US 2642063 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 16, 1953 5, BROWN 2,642,063
INHALER Filed July 51, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 /NVENTOR.
FRANK 5. BROWN BY H/S HTTORNEYLS.
June 16, 1953 5, B OWN 2,642,063
INHALER Filed July :1. 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FRANK 5. BRO w/v BY HIS ATTORNEYS.
HARP/5, Klee, Fos TEE dc HARE/5 Patented June 16,1953
' UNITED STA 1 OFFICE INHALER Frank E. Brown, Burbank, Calif., assignor .to.
Frederick M. Turnbull, Los Angeles,'Calif.
Application July31, 1948, Serial No. 41 ,857
23 Claims. (Cl. 128 -206) number of medicaments which are highly valu able for use in the oral and respiratory regions, such medicaments being available in powdered form adapted for such uses. Thus, the mentioned powdered medicaments may be employed tov treat the pharynx, the larynx, the trachea, the bronchi and on down into the lungs.
It is another object of this invention to make thesevaluable agents readily available to sufferers from ailments of these organs.
Examples of appropriate medioaments are penicillin powder and compounds, the well known sulfa drug powder and compounds thereof, vasoconstrictors, vasoantihistamines for hay fever, asthma and other allergies of the respiratory system and. correctives for halitosis.
It is also an object to produce inhalers which are best adapted to insure that the powdered medicament will reach the area-to be treated. I-
havediscovered that direction of a concentrated air stream, that is, a narrow, compact stream, such as a tubular stream of small diameter as distinguished from a wide stream or a plurality of streams, results in best application of the medicament, and I have also discovered that this is especially true' where the entire air flow through the inhaler is substantially axial of a.
tubular structure, preferably a straight tubular structure. By employing this arrangement the powder reaches the remotest areas, for example the'lungs, in adequate amount without excessive loss upon the walls of the mouth or nose. For more proximate application, as in the areas of the throat, a rotating movement of the air stream assists quick and efficient disposition of the powdered agent.
A further object of the invention is, therefore, to produce, especially for the retail trade, an inhaler providing a central discharge passage or bore capable of directing'a small, substantially cylindrical air stream carrying the powdered medicament into the nose or throat of the atient,
and thereby concentrating the entrained powder so that it passes moredirectly to remote areas to be treated,and it is also an object to provide for rotation of such concentrated air :stream where desired to distribute the powder centrifugally upon the walls of the throat and adjacent regions. 7
An additional object of the invention is to provide means in'an inhaler which will check return flow of air through the inhaler at or before commencement of exhalation. This is an important object because moisture carried in exhaled breath tends to dampen powdered medicament and interfere with or prevent its proper discharge durin subsequent operations;
It is a still further object of the invention .to
provide an inhaler having separate, permanently attached nasal and mouthpieces so that either maybe used by the patient at will, and a more specific object is to'provide an inhaler wherein such pieces are disposed at opposite ends so'that they be employed: merely by reversing the device. I
It is also an object of the invention to provide an inhaler employing a movable cartridge which contains the medicament, the cartridge being movable by the act of inhalation by the patient and being jarred by sudden stoppage whereby to feed the medicament to an air stream moving adJacent the cartridge. An incidental object is to provide for return of the cartridge to aninitial position by gravity.
Various other objects of the invention, and the various features ofconstruction thereof, willbecome apparent to those skilled in this art upon reference to the accompanying drawings wherein certain embodiments of the invention are disclosed by way of illustration.
