US 2637858 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 12, 1953 N. c. GOLDBERG 2,637,853
SPRING MATTRESS CONSTRUCTION Filed July a, 1949 3 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTORI Mrl/llv'bzaaim mm 32 g/CM h 46 Kw ATTORNEY-1;.
M y 12, 1953 N. c. GOLDBERG 2 ,637,858
SPRING MATTRESS CONSTRUCTION Filed July 8, 1949 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 y 2, 1953 N. c. GOLDBERG 2,637,858
SPRING MATTRESS CONSTRUCTION Filed July8, 1949 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 .ZD BTFIH 60 44 6/ I v Q I) 59 INVENTORZ NATHAN C. qouaamc v BY W MW,
Patented May 12, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE SPRING MATTRESS CONSTRUCTION Nathan: C. Goldberg, New York; N. .Y.
ApplicationJiily. 8';,1949,SerialNo. 103,617
3 Glaiins: 1.
fhiisinvention is a novel spring mattress C011- struction, being a class or type of structurecommonl'y referred to in the art as an inner spring mattress, falling within (ll'ass 5 Beds, subclass;35l
Such. a structure commonly comprises as its interior portion, a springy construction composed in. greatp'art of metal spring. elements, including the conventional upright coil springs giving'depth tothemattress, andincl'uding also at each: of the upper andlower surfaces or metal fabrics ofth'e mattress inner portion a series of members called ties, in. the form. of tlewires, havin a general longitudinal arrangement; the end, or top and bottom, convolutions of the coil springs being in theupper and lower bounding planes of" the mattress, and arranged so. that. each such end? convolution falls. between twoof. the. tiewires or at leastadjacentto one wire, the. system as a Whole thereby providing a large number of tie. points ateach of which a.tiewire, which. may be of cable fcrmis-tied, asby a clip. of plate or Wireconstruction to at least one of. the adjacent. coil springs, usually to a pair of. adjacent coilsprings; these elements, and the numerous clips or. other ties or connectors, providing. theunitary springrinetal mattressinterior portion. Themetal. elements at the upper plane or top surface. of. the. spring structure may be considered a. metal or spring fabric, and the same with the bottom elements. Another common element of. a spring, mattress innerstructure is a peripheral wire or flexible element providing: arim for the metal fabric,
, top or bottom, andv tied in with the. coil springs,
tion is directed more particularly to the improvement of the interior metallic structure; wherefore. the woven fabric covering needs but little illustration or description. A complete spring mattress may of course be practically used to overlie any type of bed bottom, referred to in Class 5 subclass 230 etc; which bottom may" be a spring bottom, conventionally'known as a bedspring, mountable upon the bed frame and giving support to the mattress; these two articles of manufacture, the underlying bedspring; and the overlying springjmattress being distinctly different articles involving distinct problems and characteristics of structure and action. An instance of a bedspring'is the prior'patent Goldberg 21381990 of 1945 in subclass" 267', while an instance of a spring mattress is the patent'ofhevine 2,197,131 of 1940 in subclass- 273. W
The general. objects of the present invention "are to" afford. a spring mattress constructionof improved, efiiciency. and resiliency as well as strength" and durability. A specific object is to improve, throughout the structure, the form's'of the. various component metal elements and their operation, and to provide for strong and, permanent interconnections between the main elements; namely, the helical upright or coil springs and the tiewires; and, as another feature, to provide such interconnections in a manner to prevent practically, any slippage, for example longitudinally as. between the coil spring convolutions and the. Wires or tie-cables which extend longitudi nally and are tied or clipped to the coil springs at the numerous tie points of the structure.
Other and. further objects and advantages of theinventionwill be explained in the hereinafter following, description'of an embodiment of the invention or will be understood by those con..- versantwith the subject. To the attainment of such objects andadvantages the present invention. consists. in the novel spring mattress construction, andthe novel cooperative elements and combinations comprisedtherein, and the mode of action thereof, illustrated by several examples in the accompanying description and drawings.
In the. accompanying drawings, Fig. 1 may be considered as an. example of a first form of the invention. shown as a top plan view of a partial areaof. aspring mattress construction; it being understoodthat in bottom view the fabric structure may be either identical with the top view, the. mattress in such case being reversible, or may. beofd'iiferent construction; Fig. 1 showing a substantial area of the metal fabric, and. a smallarea. of the wovenfabric of the mattress cover. For. purposes of'description herein the disclosure. of' the metal fabric points of novelty may be. treated'as those of the top fabric, irrespective ofthe construction of the metallic bottom fabric of the complete spring mattress.
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of a portion of the metal structure of Fig. 1, comprising a plurality ofthe upright coilsprings and the top and'bot tom'fabric's of the structure; the top and bottom fabrics being slightly different.
