always under control by means of known spring valves placed in the ends l8 and 24 of the tubes. Both the Y-member 25 and the bulb 28 can be quickly detached and moved out of the way. After repeated use, the rubber layer may become worn, but it can be readily stripped from the blades and the blades recovered.
If desired, the same basic principle could be used to make the maternal sides of the blades separately inflatable from the fetal sides by pre venting the rubber layer around the outer and inner peripheries of the blades from separating from the steel along the line of division between the maternal and fetal sides which can be done by cementing the rubber layerinto a narrow groove made in the periphery of the blade along the line of division. Such construction would require a separate tube or similar means for in ecting air into either or both sides of each blade.
In the second embodiment of the improved forceps shown in Figures 4 and 5, reference numeral 40 indicates the steel skeleton of one of the fenestrated blades, and 4| a removable and inflatable rubber sleeve or cover around the blade.
The steel skeleton 40 of the blade is like the steel skeletons of the blades of the first embodiment. The sleeve 4|, made of any type of rubber including foam rubber, is designed to be slipped over the outer end of the blade and has an open and constricted neck 42 which is fitted around the shank of the blade, the shank having an upwardly and outwardly directed inclined surface. Coacting with the inclined surface, is a sealing ring 44 slidable on the shank and coacting with the neck 42 of the sleeve in a sealing operation.
4 The inner surface of the ring 44 may be corrugated to provide a thorough seal.
Permanently attached in the neck 42 of the sleeve 4| and through the ring 44 is an elongated tube 43 designed to be passed longitudinally through the handle member for attachment to the air compressing mechanism 25.
The operation with the inflatable and detachable rubber sleeve 4| is the same as that described for the first embodiment. The attachment of the sleeve 4| is naturally a much more simple operation than the forming of the rubber layer of the first embodiment. In many types of forceps, it will be necessary only to drill an opening in the end of the handle at the interlocking area for the insertion of the elongated tube 43. Of course, in all types of forceps, the sealing ring 44 will have to be added, but that is a relatively simple and inexpensive operation.
The third embodiment of the improved forceps is like the second except that the rubber sleeve or cover 50 is designed to be fitted over a hollow blade 5|, hollow at least in the shank 53, the shank being usually thicker than the blade itself. To make the shank or the shank and the blade hollow necessitates a relatively thick blade and shank. The hollow portion 54 may be continued on through the hollow handle which obviates the need for the tubes described in the first two embodiments. A series of air vents 55 forming passageways between the hollow of the shank and the outer surface of the steel skeleton provides a means for introducing compressed air into the sleeve 50. The sealing ring 56 which may have an inner corrugated surface is similar to the sealing ring of the second embodiment.
The operation with the removable and inflatable rubber sleeve 50 which can be made from foam rubber, lined on the inside or outside or both, or without lining is the same as that described ante for the first two embodiments.
In the fourth embodiment of the improved forceps shown in Figures 8 and 9, reference numeral 59 indicates the fenestrated skeleton of one blade, and 6| the removable and inflatable rubber sleeve or cover over the skeleton.
The fenestrated skeleton 60 is identical with similar members of the first three embodiments already described.
The removable and inflatable rubber sleeve 6| is similar to the sleeves of the second and third embodiments already described except that around the outer periphery of the fenestrated blade are spaced and interconnected unit air cells 52 held together on both sides of the blade by the spaced parallel side members 63 and 64 on which may be formed the spaced ribs 65 to distribute the inflationary effect more evenly and to prevent bizarre ballooning formations.
The sealing ring 66 is slidably disposed over the free end of the sleeve as in the second embodiment where provision i made for the tube 6! conducting the air from the compressed air source 25 (Fig. 3) into the sleeve. The sealing ring may be composed of two hinged valves held together with a ring unit.
Operation with the sleeve 6| of the fourth embodiment is the same as that described ante for the first embodiment.
In order to provide an anti-friction surface on any sleeve or even on the inflatable rubber layer of the first embodiment, the outer surface may be corrugated in any desired manner.
It will be understood that the invention is not limited to the exact disclosure herein described but may lend itself to a variety of expressions within the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In obstetrical forceps having interlocking coacting blades actuated by hollow handle members integrally formed with the shanks of the blades; an inflatable rubber sleeve removably disposed over each blade, the sleeve having a constricted neck coacting with the shank of the blade, a tube for each sleeve removably disposed through the hollow handle of the blade, the end of the tube adjacent the interlocking means being secured in the neck of the sleeve, and means removably sealing the neck of the sleeve around the tube and shank.
2. In obstetrical forceps having interlocking coasting blades actuated by handle members integrally formed with the shanks of the blades; an inflatable sleeve for each blade, the inner end of each sleeve terminating in a constricted neck over the shank of the blade, means for sealing the neck of each sleeve to the shank, and means under each sleeve for varying the inflation thereof.
3. In obstetrical forceps having fenestrated blades actuated about interlocking mean by hollow handle members integrally formed with the shanks of the blades; a tube disposed through each hollow handle member, each tube having a passageway formed therethrough and one end of each tube terminating on the shank of the blade actuated by the handle member thereof, a rubber layer disposed around the rim of each fenestrated blade and extended inwardly over the contiguous surface portion of the shank thereof and the end of the tube on the shank, a seal disposed around the inner end extremity of said rubber layer, the seal being adapted to leave the passageway through the tube open and the rubber layer being adapted for separation from said I blade and shank forwardly of said seal, and fluid mean through the passageway of said tube for varying the inflation of said rubber layer.
4. In obstetrica1 forceps having two coacting blades actuated about interlocking means by handle members integrally formed with the shanks of the blades, each handle and shank being hollow and forming a, continuous passageway therethrcugh; the improvements comprising a tube disposed through the hollow handle of each blade, the end of the tube communicating with the hollow interior of the shank of the blade, the hollow shank further having at least one transverse opening formed therethrough, said opening forming a passageway intermediate the interior of the hollow shank and the atmosphere, an inflatable rubber sleeve with open and constricted neck removably disposed over each blade and the contiguous surface portion of the shank thereof, and means for removably sealing the neck of each sleeve to the shank of the blade intermediate said transverse opening and the handle member thereof.
5. In obstetrical forceps having two coacting blades actuated about interlocking means by handle member integrally formed with the shanks of the blades; an inflatable rubber sleeve with open and constricted neck removably disposed over each blade, the outer periphery of each sleeve comprising a plurality of spaced and interconnected unit air cells, a side member disposed over each side of said cells, and means for introducing air under pressure into each sleeve through the constricted neck thereof to vary the inflation of said cells.
EMANUEL MARTIN GREENBERG.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 746,791 Clifton Dec. 15, 1903 2,043,630 Raiche June 9, 1934 2,308,484 Auzin Jan. 19, 1943 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 169,217 Great Britain Sept. 9, 1921 508,960 Great Britain July 7, 1939