. In these drawings:
Fig. ,1 is an elevational and sectional .view wherein the body of the inhaler is shown in elevation and closure caps for the ends of the body appear in longitudinal section and in operative position;
"Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section through the body member of Fig. 1 and is taken on the line 2-4 of Fig. 1, a valve member beingshown in a seated position and a medicament-carrying cartridge beingshown in its lowermost position; Fig. 3 is a similar longitudinalsectionalview showing the parts in operation, the valve being lifted from its seat and the cartridge being drawn to gaming position to liberate a chargeyof powdered medicament, the mouthpiece end of the inhaler being disposed uppermost;
Fig. 4 is a view similar tothat of Fig. 3, the
nosepiece being disposed uppermost;
Fig. 5 .is a longitudinal section corresponding with those of Figs.,2,-3 and 4 and showing the nosepiece at the top, the medicament cartridge being in its lowermost position, and this figure also illustrates an inhaler in which no valve means is employed;
Fig. 6 is a cross section taken on the line 6 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 7 is a cross section taken on the line 1-4 of Fig. 2; r
Fig. 8 is an end view of the inhaler taken from the end carrying the mouthpiece;
Fig. 9 is an end view of the inhaler taken from the end carrying the nosepiece;
Fig. 10 is a view principally in longitudinal section showing an inhaler provided with valve means at both ends thereof and adjacent the nosepiece and mouthpiece respectively;
Fig. 11 is a longitudinal section of a slightly modified form wherein the air by-pass means around the medicament cartridge is modified, the valve structure is modified, and one of the closure caps is provided with a storage space for a medicament cartridge;
' Fig. 12 is a fragmentary view on an enlarged scale of the left end of the structure illustrated in Fig. 11;
Fig. 13 is a cross section taken on the line l3-l3 of Fig. 12;
Fig. 14 is a longitudinal section of a modified form providing rifled bores in the nosepiece and mouthpiece to impart rotation to the air stream and illustrating a disc type of valve;
Fig. 15 is a cross section taken on the line l5l5 of Fig. 14; and
Fig. 16 is a view, partly in elevation and partly in longitudinal section, showing a modified form of cartridge.
Having reference to the structures shown in the drawings, the inhaler in each form comprises a tubular body 20 of cylindrical form and provided throughout its length with a cylindrical bore 22. In one end of the body 20 there is frictionally fitted a nosepiece 24 and in the opposite end of the body there is frictionally fitted a mouthpiece 25. The nosepiece 24 is provided with an axially disposed cylindrical air passage 26 of relatively small diameter, and the mouthpiece is provided with a corresponding axially disposed air passage 21. The inner ends of the nosepiece 24 and mouthpiece 25 are reduced in external diameter to provide shoulders 28 which engage against the ends of the body 20. Thus, these pieces serve as plugs for the ends of the cylindrical body 20 and provide elongated passages which serve to direct concentrated air streams axially of the structure.
Each end of the cylindrical body 20 frictionally receives a closure cap 30 fitting over the reduced external end portions 20a (Fig. 2) of the body 20, shoulders 32 being thereby provided against which the ends of the caps 30 abut. In order that the inhaler may be conveniently carried in a pocket, one of the caps 30 is provided with a pocket clip 33 as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 11.
Slidably mounted within the cylindrical bore 22 of the body 20 is a medicament cartridge 35 which is formed from a cylindrical shell 36 of small diameter adapted to contain powdered medicament P and positioned axially of the device by means of flanges 38 disposed at its opposite ends. Such structure may be integrally formed from a plastic material, as may all of the other parts of the device. For the purpose of by-passing sufiicient air around the cartridge 35 120 provide the required air stream for carrying the charge of powder, each of the fianges 38 15 peripherally provided with a plurality of notches 40 so that air may pass along the adjacent wall portions of the cylindrical bore 22. To retain the powder P in the shell 36 and at the same time permit escape of an adequate charge of the powder, the ends of the shell 36 are closed with small screens 42 which may be frictionally held or cemented in place, the screens being of adequate fineness for example 50 mesh or any other appropriate mesh for the particular powder between about 20 mesh and 200 mesh.
The inner end of each of the pieces 24 and 25 is provided with a frusto-conical seat 44, and each seat 44 preferably is adapted both to serve as an abutment for peripheral flange portions of the cartridge 35, when the latter is drawn into an elevated position as shown in Fig. 3, and also to serve as a seat for a ball check valve 45 of slightly larger diameter than the cylindrical passages 26 and 21 and disposed adjacent one end of the seats 44 so that the respective passage may be closed thereby. When the ball check valve 45 is employed, a valve seat block 46 having a central passage 47 is press fitted into position ahead of the valve 45 and is provided on each side with a frusto-conical seat 48 like the seats 44, such block providing thereby for closing of its cylindrical passage 41 by the valve 45, and the block being symmetrically formed so that either side may be presented to the cartridge 35 or to the valve 45. Thus, the cartridge 35 may be drawn upward against the seat 44 of the mouthpiece 25 when the parts are in the position of Fig. 3, or upward against the lower seat of the block 46 when the parts are in the position of Fig. 4, the ball valve 45 seating upon the seat 44 of the nosepiece 24 when in inoperative position, as seen in Fig. 2, and seating upon the upper seat 48 of the block 46 if the nosepiece is uppermost as in Fig. 4.