Fig; 3"on a larger scale shows in expanded top view a'p-ortion-of Fig: l, in the neighborhood of a" tie point, 'but'with the connecting clip omitted, andthe tiewire and adjacent coilsprings shown separated away from each other.
Fig'. 4fis a vertical section of a detail taken on the section line 4-4 of 2 extending through one-ofthe tie points between a tiewire and adjacent coil springs,
Fig; 5 is aperspective view of one form of a connecting clip, of" the plate variety, although various other forms of clip, whether plate: clips or'wiie clips; arewell known and are available for the purposes of-"this invention.
While the above described i to 5 dis,- clos'e 'the first, embodiment of the" present in- "vention-y severali other. forms: and: modifications thereof, having features in common with the first form, are shown in the remaining figures, wherein Fig. 6 shows a small area of a second form of spring fabric in plan view; while Fig. 7 is a detail of the plate clip arrangement taken in vertical section on the line '!1 of Fig. 6. Figs. 8, 9 and 10 are sectional views like Fig. 7 showing substitute ways of accommodating tie and coil wires in plate clips, adapted to be used in arrangements like those of Figs. 1, 6, 7 or 11. Fig. 11 shows a third form in 'top'view with the clip seen in section; a vertical cross section of which could correspond with any of Figs. 8, 9 and 10.
Fig. 12 in completed top view, and Fig. 13 before completion, show, as a fourth form, a wire clip produced from an offset loop of tiewire, in lieu of a plate clip, and usable with certain other illustrated forms.
, Fig. 14 in top view like 6 or Fig. 11 shows as a fifth form a variation of plate clip arrangement, the clip shown in section.
Fig. 15 shows a sixth form, in plan view, wherein the adjacent coil spring convolutions are somewhat separated and out of tangency,
with double-loop interconnections between coils and each loop formed from a common'tiewire and clipped to one coil spring.
Fig. 16 in top view, and Fig. 1'? is an enlarged sectional view through the clip show a seventh form embodying variations over Figs. 6,11 and 14. Fig. 18 in top view, and Fig. 19 in side elevation show an eighth form of spring mattress fabric wherein the upright coils are well separated from each other both transversely and longitudinally between coil rows, with special tiewires and with clips at the tie points, each clip tying but one coil to one tiewire.
20 in top view, and Fig. 21 in elevation, and Fig. 22 in detail perspective, and Fig. 23 in section on line 2323 of Fig. 21 shows a ninth form of the invention containing several modifications over other forms, and with plate clips shown at the tie points.
Fig. 24 is a top view like part of Fig. 20 showing modified features and the use of wrapped wire clips, as a tenth form.
The three sheets of drawings, by means of twenty-four figures show ten different forms I of the invention, which is a spring mattress construction of the kind whose spring structure is of substantial depth due to the conventional system of upright coil springs that are arranged in longitudinal rows and in methodical transverse arrangements, between the top and bottom surfaces or spring fabrics of the structure. Taking up the different forms in succession these will be described as to additional conventional elements, arrangements and relations and various features of novelty of which the underlying features extend through all of the disclosed forms.
The first form of the invention is that shown on sheet i in Figs. 1 to 5, wherein the showing of the construction is confined to a few of the units, it being understood that the elements of the units'may be extended to any de-' sired length and width of spring mattress, with repetition of structure from unit to unit. The springy metal structure 3! as a whole is built up of the coil spring elements and certain tying elements which serve to interconnect the upright coil springs at interior points while a bounding or rim element serves similarly to tie 4 together and interconnect circumferentially the coil spring system, at both the upper and the lower surfaces or fabrics of the spring structure.
The metal or spring structure 30 is shown as comprising the conventional upright coil springs 3|, positioned in longitudinal rows, extending from left to right in Figs. 1 and 2. Each coil spring, as usual, has a top end convolution 32 and a bottom end convolution 33; and in this form of the invention the end of the spring wire forming for example the top convolution is bent into a closing device or hitch 34, the wire end being bent centrally and twisted around the inner end of the top convolution, which is thus permanently closed into an approximate ring or circle. For gripping or tying purposes each end convolution may be formed with one or two or more offsets 35, each creating a small recess or bay taking part in the interconnections at each tie point. It is to be understood that in general the top and bottom spring fabrics are substantially alike, so that it is sufficient to describe the top fabric of the spring structure, the bottom structure being usually symmetrically similar thereto.
When the spring structure has been completely assembled and attached it forms a unitary metal interior 30, which however is not serviceable as a spring mattress without a Woven fabric or other soft sheet material made in a size and shape to receive and snugly enclose the spring structure; and such a cover element 36 is shown in Figs. 1 and 2. There may also be the usual stuffing or matted or felted material interposed between the metal elements and the woven cover of the mattress, in a conventional way.