In the operation of this particular form of the invention, suction applied through the mouthpiece 25 when the parts are in the position of Figs. 2 and 3, suddenly pulls the cartridge 35 upward until it strikes the inner end of the mouthpiece 25 adjacent the seat 44. The taper of the seat 44 permits air passing through the notches 45 to continue out through the passage 2! into the mouth, the comparatively heavy ball check valve 45 being lifted suificiently from its seat 44 on the inner end of the nosepiece 24. The mesh of the screens 42 is too fine to permit appreciable air passage through the powder-laden shell 36, and as a consequence the air stream passes the cartridge 35 through the notches 40 and the annular space around the shell 35.
Promptly upon cessation of suction, the ball,
check valve 45 drops into seating position upon its seat 44, and passage of the patients breath back into the cartridge to contaminate the powder is prevented. When the nosepiece 24 is presented upward and placed in the patients nostril, inhalation jerks the cartridge upward as before and causes it to jar against the adjacent seating portion of the block 46 to dislodge a modicum of the powder, the slope of the respective seat 48 providing an air stream which continues upward through the bore in the valve seat block 46, around the valve 45 and outward through the air passage 26 which directs the medicament-laden air stream in a confined path into the patients nasal cavities. Here again, as soon as inhalation ceases the valve 45 drops back onto its seat 48 and prevents exhaled air from passing into the inhaler and contaminating the aeriaoes powder by reason of-themoisturein the patients breath. Y
When the form'of Fig. isemployed, the movementof-the cartridge 35 :todislodge a charge of the powder P as itstrikes the inner end of the respective nosepiece or-mouthpiece is the same as with the otherforms. However, in :order to avoid contamination of the powder, care must betaken not to exhale into the device.
The form illustrated in Fig. .10: is :the. same asthat illustrated'in Figs. 1 to 9, except that two ball check valves 45 are employed and, as a consequence, two valve, seat blocks with their frusto-conical seats 48 are' required.
.In. theform of Figs. 11, 12 and 13, instead of employing the notches 40 in the fianges38 of a the cartridge 35,. two series of grooves.50 are formedin the inner wall'of the cylindrical bore 22, so that air being drawn through the device may by-pass the cartridge 35 by way of these grooves 53, This figure also illustrates means for carrying an extra loaded cartridge 35, this means being provided by a storage cavity 52 formed in the outer end of orient the closure caps 30, this cavity being cylindrical and adapted to receive and frictionally hold such a cartridge Wrapped in aprotective envelope 54. Fig; 11 also discloses a modified valve 55 which has a cylindrical body and conical ends adapted; to
engage the inner edges of the respective seats 44 and 48.
Figs. 14' and 15 illustrate a structure similar to that of Figs. 1 to iexcept that the passages in the nosepiece 24 and mouthpiece are rifled as indicated at 5B for the purpose of imparting a whirling movement to the medicament-laden column of air leaving the respective piece. This is a particularly valuable feature when it is desired to spray the walls of the throat or the walls of the nostrils with the powdered medicament.-
The whirling action apparently efiects centrifugal disposition of the powder upon the adjacent mucous membranes. The pitch of the rifiing will be varied in accordance with the nature of the deposition required. There is also illustrated in Fig. 14 the employment of a flat disc valve 65 instead of the ball check valve or the conical valve of the other'forms. Here, it is necessary to provide a flat seat on the respective face of the valve seat blockAG, and a fiat seat .on'the adjacent end of the "respective nosepiece or mouthpiece which, in the form shown is the nosepiece 24.
In 'Fig. 16 there is shown a modified form of cartridge which may be substituted in each instance for the cartridge 35. The modified cartridge as a whole is, indicated at 85 and it is formed from a block 86 which may be a short length of thick walled, plastic tubing having a bore 8'! providing. an internal chamber to receive the powdered medicament. In this form, the. ends of the chamber are closedby small plastic plugs 88 mounted in the ends of the bore 81 by press fit, these plugs 88 having very small drilled holes 89. This construction employing the holes 83 makes it possible to regulateclosely the dosage delivered upon each operation of the device. Thus, in the case of drugsto-beadministered in predetermined quantities a given number of holes of predetermined diameter may beemployed. For instance, the use of eight holes having diameters of .018;of aninch, have been used satisfactorily, and it hasbeen found that these .zadminister. uniform dosages; such dosage corresponding with-that administered :by an all mesh screen. Obviously, the number and; size of passing air is easily made by the simple expedient of forming a plurality of longitudinallyextending grooves 90. Thesegrooves-may;befformed either by cutting operations or in the, initial molding of the material, as preferred,
The operation of the forms of Figs. 10 to 15 is the same as the operation of the forms ofFigs; 1: to 4. The employment of the second valve in the form of Fig. IO'further insures against contaminationoi the powdered medicament inthe cartridge 35. The valve 55 of Fig. ll'functions substantially the same as the ball check valve 45 of Figs. 1 to 4, and the disc valve of Fig. 14 serves satisfactorily to prevent exhalation through the device. The rotating action impart- :ed by the threads or rifles in the form of Fig. 14 to deposit the powdered agent upon the walls 50f the throat or nostrils has been outlined above.