Referring further to the spring structure, there is shown a peripheral spring wire 31, constituting a rim Wire or bounding element extending circumferentially around the entire structure and being attached by clips or devices 38 to the tangentially outer tie point of each of the peripheral coil springs, that is, to the top and bottom end convolutions of the coil springs; thus affording circumferential interconnection for the system of coil springs. The yieldable border wire 31 is characteristic, in spring mattresses, in having universal resilience.
Having thus described the coil springs and their peripheral interconnecting means or rim wire, it remains to describe the system of longitudinal tiewires 39 and 40, constituting parts of the top and bottom spring fabrics, and the interconnecting devices or clips by which the system of tiewires is interconnected in the structure, e. g. with the system of coil springs. As is conventional the illustrated tiewires run generally longitudinally, within the top and bottom fabrics, each tiewire extending adjacently to at least one row, and preferably two rows of coil spring end convolutions, the tiewires being clipped to such convolutions along a series of tangential tie points, thus affording interior interconnection for the system of coil springs. Such coil springs being thus interconnected efiiciently both peripherally and interiorly the entire spring structure is effectively unified, constituting an article of manufacture adapted readily to be completed into a serviceable spring mattress by the addition of stufiing material and enclosing cover as described.
The longitudinal ends of the tiewires, whether these wires be built up of sections connected in tandem or be of continuously unitary character, may have their ends held or resiliently anchored.
at the two ends of the mattress, for example by reason of being fastened or clipped to the optional peripheral or border wires 3?. In this way the complete interconnection of all of the metal parts of the mattress is afforded, with the required yield in every direction.
The spring structure thus indicated is characterized in that thelongitudinal tiewires t9 and M are formed with definite zigzag stretches or areas -4l at each of a series of portions of the tiewire along its length, for example in the place or stretch, between each two of the tie points at which the tiewires are firmly clipped or bound to the end convolutions of the coil springs.
In reciting a zigzag portion or stretch of each generally longitudinal tiewire it is intended to refer to a wire portion manipulated and formed,
as in a sinuate manner, into a series of cross folds or loops by the bending of the wire back and forth transversely to the general length, and in a manner to provide a substantially fiat openwork area of substantial lateral width at each of these places; thereby enhancing the total supporting action given by the spring structure, and minimizing the presence of large unsupporting areas, while improving the lengthwise resilience of the tiewires and so increasing the general ability to yield. The load-supporting function is enhanced by the formation of a curved crowning of the zigzag area beyond the plane of the top convolutions, as will be further described.
Figs. 1 to 5 show a form wherein the widened area of the zigzag stretch ll oi tiewire, instead of being of uniform transverse extent, is shown or" expanding then contracting width, this varying configuration giving effective advantages. Further, in said first form, the zigzag stretch, without departing from substantial flatness, is shown in Fig. 2 as of outwardly or upwardly arched or bowed contour, indicated at 4'0, thus enhancing the supporting function of the tiewire.
In the first form of the invention, further, it is seen that the tiewires 39 are formed with a few wavy criinps 2 at the tie points whereat the binding clips i l are applied to attach the tiewires to the coil spring end convolutions 32. These clips are of the plate or band type and they cooperate to tie rigidly together the tiewire 353 and the adjacent tangential parts of the end convolutions 32, in which tying action the offset recesses 35 of the latter partake. The clips are tightly wrapped or wound as in Fig. 4., and each clip constricts the three elements into firm union. The crimped stretch 42 is shown symmetrical, as in Figs. 3 and 11, but could be unsymmetrical as shown at 42 in Figs. 6 and 14.
In referring to clips or binders, well known elements per se, the reference includes equivalents, functioning to attach and firmly connect, preferably by rigidly binding them together, a pair or several elongated elements, wires, convolutions and the like. While Figs. 1 to 5 show the wrapped band or plate type of clip, the wire type is elsewhere shown as in Figs. 12 and 13 wherein a part of the tiewire is diverted or offset to provide the clipping material; Figs. 15, 18 and 2l showing separate forms of wire clip. Mutual attachment by soldering or fuse-welding may sometimes be used, particularly between the clip and tiewire, leaving swinging play between clip and coil sprin The clips M. shown in the first form and others are plate clips, best shown in detail in Figs. 4 and 5, each clip having a body portion 45 with ex-.
.6 tended wings or ends it to beengaged to encircle or'become wound around .the juxtaposed tiewire and one or two coil springs; if two adjacent end convolutions are embraced in the clip, this renders the convolutions substantially tangent to each other, as seenin Fig. 1, the tiewire passing longitudinally through the point of tangency. The clips may be applied in various ways, for example as seen in Fig. 4,'to embrace the wires to be clipped together, with the ends of the clip wings tucked inwardly and forcibly driven between the oifsets 35, using well known bending methods and machinery, in amanner to leave the parts tightly engaged in their connecting and locking position. In referring to tiewires it is to be understood that any equivalent members may be used such as relatively still wire cables. Ordinarily such wires have no tensional yield to speak of, but with the zigzag areas at introduced this permits longitudinal yield under vertical pressure.
he manner in which the coil springs and tiewires are combined and locked to each other prevents "longitudinal slip, which advantage is aided by the inclusion in the tiewires or" the wavy stretches or crinips Q2. The upright coil springs, the height of which gives the depth to the mattress, may be of any conventional" type, the drawings indicating the doublespiral-helix type of spring, having its maximum convolutions at its top and bottom ends. Each of the longitudinal tiewires traverses the several tie points in each longitudinal line between coil tops; and it is in spaces between the .tie points of tangency that the zigzag areas are formed, although there may also be a zigzag conformation to each tiewire as well as at the tiepoints. In any case the zigzag structure may be considered as one wherein there are successive offsets or bends in the tiewire reaching horizontally in both directions from the longitudinal center line of the tiewire. Each tiewire zigzag area may remain truly fiat and horizontal in normal position, .or the same may be normally somewhat crowned or pre-arched for the purposes already explained. In Fig. 2 only the topmost tiewire 35 is shown to be bowed or arched, at ll; but as shown in suiiice. To improve t .ccn'volutions and ewire c be extended to such an xit each end of the c against longitudinal not shown in l to 5, the principle is shown in Figs. 6, l1 and 14;. A tr of onlytwo criinps obviously be to afford this locking action. Another useful function of the tiewire crimps d2 of 1 to 5 and analogous structures in other figures is as follows. It is desirable not merely to prevent each tiewire sliding longitudinally through the tie points but to prevent also any turning of the tiewire for the reason that such turning would disturb the desired flatwise position, or the arched position, of the zigzag area of the tiewire. This object is attained by reason of the presence in the tiewire of those of the crimps t? which are contained in and en- ..circled by the clip die. As shown there will .be
two crimps locked inside of the clip, and thus the tiewire is held against rotation, so that its zigzag construction and area will remain in its intended position.
The first form (Figs. l-) and the second form (Figs. 6-7) are partly the same but differ as follows. In the second form the tiewire crimps 42 at the exterior are unsymmetrically formed, whereas those in the first form are symmetrical, see Figs. 1 and 3. In the second form, but not in the first form, these crimps extend laterally beyond the clip, thereby providing stops against any longitudinal displacement of the tiewire relative to the clip. As another difference, the second form does not have the first form feature of tiewire crimps embraced by the clips, so that when the clips are wrapped and. tightened they clamp securely the tiewire against turning or rotating, thus functioning to maintain fiatwise the zigzag tiewire areas and prevent the tilting thereof away from the illustrated normal position. In other words the first form shows only one of the two displacement-preventing arrangements, the clamping against rotation, While the second form contains only the prevention of sliding, relying on grip to prevent tilt.
Referring to the second form Fig. 7 sectionally shows the arrangement within the plate metal clip 44. The tiewire 39 between the exterior crimps 42 extends straightly through the closed clip, e. g. above the two top convolutions 32, which thus can be at the same level. Adjacently on the drawing are shown three other arrangements of clip in Figs. 8, 9 and 10, being some of the many variations possible. It is to be understood that metal working machinery is well able to handle the manipulation of each clip in forcibly pressing and clamping it into its permanent holding position, and thus tying together the systems of convolutions and tiewires. Fig. 5 shows the clip 44 partly bent and adapted to be assembled as in Fig. 4 or as in any of Figs. 7 to 10; see also later Figs. 11, 12, 14, 17, 23 and 24 for other clipping details.
One effective manner of closing the clip is as shown in Figs. 4., 7 and 9, wherein the two wings of the clip are thrust and tucked inwardly between the tangential parts of two adjacent end convolutions of the coil springs. In Fig. 10 this plan is carried further in that the clip body 45 is elongated, and the wings are bent further so that each wing substantially encloses a convolution, and these convolutions are thus spaced well apart. In some of this group of figures the interior crimps 42 are shown as confined and clamped by the clip; but since clips of this kind can be effectively tightened for clamping purposes it is sometimes possible to omit the crimps and rely on the clips to hold the parts in relative position; for example in Figs. 16 and 17 the tiewires 39, pass undefiected through the tie points, between the zigzag areas 4|.