- When the cartridge 85 of Fig. 16 is employed its function is the same as that of the. cartridge 35, the grooves serving toby-pass the air for the required air stream in much the same manner. as the notchesdfl in the fianges38 of the cartridge '35 operate. The use of this form of cartridge with thedrilled plugs 88 insures more uniform dosage and more accurate determination of the dosage delivered at each operationthan is possible with screens.
The structures of this inventionprovide for the passage of a concentrated, medicated air stream substantially axially through a tubular inhaler, and Ihave found, as previously indi cated, that this method of introducing the powdered medicament into the throat, bronchial tubes and associated respiratoryorgans results in much deeper penetration of the powder into affected zones. The employment of the screens at the opposite ends of the shell 36 of the medica ment cartridge 35 insures just enough effect on the path of the moving air stream to accomplish the desired dislodgment of a required charge of powder. As also has been indicated, the use of.
nose is being treated for any type of congestion. I
The other reason is the deeper travel of the powder, the single concentrated stream insuring optimum movement of the powder-laden air stream into the zones desired to be reached.
With all forms, either end of the inhaler may be presented upward and received in the mouth or a nostril, respectively, and upon cessation of inhalation the medicament cartridge 35 will drop byxgravity into its lower position such as illustrated in Figs. 2 and 5. Furtheras to all forms,
the slight tendency for air to pass through the fine screens 42 and the shell 36 cooperates with the upward jar of the cartridge during inhalation to dislodge the desired charge of powder. On descent of the cartridge, since there is no corresponding air flow, there is little or no powder dislodgment.
Inasmuch as other variations'than those illustrated; will, nodoubt,'occur to those skilled One reason is that 7 this art, it is intended to protect all modifications which fall within the scope of the patent claims.
I claim as my invention:
1. In combination in an inhaler: an elongated tubular body providing a receptacle having an air inlet passage at one end, an axially aligned air outlet passage at the opposite end, and an intervening bore extending along the body axis and Communicating with said inlet and outlet passages; a. medicament carrying and dispensing cartridge mounted in said intervening bore and reciprocable between the ends thereof under influence of an air stream through said bore, air passage means being provided past said cartridge; and stop means adjacent the ends of said bore for impingement by said cartridge to jar and dislodge medicament from said cartridge and into said air stream.
2. A combination as in claim 1 wherein a valve seat is provided at one end of said bore and a check valve is located adjacent said seat to stop return movement of said air stream.
3. A combination as in claim 1 wherein internal seats are provided at the opposite ends of said bore adjacent said inlet and outlet passages, and valves are located adjacent the respective seats to check return flow of said air stream.
4. A combination as in claim 3 wherein both of said passages may serve as both inlet and outlet passages and said valves and seats provide for upward air flow toward either end when such end is directed upward.
5. A combination as in claim 1 including closure caps adapted to be fitted over the opposite ends of said body to close said passages.
6. A combination as in claim 5 wherein one of said caps has a storage cavity for receiving a medicament cartridge.
7. A combination as in claim 1 wherein said body comprises: a cylinder having said bore; a plug fitted into one end of said cylinder; and a second plug fitted into the other end of said cylinder, said plugs having said passages.
8. A combination as in claim 7 wherein said passages are axially aligned.
9. A combination as in claim 8 wherein said aligned passages are rifled to rotate said air stream. 7
10. In combination in an inhaler: means for providing a main air passage having spaced inlet and outlet ends; a medicament dispensing cartridge disposed in said main air passage and movable therein toward said outlet end thereof by a stream of air flowing through said main air passage from said inlet end thereof to said outlet end thereof; means providing an auxiliary air passage past said cartridge and communicating at its ends with said main air passage; and stop means within said main air passage adjacent said outlet end thereof and adapted to be struck by said cartridge for interrupting movement of said cartridge, whereby to dislodge medicament from said cartridge into the air stream.