Another variation of arrangement is that shown in Fig. 11 wherein the tiewire crimps 42 are symmetrically disposed contrary to Fig. 6 but having a lateral extension sufiicient to cooperate with the clip to prevent longitudinal sliding, contrary to the first form of Figs. 1-5; and like both the first and fifth forms having interior tiewire crimps acting to prevent rotary displacement. Figs. 12 and 13 show a special fourth form to be described later. Fig. 14 shows a fifth form which follows Fig. 6 to a considerable extent, but wherein the tiewire, while having a wavy or zigzag form at the tiepoint, extends longitudinally from tiepoint to tiepoint without the intermediate areas of zigzag bendings of substantial transverse extent improving the functions of resilience and load support.
Referring next to the fourth form as shown in Figs. 12 and 13, this has to do with the employment of a wire clip or binding device as distinguished from the plate clip shown in various figures; and especialy has to do with a particular construction of wire clip for clipping together one or a pair of coil spring convolutions with the tiewire extending through each tiepoint. Wire clips per se are well known and a simple form thereof is indicated in the lower part of Fig. 18. That which is shown in Figs. 12 and 13 however is oi special character, particularly in its use in interconnecting the elements of the spring structure by means of tiewires when the latter are formed with zigzag widened areas of the character hereinabove disclosed, these zigzag areas each being located between two consecutive tie points. Fig. 12 shows the adjacent convolutions 32 interconnected by the wire clip til, which clip is constituted of an integral stretch of the tiewire 39 itself. This length or stretch of tiewire is bent to shape and then wound around the convolutions, thus tyin together the convolutions and at the same time tying the two of them to the tiewire 39. In general the center line of the tiewire 39 extends through each tie point in a location substantially tangent to the convolutions, but a predetermined length of the tiewire is first bent to shape and then wound into place. Fig. 13 shows the first step of formation, the wire being bent as a lateral V-loop, constituting an integral offset from the central portion of the tiewire. When the tiewire, at each tie point, is in proper position relative to the convolutions, it is then simply wound around, for more than one turn and preferably for about two turns, and pressed into permanent-holding relation, the flared shape of the V-ioop or offset 50 causing the wire to be laid in its gripping position without overlapping itself.
The sixth form is shown in 15, this havin a unitary tiewire 39 with a series of zigzag supporting areas H and with successive tie points between the zigzag areas. I'his embodiment is available when there are parallel rows of end convolutions and it is desired to keep the convolutions out of contact and well spaced apart, as shown. This may be accomplished by bending a part of the tiewire at each tie point, in this case at a double tie point, into a double hook or loop formation 52, with one end or hook of this device extending toward a convolution in a near row, the complementary end extending to the next row beyond. Such a double hook 52 preferably has the shape known as a pothook, each thereof affording double tie points and being an effective manner of embodying the present invention in such an arrangement. Each pothook 52 extends in one sense between the two opposite convolutions, linking them together, and in another sense it is interposed between two straight stretches 39 of tiewire, and this combined device 39, 52 being interposed between two zigzag areas 4!, all of the same tiewire. For interconnecting each tiewire, or its pothook, to the two adjacent rows of convolutions there are indicated a number of simple clips, in this case being wound clips of wire, each clip connecting one hook end of one pothook 52 to one adjacent convolution 32.
The seventh form of the invention, shown in 9 Figs. 16 and 1*? are hereinahove partlyreferred to,. is related to some of the preceding forms, such as that of Fig. 6, and having plate clips il he several preceding forms but having no 0 set crimes in the tiewires at or near the tie point, relying upon the gripping function of the clips to hold together the opposite convolutions 32 and the tievvire passing through each tie point. In the seventh form also the convolutions are without the slight offsets used to accommodate the clips and prevent displacement thereof upon the convclutions. In the seventh. form are shown the zigzag areas H between the tie points, but. no oirsettirg of the tiewire between these areas. The clip M is or the plate type, and. may be like the clips shown in Figs. 4 to 10 or others, each clip interconnecting the two convolutions and the ties/ire. Instead of the forms shown. in Fig. 10 the clip of Figs. 16 and 17 may be of circular form as indicated at ii in 17, the clip containing the two convolutions 32 superimposed above the straight tiewire The eighth form of the invention, partly derived from the sixth form of 15, is shown in Figs. 18 and 19. Again there are shown paral lel longitudinal rows of end convolutions 321, parts of three such rows being shown. The alternate rows are offset to a suitable extent to cooperate with the illustrated tiewires clips. The convolutions in each row are spaced; apart longitudinally as customary, and in embodiment the success-.e rows also are apart transversely to a substantial extent, this arrangement leaving a fairly Wide space run ning longitudinally between any two adjacent rows. This space is utilized herein to 2.0C0lllmcdate a special form of tiewire with zigzag to tures. Thus, between each. two con rows shown a longitudinal tiewire 565, which is of zigzag formation at and adjacent to the tie points and preferably, as shown, for its 1*. ll length. In other words 18 shows each tie- Wire 56 to he of or sinuous formation, with transverse loonings, throughout the length of the tiew' re, this plan materially simplifyin and cheapo ag the manufacture of the spri structure.