11. A combination as in claim 7 wherein one of said plugs has its outer end shaped as a nosepiece and'the other of said plugs has its outer end shaped as a mouthpiece.
12. In combination in an inhaler: a hollow body having a bore extending therethrough; a medicament cartridge reciprocable in said bore under inhalation influences; inhalation pieces mounted upon said body at the opposite ends of said bore, said pieces having longitudinal air passages therethrough communicating with the ends of said bore; means in saidcartridge providing for 8 discharge of medicament therefrom when reciprocated in said bore in one direction; and means providing for by-pass of air to establish an air stream through said passages and bore to entrain medicament from said cartridge.
13. A combination as in claim 12 wherein said inhaler provides stop means adjacent one end of said bore and said cartridge has perforated wall means for discharge of medicament therethrough upon engagement of said cartridge with said stop means when moving under influence of said air stream.
14. A combination as in claim 12 wherein one of said pieces is adapted to fit the mouth and the other is adapted to fit a nostril, said inhaler being invertible.
15. A combination as in claim 12 including valve means and seat means therefor adapted to check passage of exhaled air through said body.
16. A combination as in claim 12 wherein said passages are axially aligned, small cylindrical bores through said pieces providing for a concentrated and directed cylindrical air stream issuing from the respective passage at high velocity.
17. A combination as in claim 12 wherein said cartridge is a flanged shell, said flanges guiding said cartridge along said body bore, and said shell being perforated to discharge powdered medicament therefrom upon movement.
18. A combination as in claim 12 wherein one of said air passages is a smooth bore.
19. A combination as in claim 12 wherein one of said air passages has its wall rifled to impart rotation to the air stream.
20. A cartridge adapted to receive powdered medicament and to be slideably received in a bore of an inhaler, said cartridge having means to guide it in said bore and having perforated wall means to provide for dislodgment of powder therethrough under influence of a jarring action when said cartridge strikes stop means in said bore, said cartridge having a longitudinal air passage therearound to provide communication between the ends of said bore past said cartridge.
21. In an applicator of the character described, the combination of: an elongated chamber having an inlet at one end and an outlet at the opposite end; a medicament carrying and dispensing capsule disposed in said chamber and movable from said one end thereof toward said opposite end thereof under the influence of an air stream flowing through said chamber from said one end thereof toward said opposite end thereof, said capsule having a first end adjacent said one end of said chamber and having a second end adjacent said opposite end of said chamber, said second end of said capsule having a discharge openmg therein; means providing an air passage past said capsule; and stop means adjacent said opposite end of said chamber for impingement by said capsule to dislodge medicament through said discharge opening into the air stream.
22. In combination in an inhaler: an elongated tubular body providing a receptacle having an air inlet passage at one end, an axially aligned air outlet passage at the opposite end, and an intervening bore extending along the body axis and communicating with said inlet and outlet passages; a cartridge for carrying and dispens- 111g powdered medicament, said; cartridge being mounted in said intervening bore and reciprocable between the ends thereof under influence of an air stream through said bore, an air passage being provided past said cartridge, said cartridge having an end provided with a medicament discharge passage which opens in an 9 axial direction into said bore to discharge medicament into the air stream in the bore; and stop means adjacent the outlet end of said bore for impingement by said cartridge to jar and dislodge medicament from said cartridge and into said air stream in said bore.
23. In combination in an inhaler: an elongated tubular body providing a receptacle having an air inlet passage at one end, an axially aligned air outlet passage at the opposite end, and an intervening bore extending along the body axis and communicating with said inlet and outlet passages; a cartridge for carrying and dispensing powdered medicament, said cartridge being mounted in said intervening bore and reciprocable between the ends thereof under the influence of an air stream through said bore, an air passage being provided past said cartridge; said cartridge having an end provided with a medic- 10 ament discharge passage which opens in an axial direction into said bore to discharge medicament into the air stream in the bore; and stop means adjacent the outlet end of said bore for impingement by said cartridge to jar and dislodge medicament from said cartridge and into said air stream in said bore, the stop means adjacent the outlet-passage end of the bore permitting passage of air past the cartridge while the cartridge is stopped thereby.
FRANK E. BROWN.
Number Name Date 388,202 Ives Aug. 21, 1888 2,214,032 Stewart Sept. 10, 1940