By the thus described eighth form of the invention the continuously looped tievvire, While clipped to the convoiutions of both rows, is not. at any particular tie point, clipped to co" olutions of the two rows. Moreover, each convolution, While clipped at two points is, each point, clipped only to a single element, the llllitl posed tietvire. In other words, each clip of structure clips together just and just one tie-clue loop.
1. EL o any single convolution, this is shown tied-h a clip to a front loop of tieivire, and by a separate clipit to a back loop tiewire; and this con be scribed all of the top convolutions and all of 1 the zigzag ticwires to may he in the ton plane of the spring structure, and the with the corresponding elements at bottom thereof. On the other hand, to provide an -roved supportingstructure each of the algae maybe arched in those portions of its general length which lie between successive tie points; and this structure is indicated in the elevation View Fig. 19 wherein in full lines is shown a Continuous zigzag tiewire 5t, arched or crowned at All between tiepoints analogously to the corresponding showing in Figs. 2 and 21, and "a dotted lines the next, arch beyond.
The ninth form of disclosure is shown in Figs. 20 to 23 and the structure will be seen to resemble in general Way the corresponding structure of the first form in Figs. 1 to 5 although with extensive features, of difference. The ninth form introduces the additional conception of employing tiewires which are sectional, or built of separate lengths or links, as distinguished from those consisting of a unitary continuous and integral Wire as is illustrated in the preceding fig ures. The upright coil springs 35 may be generally conventional each with a top convolution 32 and a bottom convolution 33; although these coil springs are of special construction and cooperation in the total structure. The structure also embodies, at the several tie points conventional clips Mi, shown as plate clips, one at each tie point, tying. one or preferaoly two coil spring convolutions to the adjacent tiewire, in this case sectional or discontinuous portions of tiewire.
The skeleton view, Fig. 22, shows that at the top each coil spring, beyond the completion of its circular form, carries a curved extension which extends to the tangential tie point or clip it, and thence beyond the clip as a straight tangential extension This portion 59 is a true part of the tiewire, While the curved extension 58 is part of the coil spring but merging into the tiewire portion 59. To complete on Fig. 22 the description of one unit or section of the tie wire, beyond the straight portion or stretch 531, to the left, the tievvire extends to Where it is shaped into zigzag form, at the area- 68, and therebeyond, leftwardly again, through a straight tangential length ti which ends in a lefthand terminus 62. These directional terms are relative but serve to convey a simpler description of the structure. From Fig. 22 are omitted the clips and all parts other than the integral tiewire sections, top and bottom, and the coil spring iii with it's top and bottom convclutions 32 and 33. Since the top and bottom portions are preferably identicalthe remainder of the description will be confined to the top convolutions and the top tiewires of the total strucure,
Referring next to the top view, Fig. 20, and the side-elevation, Fig. 21, the arrangements described on. Fig. 22 are seen to he further illus' trated. St rting at the righthand end of Figs. 26 and '21, it is first seen that the particular feature of disclosure pertains to the side of each top convolution 35., 5t, and while the clip is? at each such point of tangency is seen to accommodate not onl the far portion or 59 of the near convolution, but the near portion 32 of the next convolution of the row beyond. This latter inclusion is for utilizing the clip to tie together the tangential of convolutions, but the nortions therof which take part in the building up of the tiewire are not at the near side but are at the far side of each convolution. With this understood, the parts and relations providin the tiewires may further explained, taking for discussion the tie point and clip it which are at the far side of the most righthand one of the three complete coil spring top convolutions 5t. For conveniencedescription the three coil springs 3| that are fully shown in Figs. and 21, which may be called front coil springs, are identified by the letters A, B and C placed near the centers thereof, it being understood that other identical ones, not shown, are assumed to exist further rightwardly, and also further leftwardly, from the three so marked; while further beyond are three rear coil springs in the next row, correspondingly marked A, B and C.
With attention directed first to the coil spring A and to Figs. 20, 21 and 22, each top convolution 32 is extended as the curved portion 58, which passes leftwardly tangentially into the clip 44, located at the tie point, or merging point, the same wire merging leftwardly as integral straight portion 59 tangent to the convolutions of springs A and A. Integrally to the left the same wire portion 59 is continued as the shaped or zigzag portion or area 60 and therebeyond as the straight tangential portion 6| extending through clip 44 between coil springs B and B; the final terminus 62 ending the integrally continued portions comprising a complete section 59, B0, 61 of the total tiewire.
Each clip 4 for example the one between coils B and B, thus contains, as Fig. 23 shows, first, the left end portion 6! of the tiewire section that issues from coil A, second, the straight tangential portion 59 that issues from coil B, and third, a small part of the top convolution 32 of the next coil spring 13 to the rear. And with these the underneath part of the top front convolution, i. e., the part below the merger of 58, 58, may be contained within the clip thereto to hold more steadily, at top and bottom, the upright coil spring.
The longitudinal series of sections 59-60-6l that make up each tiewire are interconnected in endwise relation, each section at each of its ends being connected or clipped to an alined section, so that each section at its ends enters two clips or clamps, while each clip or connector ties two section ends together. Each tiewire section originates just ahead of one clip and terminates just beyond the next clip. At the same time each clip is available to clip one or two coil spring tops to these connected tiewires, either by entry of convolutions into the clips or by the integral merging of the wire of a convolution with that of a tiewire.
In this way each complete tiewire consists of a number of sections in tandem, extending the full length of the mattress spring structure, and with the extreme longitudinal ends preferably clip connected with the end portions of the border wires 31, when used. Each such sectional tiewire is thus interconnected with the entire row of coil spring top convolutions to the front of and to the rear of the tiewire, providing a unitary spring structure with all parts interconnected at the tie points. Each tiewire is thus longitudinally built up by an extended number of sections or links which are joined to each other in tandem; the joining means in the disclosed embodiment being the clips 44, at the tie points, each such clip enclosing and gripping the second or lefthand end of one tiewire section and alongside it the first or righthand end of the next section to the left. The interconnection of the tiewire sections is thus rigid, by reason of the form of the attachments or clips, whereas in some cases a pivotal interconnection could serve. An advan-- tage of the rigid connection is that each of these clips can be made to contain not only the first preceding section, but also a portion of the tangentially adjacent convolution of the coil spring next to the rear. The disclosed arrangement of rendering the inception of each tiewire section an integral extension of the coil spring top convolution has certain advantages in the total structure, the last portion of the convolution merging into the first portion of the section; but this integrality between convolution and section could be omitted by extending the two separately into each clip. Each tiewire section traverses, at its first and second ends, two of the clips 44, while each of those clips also contains the end of the next lengthwise adjacent section, thus mechanically attaching together in tandem all of the tiewire sections. These explanations are thought to complete an understandable description of the ninth form of the invention contained in Figs. 20 to 23. On Fig. 20 one of the clips 44 is shown in its preclosed position, showing how the curved extension 58 of each top convolution 32 is passed into the clip, whereat it merges with the issuing straight portion 59 of the tiewire. The construction illustrated by these figures may have its tiewire portions 59, 50, 6|, which extend integrally between tie points, formed with an upwardly crowned or arched arrangement M, as best seen in Fig. 21, this being on the principles and for the purposes explained in connection with the similar arching structure 41 of Fig. 2.
As Fig. 23 shows, the clip M at each tie point embraces portions of the following, (1) the first straight portion 59 of one tiewire where it merges with the last curved portion of the front coil convolution, (2) the last straight portion SI of the preceding tiewire, these two tiewires thus being clamped together in tandem, and (3) a portion of the opposite top convolution 23 of one of the rear coil springs; and additionally, not shown, it may be desirable to include with the merged portions 58 and 59, (4) the other end of the front top convolution 23, thus stabilizing such top convolution.
The final or tenth form seen in Fig. 24: is a modification of the ninth form. The plate clips 44 are replaced by wound wire clips 64, each enclosing, as before, a combined tiewire and convolution portion 58, 59 and the front portion of the convolution of the next coil spring to the rear. However, in this case, preferably, the clip does not enclose the left end of a tiewire extension piece 6l, since this extension piece, instead of traversing a clip and terminating to the left of it is actually made use of to provide the wound wire clip 64. In this way the left end of each tiewire section, without the need of separate clips, is combined and tied in with the enclosed elements 59 and 32. Following the successive portions 59, 60 and GI of each tiewire, the terminal or left end thereof is wrapped into three turns of a compact helix, constituting the clip, beyond which to the left extent the tiewire portions 59, 60 and 6!, with the last mentioned again wrapped, at the next tie point, to clip together these parts and a short length of the top convolution 32 of the next coil spring to the rear.
The intermittently arched sections of the continuous element or tiewire, as shown at 4!, 41 in Figs. 2, 19, 21, provide an integral preformed spring element adapted for use in a sprung article, such as a bed mattress; wherein the wire element is in tandem sections each arched upend of one section and the second. end of the 1p wardly o outward1y.end ach arm ntainin a zigzag construction of the wire affording a substantial load-supporting function; the tiewire portions between the convex arches being adapted to be mounted upon, for example clipped or secured to, some other elements of the spring structure.
Among other variations of mattress spring structure are the following forms. The coil spring rows may be differentially treated. Assuming twelve longitudinal rows across the total width, a middle group, as of six, may be interconnected by tiewires having zigzag areas as hereinabove described, while the side groups have plain prior-art type of tiewires. The invention is thus embodied where most needed and economy is effected elsewhere.
In another form the longitudinal rows of coil springs may be tied together by old or new tiewire types, conventional or novel, and running longitudinally between the coil-spring rows; but this system being supplemented by overlying special tiewires arranged longitudinally between the regular ones and crossing the diameters of the coil spring top convolutions in each row or in selected rows; and tied or clipped to the convolutions at the tie or crossing points; each such special tiewire being shaped with zigzag areas either confined to locations between coil spring convolutions or to the circular spaces inside the convolutions, or else of the full tiewire length. Any of such special tiewire arrangements may have their zigzag areas also arched to increase the springy supporting area of the entire structure.
Or, the preceding disclosure may be converted, or supplemented further, by arranging diametrically crossing tiewires transverse to the regular and special tiewires just described, thus additionally tying each of the coil spring longitudinal rows to the others thereof and providing further and zigzag supporting areas.
Still another variation relates more especially to an improvement in the mattress spring structure when its elements are held together by metal clips of the plate variety, such as the clips 44 in fiatwise position. In the variation in discussion both of these functions are attained by an improvement in the construction of the liplate clip per se and in relation to the tiewire or tiewire portion traversing the clip. By this modified arrangement the tiewire need not have a series of crimps 42, and need not have any crimps longitudinally outside of the clip, and inside of the clip need have no more than a single crimp, this being a V-shaped offset or crimp located within the clip and between opposite sides of the clip, so that when the clip is forced and squeezed to its gripping condition, upon the tiewire and upon the coil spring convolutions that are also contained within the clip, these parts will become rigidly consolidated, the gripping of the V-crimp holding the tiewire against rotation, and effectively holding it also against endwise sliding displacement.
There have thus been disclosed a number of different embodiments of a spring mattress construction, or the spring structure thereof, embodying the principles and attaining the objects of the present invention; but as various matters of construction, combination and detail may be variously modified without departing from the principles involved it is not intended to limit the invention to such matters except to the extent set forth in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A spring mattress construction the spring structure of which comprises a system of upright coil springs arranged in longitudinal rows and formed with top and bottom end convolutions, and a system of longitudinal tiewires located substantially in the plane of end convolutions of the coil springs, and each longitudinal tiewire extending adjacently between two rows of such end convolutions and being clipped by a series of clips thereto along a longitudinal series of tie points; said spring structure being characterized in that each of said longitudinal tiewires is formed with widened areas each consisting of zigzag bendings of substantial transverse extent, and each constituting a generally horizontal open-work load-supporting area of tiewire midway between the coil springs, and said tiewire having crimps to provide a laterally offset portion which seats the clip therein, and said clip being arranged to hold said last-named offset portion firmly against the adjacent end convolutions of the upright coil springs in a way to prevent rotation of the tiewire, each portion of the tiewire having its zigzag area arched upwardly between the convolutions of successive coil springs thereby to produce a curved structural arch adapted to receive and support a substantial part of the load on the mattress.
2. A spring mattress construction as in claim 1 and wherein the crimped tiewire at each tie point has itscrimps wholly contained within and cooperating with the clip thereat, thereby to prevent twisting of tiewire; and means to prevent displacement of each tiewire relative to the convolutions.
3. A structure as in claim 1 and wherein the tiewire has crimps extending laterally beyond and exteriorly of the clip to engage the edge of the clip thereby serving to prevent longitudinal displacement.
NATHAN C. GOLDBERG.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 381,060 Donnell Apr. 10, 1888 608,048 Jacks-an July 26, 1898 1,847,230 Zimmerman Mar. 1, 1932 1,860,699 Zimmerman May 31, 1932 2,052,325 Travis Aug. 25, 1936 2,134,371 Nachman Oct. 25, 1938 2,151,155 Rymland Mar. 21, 1939 2,240,051 OMalley Apr. 29, 1941 2,242,919 Nachman et a1 May 20, 1941 2,246,893 Nordmark June 24, 1941 2,514,475 Collette July 11, 1950 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 242,399 Great Britain Nov. 12, 1925 481,342 Great Britain May 18, 1938 206,149 Switzerland Oct. 16, 1939